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at the University Press 



X7 7 S5 

F/; Edition, 1899 
Second Edition revised and enlarged, 1906 
Third Edition revised and enlarged, 1913 







HAUSA is probably the most widely spoken language 
in the continent of ..^Afiica^- Throughout ^^thern 
Nigeria it is the language of the greater part of the in- 
habitants and outside this wide area it forms a sort of 
lingua franca throughout a large part of Africa north of the 
equator. The traveller who knows the Hausa language can 
walk from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea sure of 
finding in almost every market place which he may pass en 
route some with whom he can converse. The fact that 
within recent years that part of Nigeria in which most of 
the Hausa people live has become an English Protectorate 
should serve to increase the interest of English students in 
this language. 

Before referring to the methods adopted in the produc- 
tion of this dictionary it will be well to state under what 
auspices the work has been carried out and to what extent 
it is based upon the labours of other students of the lan- 

The task of compiling this dictionary was accomplished 
under the auspices and direction of the Hausa Association. 
On the death at Lokoja, on June 26, 1891, of the Rev. John 
Alfred Robimson, M.A. (a brother of the author), who had 
attempted to start Christian missionary work amongst the 
Hausas, a committee was formed in London to perpetuate 
his memory and to carry on his work "by providing for a 
thoroughly scientific study of the Hausa language." The 
committee of the Association contained representative names, 


e.g. those of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the 
Commander in Chief, the President of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, the Governor of the Royal Niger Co., and the 
President of the London Chamber of Commerce, in addition 
to those of the well-known philologists Professor Max Miiller 
and Dr Peile. The expedition which the author was 
enabled to make to the centre of the Hausa country for the 
purpose of studying the language and collecting native 
manuscripts with a view to compiling a dictionary was 
carried out under the direction of this committee, and the 
first edition of this dictionary was published soon after his 

The first vocabulary of the Hausa language was drawn 
up by Mr Richardson, the leader of an expedition which 
reached the Hausa country by crossing the Sahara desert 
from Tripoli. The list of words sent home by Mr Richardson 
before his death was printed by the Foreign Office, but was 
so short and incomplete as to be of little value. Dr Barth, 
who afterwards took charge of Mr Richardson's expedition, 
published in 1862 a series of linguistic notes on Hausa and 
several other central African languages. This work was of 
considerable interest, though it was extremely incomplete 
fi*om the point of view of a vocabulary. The next vocabulary 
deserving of notice, and one which was a great advance upon 
its predecessors, was published by Dr J. F. Schon, a mis- 
sionary of the C.M.S. in 1876, with an appendix published 
ill 1888. Dr Schon may justly be regarded as the pioneer 
of Hausa study. He learnt the language from some freed 
slaves in Sierra Leone, and afterwards took part in the 
Government expedition which ascended the R. Niger in 
1841. Unfortunately he was never able to penetrate into 
the Hausa country ; and, as he afterwards spoke of himself 


as having reduced to writing a hitherto unwritten language, 
he was apparently unaware at the time when he wrote that 
the Hausas possessed any kind of literature or that they had 
long before adopted, with some modifications, a form of the 
Arabic alphabet as their own. Another difficulty under 
which Dr Schon laboured was his lack of acquaintance with 
the Arabic language. In very many instances words and 
expressions were entered either in his dictionary or appendix 
as Hausa, which are quite common in Sudanese Arabic, but 
are unknown to the Hausas of the interior. Dr Schon's 
inability to recognize them as Arabic, when they were 
suggested to him by Arabic-speaking Hausas, coupled with 
his want of opportunities for verifying them by personal 
contact with Hausas who had never come under Arab 
influence, made it inevitable that such words should be 
inserted. Considering the difficulties under which he 
laboured, his work is deserving of the very highest com- 
mendation. The present work is the result of a careful 
study of that published by Barth and by Schon, and of 
independent study of the language in Hausaland, in N. 
Africa and in England. Before beginning the compilation 
of the present work and whilst living amongst the Hausas 
in the heart of their country, the author went through 
Schon's dictionary, verifying or rejecting every entry and 
adding a large proportion of new words. The MSS. which 
were obtained in Hausaland, some of which were subse- 
quently published, under the title of Specimens of Hausa 
Liter^ature, and which have been reproduced in facsimile, 
served to show that even the more learned Hausa mallams 
have not yet adopted a uniform system of orthography. At 
the same time they helped to furnish many additional woixls 
and to verify others. 


The first edition of the present dictionary was published 
in 1899. In its compilation I was largely assisted by Mr 
W. H. Brooks, formerly Hausa scholar of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, and Student of the Hausa Association. In the 
preparation of the second edition, which appeared in 1906, 
I was specially indebted to the assistance received from Major 
Burdon, C.M.G. For help received in preparing the present 
edition, which contains about four thousand entries additional 
to those which appeared in the second edition, I have been 
greatly indebted to Major Burdon (who has now become the 
Colonial Secretary in Barbados), Mr W. J. Gowers the 
Resident at Kano, Captain R. Fletcher, Dr Walter Miller, 
Capt. Tremearne, Dr J. M. Dalziel (Medical Officer on the 
West African Medical Staff), Mr E. J. Arnett, the late Hon. 
E. T. Stanley, and many others who have most kindly sent 
rae from time to time criticisms and corrections. To Dr 
Dalziel I am indebted for the identification of most of 
the plants, the names of which appear in this dictionary, and 
to Captain Fletcher for the correction of the proof sheets. 
He has kindly allowed me to incorporate the information 
contained in his supplementary vocabulary which appears 
at the end of his valuable book Hausa sayings and folk- 
lore. I would also express my indebtedness to Mr Adam 
Mischlich for the help which I have derived from a study 
of his dictionary entitled Worterbuch der Hausasprache, 
which was published in Berlin in 1906, and which is 
a valuable and permanent contribution towards the study 
of the Hausa language. 

In the first two editions of this dictionary the Hausa 
words were given both in the modified Arabic character 
which is used by the Hausas, and in the Roman character. 
In view of the fact, however, that many of the users of this 


dictionary are not familiar with the Arabic script, and of the 
lack of uniformity on the part of Hausa scribes, it has seemed 
better to omit the Hausa characters altogether. By doing 
this it is possible to issue the dictionary in an enlarged form 
without increasing its price. The system of transliteration 
adopted is that which was originally propounded by the 
Royal Geographical Society, and which has been sanctioned 
by the British, and by most of the continental Governments, 
for the representation of geographical names. The general 
principle embodied is that all consonants are to be pronounced 
as in English and all vowels as in Italian. A further account 
of the system of transliteration adopted and of the modified 
Arabic character which the Hausas generally employ will be 
found in the Hausa Orammar to which the student of this 
dictionary is referred. 

The emphasis laid on different syllables differs a good 
deal in different localities. In order to help beginners 
I have inserted the marks usually employed to denote long or 
short syllables wherever the emphasis to be laid upon 
a particular syllable is very pronounced or specially liable to 
be misplaced. These marks or accents do not denote any 
modification of the vowels on which they are placed, but 
merely suggest the syllable on which stress is to be laid in 
pronouncing it. 

In the transliteration of the Hausa words I have employed 
three modifications of the Roman alphabet, i.e. 6, d and k. b 
whether used as an initial or medial letter represents an 
explosive sound which is quite distinct from the ordinary b : 
d is sounded with an expiration of the breath and in its 
pronunciation the tongue touches the edge of the upper 
teeth, a sort of dt sound being produced somewhat similar to 
a French or German t: A; is a sub-palatal guttural and is 


called by the Hausas the watery k (kam mairua) because the 
person pronouncing it puts his mouth into such a position 
that he appears to be shooting out water from his throat. 

I have further tried to afford some indication of the 
character and range of the Hausa dialects. There are four 
or five districts in Hausaland which may perhaps be said to 
possess a distinct dialect, but as the Hausas are inveterate 
travellers these dialects have become so confused that it is 
not possible to mark them off with any distinctness. The 
Hausas frequently maintain that the Katsena dialect which 
is spoken in the extreme north of their country is the purest. 
On the other hand the Kano dialect is that which is most 
widely spoken and may be said to prevail generally through- 
out the south and eastern parts of their country. What is 
sometimes called the Sokoto dialect prevails throughout the 
western districts. 

In this dictionary the dialects spoken in the following 
towns or districts are denoted by the abbreviations contained 
in brackets : Kano (K.), Sokoto (S.), Katsena (Kats.), Zaria 
(Z.), Zanfara (Zanf ), Daura (D.). 

There are many words the use of which is confined to 
special districts whilst others are frequently found in different 
districts in modified forms. 

One of the commonest modifications is that of r in the 
eastern dialects' to / in the western. Thus we have in Kano 
and Sokoto respectively : 








heavy rain 









to shoot 


Words denoting abstract ideas which end in chi in the 
east are often found to end in taka in the west. Thus : 
Kano Sokoto 

yaranchi yarantaka childhood 

uhanchi iibantaka fatherhood 

bakonchi hakontaka hospitality 

The letter which is pronounced as /in Kano frequently 
becomes h in Zanfara or p in Daura. Thus : 
Kano Zanfara Daura 

fudu hudu piidu four p^l 

falasa halasa palasa to destroy 
fansa hansa panaa deliverance 
Other dialectical variations may be illustrated by changes 
such as 

I *^^ 











to us 




The numeral five is represented by biar in Kano, bial in 
Katsena and bial or biat in Sokoto. /^^ h- ^^^c/.. .''->>-] 

In addition to references to the Specimens of Hausa 
Liteixiture already mentioned, I have included a few references 
to Hausa Magana, a volume of Hausa stories and fables 
collected by Dr Schon which has been revised and re-edited. 
It is published at 2/6 by the S. P. C. K. and is a book which 
many beginners in Hausa have found helpful. 

I am fully conscious of the many deficiencies of this 
dictionary and shall be grateful to all students of the 
language for further help in view of rendering it more 

C. H. R 

E^ister, 1913. 


A, B, 

C, etc. = no. of 

piece in 


Hausa Grammar. 

" Specimens 

of Hausa 


the same. 

Literature. " 


that is. 







M. H. 

Hausa Magana. 


adverb, adverbial. 


noun, also — note. 












participle or participial 






construct, construed. 




for instance. 






which see. 


et cetera. 














following article. 

* Cf. placed after any word does not necessarily imply that the word 
referred to is the same word or derived from the same root. It is used 
quite generally. 




R. H. D. 


Words to which * is affixed are not in general use amongst the Havsas, 
or are Arabic words not definitely incorporated into Hausa. 

a, impersonal pronoun used as 
Eng. 'one' or 'they,' French 
' on ' ; antafi one has gone, 
anakiranka they are calling 
you, anadarita they are 
laughing at me. Cf. Gram, 
p. 39 ; possibly the a which 
is the prefix to the passive 
voice ought to be regarded 
as this impersonal pronoun. 

a is used as a prefix to denote 
the passive voice of the per- 
fect, dependent past and pre- 
sent tenses when used with 
a negative, e.g. ba akoreshi ba 
he was not driven out, ba 
azua da shi he is not being 
brought. A long emphasized 
a is used to denote the future 
of the passive voice, e.g. dka- 
sheshi he will be killed. A 
short a is used to denote the 
imperative mood of the pas- 
sive voice, e.g. akoreshi let 
him be driven out. 

a, a substantive verb used esp. 
in the Sokoto dialect in place 
of ke. It is used with all per- 
sons, e.g. ni addashi I have 
it, kai (fern, ke)^ shi (fem. ita), 
mu, ku, su addashi. It some- 
times follows a noun directly, 
e.g. kura addashi the hyena 
has it. It is also used with 
nan, e.g. gari annan; cf. also 
shi abbaba he is the great 
man, shi addaidai it is all 
right, shi assarikinrmi he is 
our king, shi a abokinmu he 
is a friend of ours, nia is it I ? 

a, aa, no. The reduplicated 
form is that most frequently 
used, esp. in expressing dis- 

a, at, to, in. It is almost equi- 
valent to ga, but is of less 
frequent occurrence. It is 
very often prefixed to the 
prepositions gare, chikin, and 
bisa. Prefixed to baya, gdba. 


kasa^ it is used adverbially, 
thus ahaya behind, agdha in 
front, akasa or akass on the 
a, an exclamation of astonish- 

abada (cf. Ar. jut, eternity), 
ever; hcd abada for ever. 

abakin, in exchange for; see 

abakwariga (a Jukum word, 
only used by Hausas in the 
Binue districts), a man born 
of renegade Hausa parents, 
one who has abandoned Hausa 
customs and has been brought 
up as a pagan ; cf . kamheri. 

abara*, a large canoe. 

abawa, spun cotton, cotton 
yarn (cf. zare thin cotton 
thread). It is also applied to 
the white cotton embroidery 
on a tobe. 

abdu (Ar.), slave, servant, used 
in formation of proper names. 

abduga, audiga, cotton before 
it is spun, abduga ; the foil, 
are successive stages in pre- 
paring cotton : chin abduga 
gathering cotton ; kada clean- 
ing ; gurza hand-ginning, i.e. 
removing the seeds with the 
dan bida ; sutu thinning and 
combing with a kizauro^ sili 
or thin stick ; sebi or shibba, 
carding with the bakan shibba 

and makelechia ; kulla arrang- 
ing the cotton round the pin 
tsinki; kadi spinning from 
the tsinki to the spindle ; yin 
wadari twisting the threads 
into yarn ; saka weaving. 

abin, see abu. 

abki, prosperity etc. ; see afki. 

aboiyi, secretly ; see boye. 

aboki, fern, abokia, pi. abokai, 
aboka, friend; abokin gdba 
enemy, abokin tafiata my fel- 
low traveller, abokin aikina 
my fellow worker, M. H. p. 

abu, pi. abubua, usually in con- 
nective form abin (i.e. abuna), 
thing. 1. followed by da, it is 
used as an ordinary relative 
pronoun ; abinda ka ke so what 
you wish ; 2. followed by a 
verb, noun, or preposition it 
is used as an indefinite pro- 
noun ; thus abinchi anything 
to eat, abinsha anything to 
drink, abinso a wish, desire, 
abin murna a cause for joy, 
abin baya that which is be- 
hind ; 3. it is used of living 
creatures ; thus, abin da rai 
anything living, abin daji 
creatures of the forest ; 4. fol- 
lowed by a possessive pro- 
noun, ka taji abinka go about 
your business, ya taji abinsa 
he went off on his own ac- 



count ; for expression ahinda 
na gani see gani ; cf. M. H. 
p. 226; allah ya san abin nasa 
God knows his own nature, 
cf. M. H. p. 228; a feminine 
form alar is also found ; abu 
kaza so and so, such and such 
a thing. 

abude, opened, openly; cf. 

S.bu kaza, see abu. 

aburu, a grain like acha. 

abuta, friendship. 

abuya, pL abohana, f . a friend ; 
see also abokia. 

S,cha (paspalum scrobiculatum), 
a small white grain, which is 
beaten and made into a kind 
of porridge. It grows about 
eighteen inches high, and two 
or even three crops are raised 
during the rainy season. 

achike, fem. achika^ pi. achiku, 
full ; see chika. 

ad, i.e. the substantive verb a 
when it precedes a word be- 
ginning with d ; see a. 

ada (K.), alada (cf. Ar. I>U, 
religious observance), custom, 
manner ; kamada adansu ac- 
cording to their custom ; alada 
is frequently used to express 
a woman's monthly periods ; 
see toAa (S.). 

adakka* a flint-lock gun ; cf. 

adalashi, a good quality silk. 

ad3>na, n. repairing, arrang- 

adashi, a cooperative loan sys- 
tem among friends; cf. tvu- 

adSiWa, sometimes used for ta- 
dawa ink (cf. Ar. Slj^, ink- 
stand); adawal allah a mole, 

addini, Ar. ^>, religion, creed, 

worship, B 77, 136; maiad- 
dlni a religious person. 

addua (i.e. Ar. U> with article 
prefixed), prayer; yiyi ad- 
dua to pray, ,D 2. 

adiko, handkerchief (a Yoruba 
word); cf. maiyani. 

adlla, pi. ddiloli or adilan kaya 

(cf . Ar. jj j^, equilibration of 
the two sides of a load), a 
heavy load, e.g. for a donkey. 

adilchi (Ar. Jji), righteous- 
ness, justice. 

adili, adali (Ar.), right., pi. dddd% beauty, show, 
splendour of dress; riguna 
na ado beautiful garments, 
F 216, 238. 

adu, smallpox. 

adua or ad wa (balanites aegyp- 
tiaca), a thorny tree from 
which gum is obtained, its 
fruit is edible, its gum is 




called kwalon adua^ its wood 
takes a good polish and is 
used for making school slates. 

aduruku*, a tree something 
like a Spanish chestnut. 

af, oh, an exclamation of recol- 
lection. Why ! 

afalalu, a fool. 

2,fi, yin dji to make a slight in- 
clination of the head, to bow; 
it is also used to denote the 
native custom of prostrating 
the body and placing earth 
upon the head in token of 

afka, to destroy, to collapse; 
maiafkawa about to fall or 
be destroyed ; see auka. 

afki, n. mass, quantity, pros- 
perity, da afki much, afkin 
rai length of life ; see auki. 

afko, desolation, destruction. 

afku, to happen. 

S,fo, abortion. 

afua (cf. Ar. rt ^a^), restora- 
tion to health, becoming bet- 
ter; samu afua to recover. 

afulaki, a young ass. 

afuo, ahuo, a salutation esp. 
used by women and children 
on entering a house, the ans. 
is shigo. 

afutu, a species of palm, its 
leaves are used in mat-mak- 

agaga, tottering, B 109, pro- 

bably a passive form of gage 

to be stiff. 
agaisheka, hail ! a very com- 
mon form of salutation ; cf . 

agaji, agaza, n. help, dgaje^ v. to 

help; ina so ka agajeni I want 

you to help me; cf. maiaga- 

zawa helper, F. 106. 
^gala, a rope, see dkala. 
Sigalami, pi. agalumma (Sokoto 

for huzu a mat), sheep or goat 

S.gana, 1. smallpox, 2. a horse 

disease ; cf . zanzana^ yar-rani. 
agannia, a kind of shirt {tag- 
go) with narrow but long 

S.gara, tendon of Achilles. 
ag^zere (Ar.) or ag^jere, the 

hot month at end of rains, 

about September or October ; 

cf.-Gr. p. 88. 
agba*, agwa*, cask, M. H. 

p. 211. 
ago, a small cowry shell used 

in chacha. 
agola, pi. agololi, stepchild. 
agua, a wild dove with dark 

ring round its neck, 
aguje, at a run ; see gudu. 
agulu, vulture ; see angulu, 
Siguru (S.), a castrated ass. 
agushi, a gourd the seeds of 

which are used in making 




3.3 all 

agwa,da, S,goda, rock rabbit, 

agwagwa, wild duck, probably 

onomatopoeic; cf. talatalu. 
aha, So ! an exclamation of 

satisfaction, or surprise. 

3 - 
aJiaifa (cf. Ar. oi».), claw of 

animal ; see akaifa. 

aharus, aharashi, f. aharasa, 
a brown horse. 

ai (Ar. id.), verily, indeed. 

ai, an abbreviated form of ayi 
the passive of yi : also ex- 
planatory-id est, or e.g. 

aia, a ground nut ; see aya. 

aia aia, the name of a grass 
from which a poison for 
arrows is obtained ; cf. defi. 

aiauda (Ar. ^^), to cleave to, 
B. 101. 

aibi, pi. aibobiy aibu (Ar.), spot, 
blemish, fault, used in regard 
to men it denotes a worthless 

aika, to do, cf. idiom ya aika 
it is just the sort of thing he 
would do. 

aika, aike (bef. a pron.), to 
send, aikawa aikewa sending, 
aiku to be sent, aikake sent, 
aiko to send to the place 
where the speaker is; aika 
or aike to send forth from ; 
thus ya aikoiii he sent me 
here ; ya aikeni he sent me 

there, aiko is also used gene- 
rally for to send, maaika 
messengers, F. 159. 

aikata, to do, to act, labour at, 
aikatawa working, doing, cf. 
da fddin woni abu ko aikor 
tawa by word or deed. 

aike, n. sending, yin aike to 

aiki, pi. ayuyuka, ayuka, ai- 
koki, aikuna, labour, work, 
act ; abokin aikina my fellow 
labourer, M. H. p. 192 ; yi 
ta aiki do this thing, M. H. 
p. 198 ; ya yi addua da aiki 
he prayed effectively, M. H. 
p. 198; kama aiki, to start 
work, maiaiki, pi. maiaikata 
a hired workman as opposed 
to a slave, yin aiki to labour, 
to work, aikin raga net-work. 

aimaka (S.), centipede. 

aiman, imani, aimanchi 
(Ar.), faith. 

ainin, true, truly, exceedingly, 
very much; cf. ai, d 

ainya, pi. ainyoyi, beehive ; cf . « 
amya, butumi. 

aiwa or ewa, indeed, truly. 


aiyari, pi. airori (Ar. j-j^), 

caravan, train of men or 

ajaba, wonder, 
^jali (Ar.), 1. destiny, decree, 

day of death ; ajalinsa na 



chika his time is come ; 2. the 

set time for paying money 

which is due. 
ajami* (Ar.), foreign, B. 175. 
aje (S.), ajiye (K.), part, ajaje 

(S.), ajiymje{K.), pass, ajiyu, 

1. to put, place, lay aside; 

2. to hold ; ya aje kofa he 
held the door; ajiyeshi nan 
put it here. 

aje, truly ; see ashe. 

ajera or ajere, in line, abreast; 

see jera. 
ajerta, to become rich, 
ajia, ajiya, pi. ajiyi, 1. trea- 
sures, secret stores, A 44 
|t gidashen ajia storehouses ; 
Ik 2. ajiar zuchia sighing, dis- 
l^k tress of heart. 
^^ningi, master of the cere- 
^H monies at the bori dance. 
^^Ljub, anything wonderful ; cf. 
aka, verbal prefix to denote a 
dependent past in the passive 
voice ; cf. Gr. p. 39. 
akaifa, ahaifa, claw of animal, 

Sikala ( Ar. J^), a rope such as 
is used for tying up a camel, 
akan, above, on the top of, 
on the basis of ; a con- 
traction of akai-n at the 
head of ; cf . goma jia akan 
yau better yesterday than 

akanza, tattoo marks, tattooed 

with blue pigment on each 

akara, Nupe name given to 

ship biscuits, properly a small 

cake made of beans. 

akawali, f. akavjala, pi. aka- 
j ^ i. 
waloli (cf. Ar. J^a*^t , black), 

a black horse. 

akayo, pieces of jingling iron 
worn on the ankles by boxers 
and public performers. 

akaza, a cream-coloured horse. 

akbar (Ar.), great, an epithet 
usually applied to God. 

akiba (Ar.), end, result, re- 
ward ; cf. B 35 ; akiba mai- 
keaii a fair reward, shina da 
akiba it is useful. 

akodi, box, drawer. 

akoi, probably a contraction 
of akayi, there is, there are. 
Very commonly used as an 
affirmative answer to a ques- 
tion. It is sometimes pre- 
fixed to the personal pro- 
nouns ; thus akoishi he is, or 
he is there ; akoisu they are ; 
7nai-akoi, a rich man. 

akokari, divination; see ko- 

akoko, grey baft. 

akora, a kind of acacia. 

akoshi, a wooden dish, pi. ako- 
sai, akusa* -J cf. M. H. p. 72. 




akotia, pistol. 

akras, yin akras to file or 
sharpen, e.g. a sword. 

aku, parrot. 

akugwaru, a kind of white 
European cloth with large 
black or blue check. 

akumari, a pad placed on a 

akurike, akurki, pi. akurikai, 
a place where fowls etc. are 
kept ; akuriken kaza, a coop. 

akusa, pi. of akoshi, q.v. 

akuti, akwati, a box, e.g. of 

akuturche, leprous ; see kutur- 

akwara, a rifle ; a Nupe word. 

akwia, pi. awaki, goat, f.; cf. 
bunsuru he-goat. 

al, in the case of many words 
which have been borrowed by 
the Hausas from the Arabs, 
the initial al represents the 
Arabic article; where the 
word has been regularly 
adopted as a Hausa word, 
e.g. albe7'ka, it will be found 
in this dictionary under al; 
in other cases, i.e. where the 
word is an Arabic word pure 
and simple, it will be found 
under the letter following the 
prefix al. Thus for alwali 
relations, see under wali. 

alada, custom ; see dda. 

alafa (cf. Ar. t*A»., to go foot- 
sore), a disease on horses' 
feet just above the hoof. 

alagwami, a leather bag closed 
by two strings pulled in oppo- 
site directions. 

alajabi, a marvel; see ajabi. 

alala, pain, distress, leanness. 

alalache, bad, rotten; see la- 

alale (cf. Ar. rt J^\), trouble, 
annoyance; also used as a 

alama, pi. almnomi (Ar. i«^Lt), 
frequently pronounced hald- 
ma; 1. sign, instruction, cf. 
B 131 ; 2. apparent intention; 
3. a large white bead in a set 
of black beads used for prayer, 
a book-marker ; cf . alamta. 

alamari (cf. Ar. j^l), work, 
task, affair, talk, palaver ; 
alamaringa behold something 
wonderful ! alamarin dunia 
the course or vicissitudes of 
life whereby the poor become 
rich, the rich poor ; cf. M. H. 
p. 198, kaka wonan alamarin 
yaki what about this strange 
war ? ya bada gaskia ga ala- 
marin allah he believed in the 
providence of God, M. H. 
p. 210; hazo alamarin kaka 
the harmattan wind is usual 




in harvest time ; wani da tvu- 
yan almari so and so is hard 
to get on with ; suka sa ma 
nlamarin allahido they watch- 
ed what God would ordain. 

alambo, a slender shrub with 
narrow jointed pods common 
on river banks. Ormocarpum 
spinosum = paiya paiya or 
ivaken raji. 

alamta, to put a mark upon. 

alangaba, alankafada, collar- 

alaro, a day's wage or hire : 
maialaro or dan alaro a carrier, 
yin alaro to work as a carrier, 
hada alaro to hire, sarikin 
alaro a head carrier. 

alashaf, mould. 

alaura (Ar.), pudenda. 

alayadi, domesticated pig, cf. 

alayapo, alefu, a kind of 

alayedi, the oil obtained from 
the kwakiva palm, any dark- 
coloured oil. 

albada, pi. alhadu or albadodi 

(cf. Ar. rt ju), the strips of 
cloth of which a dress is com- 
posed, a seam. 

albaras (Ar. i^^jj), leprosy, 

white leprosy, 
albarka or alberka (cf. Ar. 

2^jj), blessing, thanks ; in 

bartering it is equivalent to 
'no thank you,' cf. use of 
French merci ; as an epithet 
applied to a field it means 
fertile ; yin alberka or sa al- 
berka to bless or to thank ; 
cf. prov. alberkachin kaza 
kadangari shi kan sha man 
kasko thanks to the fowl, the 
lizard finds water to drink 
in the pot : this is said when 
a man gains some benefit 
through no virtue of his own ; 
cf. ko jibi ma alberka ba ku 
kai gari ba you won't even 
reach the town the day after 
albarkachi, blessing, B 20; see 

J X 

albarus, albarushi (Ar. ^^jb), 

albS,sa, pi. albdsosi (Ar. J«-flu), 
onion ; albasan kwadi a white 
flower something like a water- 
lily ; albdsa raaikiine, spring 

albashi, advance payment. 

9" J 

albishir (Ar. Sj-^), good news; 
albishirinka good news for 
you ! the usual reply to this 
salutation is goro; cf. bisha- 

alera, allera, the two heddles 
of the loom which carry the 
divided warp threads. 




alewa, a sweetmeat made with 
honey (cf. Ar. ^^>JU.). 

alfSidari, f. alfddara, pi. alfd- 
daru, mule. 

alfahari, boasting (cf . Ar. j.aLi). 

alf^kani, interpreter. 

alfanda*, a title of respect for 
a king. 

alfarma, power, tyranny, a man 
who swaggers, pride : autho- 
rity, leave, anhashi alfarma 
he was given leave : also = 
force, ya nuna masa alfarma 
he bullied him, ya yi ahu 
bisa ga alfarmansa he took 
advantage of his position. 

alfarwa, pi. alfaruwa (Ar. 
S^j^), a tent, made of skins 
or leather. 

alfasha (cf. Ar. Li.?), alfasha 
magana blasphemous or 
shameless language. 

alfatiha(Ar.Aa*JUjl, the open- 
ing chapter of the Koran), 
prayers said daily in the early 
morning, prayers said by a 
mallam at a marriage or a 
funeral ; cf . fdtiha. 

alfawami or alhowami, tin- 
der, anything used to catch 
sparks, e.g. cotton of the rimi 


alfijir (Ar. jj*^, daybreak), the 
first glimmer of light in the 
east ; cf . jijifi. 

alfin (cf. modern Ar. O-jfJt), 
two thousand. 

alfinti, white cotton cloth. 

alfowa, a gambling game 
played with a long piece of 
leather and a needle. 

alfuta, pi. alfutai (Ar. A^^^), a 
handkerchief used by women 
to bind round the head. 

algaba, pi. algabobi, a kind of 
embroidery on a shirt, M. H. 
p. 206. 

algaderia (Ar. ojtj^), a small 

algaita or algaitu, a wind in- 
strument blown in a some- 
what similar way to a bag- 
pipe ; a flute. 

algarib, algaru, the seeds of 
the lausuru, q.v. 

algarwai, a stick of honey. 

algashi, f. algasa, pi. algasai 
or algasu, green. 

algideri or alkideri (cf. Ar. 

jjci), a brass cooking pan 

with a handle. 

algungumanchi, gossip. 

algungumi, f. algunguma, an 
idle gossip. 

algus, algusu or algushi, de- 
ceit, cheating at a game, yin 
algushida to deceive. 

alhaji (Ar.), one who has been 
on the pilgrimage to Mecca. 




alhaki (Ar. w-a».), judgment, 
condemnation, oppression, 
right or claim put forward 
by one who has been de- 
frauded, B 11 ski ke da alha- 
ki he receives judgment, ku 
dauki alhakin allah you will 
bring upon yourselves the 
judgment of God, M. H. p. 
210 : also just wage ; alhaki 
da ka dauka the rights you 
seized, i.e. the wrongs you com- 
mitted : ya dauki alhakin 
laifi he is responsible for the 

alhamis (K.), alhamishi (S.) 

(Ar. j^^a^jLJI), or rana alha- 
mis, Thursday, lit. the fifth 

alhanzir, hanzir (Ar. j^j-ai.), 
wart-hog (phacochoerus). 

alharini (Ar. jj>».), silk; F 
217 rigansu na alharini. 


alheri (Ar.^^^), kindness, free 
gift ; yin alheri to do a kind- 
ness, s«i alheri a form of greet- 
ing, all well ! allah ya kaika 
alheri God prosper your jour- 
ney, em mutum ya zam,a tar 
da makiyensa ha alheri there 
is no happiness living with 
one's enemy. 

alhowami, tinder; seealfawa- 

alhudahuda, the name of a 

alibida, a species of rubber 

alif (Ar. sjOt), thousand. 

aljama or aljima, story, nar- 
rative, speech ; B 153 aljaioia 
maianfani words which will 

aljan, aljani, f. aljana, pi. al- 
janu (Ar.), a demon; cf. 

a i ^ 

aljS,na (Ar. iUcfc.), a garden, 
paradise ; cf. F 222 aljana ta 
nima ; A 58 gidan aljana. 
The word suggests to a Hausa 
the Mohammedan paradise 
pictured in the Koran. 

aljanjani, one who refuses to 
listen or obey. 

aljibus, alzibus (Ar.), chalk, 

aljifi, aljifu, pi. aljifaye, aljifai 

(cf . Ar. w-^ts».), pocket, a small 

e ^ * J ©t 

aljima, jimua (Ar. 4jt^a,JI), 

aljinu, demons ; see aljan. 

alkafura, the position with the 
head bowed to the earth, so- 
called because regarded as 
distinctively pagan. 

alkajia, reed stalk. 

alkS-lami, pi. alkalamai, alka- 




lama (Ar. Jji)^ pen, reed 
used as pen. 
alkalanchi (Ar.) or yin alka- 
lanchi^ to act as alkali ; see 

alkali, pi. alkalai (Ar. u^^), 
judge; E 10 alkalai da ma- 
suzua sheria the judges and 
those who come to be judged. 

alkama (Ar.), wheat. It is 
grown iu the north-east part 
of Hausaland. alkaman tu- 
rurua (= spermacoce stachy- 
dea) a common weed eaten 
by goats. 

alkamura (cf . Ar. j^, to be 
white), calico ; it is imported 
into Hausaland from the 
East ; cf. kambori. 

alkaria (Ar. Suj^), a large 
town, prosperity ; dan alkaria 
a man who knows all that is 
going on in the town, a well- 
informed man. 

alkarif, alkaru, seeds of a plant 
used as medicine. 

alkS,wali, alkS,wari, promise, 
agreement ; dauki alkawali 
or gama alkawali to make 
a promise, sdki alkawali to 
break a promise, chika alka- 
tvali to keep a promise. 

alkawali, a black horse. 

alkeba, pi. alkebu (cf. Ar. ^^, 
a cowl), a sort of burnous. 

alkideri, a cooking-pan ; see 

alkila, blue and white or black 
and white shawl made in al- 
ternate strips. 

alkiyama, resurrection ; see 

alkororo (K.), a woman who 
sells corn, etc. ; cf . kororo. 

alkoto (S.), a snail shell. 

alkuki, pi. alakukai, shelf or 

niche in a wall. 
jit . 
allah (Ar. aJUI), God ; the plural 

alloli is only used of the gods 
of the heathen ; allah wadan- 
ka, allah wadarka, allah ivade 
common forms of impreca- 
tion, cf . allah wade ha ta komi 
da biri a curse does not affect 
a monkey at all, allah waden 
rashin iyo rua what a curse 
it is to be unable to swim ! 

alleluba, a tree resembling a 
fig-tree in appearance with 
sweet-tasting leaves. 

alii, white earth, the white 
ashes of burnt bones, used 
by spinners to rub on their 
fingers to make a spindle 
revolve easily, also used for 
making a whitewash. 

alio (Ar. -.y ), a writing board, 

made of a smooth piece of 
wood used for writing charms 
etc. on ; the ink is afterwards 




washed off and drunk b}^ the 
person who is to be benefited 
by the charm. 

almajirchi, instruction. 

almajiri, f. ahnajira, pi. alma- 
jirai (cf. Ar. rt ^».t viii, to 
give alms), disciple, beggar. 

almakashi (Ar. ^joJU), scis- 

almanani, lintel or beam a- 

bove a door or window, 
almara, a story which is not 

true, an allegory, 
almasihu (Ar.), the Messiah, 

Jesus Christ. 
almauru, almuru, very late 

in the evening. 

9 J 

almosa (Ar. ^^), a small 

almuda (S.), a woman who sells 

almugnib, see magarub. 

^' '' . 

aloba ( Ar. Uj ), sickness, pesti- 

alshafi, fem. alshafa, horse 
speckled white with black. 

alu, a vocalised corruption of 
the Arabic cdif a thousand, 
cf. alu wa mini/a 1100. 

aluma (Ar. S-cl), people, nation, 

assembly, C 42. 
alura, pi. alwrai (probably from 

Ar. Sjjl), needle, 
alwala, ablution ; see lullo. 

alwashi (cf. Ar. ^^, to mis- 
represent or denounce), 1. dis- 
cussion preliminary to mak- 
ing a bargain or doing busi- 
ness; 2. threat to do that 
which is impossible ; 3. boast- 
ing, suna alwashinmu they 
are fooling us with illusory 

alwoyo (S.), fine white calico. 

alyara, a tree with a milky sap. 

alzibus, chalk ; see aljihus. 

amache, dead ; see mache. 

amadeshi, a large hammer used 
by blacksmiths. 

amadu maidauro agato, an 
ant with an abdomen like a 
grain of dauro. It humps its 
back up when walking. 

amagi, a kind of cloth = hunu, 

amai, sickness; yin amai to 

amale (Ar. J-o^m)? a large male 

amami, mats used for roofing, 
made from leaves of palm- 
trees (a Nupe word 1). 

amana (cf. Ar. a3UI), arrange- 
ment in regard to sale of 
goods, part payment for 
goods, earnest money ; cf. 
E 15, 25 masutahin amana 
those who steal a deposit; 
trust, goodwill, confidence, 
security ; cf . G 4 kasa amana 




ga mutane duka security of 
land-tenure for all; garin 
ainiana a town where peace 
prevails with another town ; 
chinye amana to betray con- 

amara (Ar. Sj-«t), marker in 
book, land- mark, mark on 

amarchi, wedding festivities ; 
also the state of a bride, 

amare, bride, also used of at- 
tendants on bride, brides- 

amaria, bride, the latest wife ; 
cf. kishia. 

amasai, haversack. 

amasani or amasana = chi- 
won sainyi, q.v. 

amawali, a veil, worn over the 
mouth and hanging down in 
front, loose fold of turban 
hanging from mouth over 
chest, if white = a sign of 

amaye, to vomit ; cf . amai. 

amba, a horse disease. 

ambarua, a feast for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

amba,ta, ambS,to, ambache, 
to address, make known, men- 
tion ; ambato7ii explain it to 
me, ya ambacheshi he made 
it known to him. 

ambato, a memorial, record. 

ambeche, water-buck. 

ambola, a gesture of disap- 
proval, the hand being ex- 
tended and all the fingers 
pointed forwards = clakua. 

ambuta, a shed. 

amere, worthless, vain. 

arain (Ar.), amen, verily; cf. 
ya che ha amin ha he refused 
to accept the statement. 

amina (Ar. 3.^t, lit. faithful 
one), a name given to the 
hyena {kura), when appear- 
ing at night it is regarded 
as an evil spirit. 

aminchi, amintaka (cf. Ar. 
^>>-ot , faith), faithfulness, 

security ; D 98 allah shina 
dada aminchi may God in- 
crease faith, B 84 dunia ha 
tan yi aminclii ha the world 
is not to be relied on. 

ammi (Ar.), friend. 

amintache, pi. amintatu^ safe ; 
used of a person who has 
escaped from peril. 

amTm (Ar.), prince, emir. 

amma, but. 

^imo, hum, buzz, noise, report 
of a gun; dmon kuge sound 
of a war-drum or bell which 
has several distinct notes, dmo 
or yin dmo to hum. 

Smodari, ophthalmia. 

^imosani, see amasani. 




amre, amri, amra or aure (cf . 
Ar. Slj-«l, woman), marriage ; 
amre or yin amre to marry, 
ha ta amrua (or aurua) she is 
not marriageable ; cf. M. H. 
p. 175, kina so ki yi arimensa 
do you wish to marry him 1 
maiaure a married person. | 
auren so a love match, i.e. 
without pecuniary considera- I 
tions, auro to marry a bride | 
and bring her home, amra da \ 
to give a woman in marriage. | 
amsa, amshe, 1. answer; amsa 
or yin amsa to answer, accept, 
ac'ree to, ha ka amsa ha wilt 
thou not reply *? munjia mun 
amsa we hear and obey, mun 
amsa gaisua we accept the 
salutation ; 2. receipt, accept- 
ance ; 3. deliverance, amso to 
take again, 
amsawa, answer. 
amshi, amshe, to take, snatch; 
anishiwa taking, snatching 
amunchiwa, confidence ; an- 
other form of aminchi, q.v. 
amurgude, twisted, distorted : 
cf . M. H. p. 1 28 ; see murgude. 
amy a (K.), beehive; cf. ainya. 
an, ana, verbal prefixes to de- 
note the passive voice of the 
perfect and the present tenses ; 
an is prefixed to the perfect 

passive and ana to the passive 
of the continuous present, e.g. 
ankoreshi he has been driven 
away, anakoreni I am being 
driven away ; cf . Gr. pp. 39, 

*^- i- 

S,nS,bi, pi. dnahawa (Ar. ^), 

prophet, dnabanchi prophesy- 
ing, the office of a prophet. 

anade, rolled up ; cf. nade. 

anago, dysentery. 

anagudawa, dysentery ; see^w- 

anamimi, anamimanchi (cf. 

Ar. rt^), evil-speaking, tale- 

ananan, forthwith ; ananan 
ananan liar ranan, so things 
went on till one day... 

anasara (Ar.), a Christian, lit. 
the Nazarene ; cf , nasdra. 

anche, see che. 

anche, enche, verily, indeed ! 

aneshuwa, livelihood, occupa- 

anfana, to confer a benefit 
upon ; allah shi anfanashi 
may God bless him. anfani is 
used before a pron. obj. 

anfani, n., 1. use, advantage, 
benefit ; e7ina anfaninsa of 
what use is it? da anfani 
useful, hahu anfani useless, 
anfaninsa dayawa it is of 
great use ; maianfani useful, 




B 44 addua inaianfani a 
prayer that shall be ejffective ; 
2. the profit of a crop, a 

anfani, anfane (before a 
pron.), to make use of, gain 
advantage from, profit by. 

angaje, angashe, weariness, 
slumber ; cf . muna yin an- 
gaje we are nodding ; cf . gaje. 

angamia, f. angarmia, a large 
stallion ; see ingarma. 

ango, pi. anguna, angaye, a 

angonchi, the condition of a 

angTia, hamlet ; see ungua. 

angulu, agulu, augulu, f. an- 
gula or agula (cf. Italian 
aguglia, Lat. aquila), vul- 
ture ; a7igulunkwagwa,cr ested 

anguria, seeds of the cotton 
plant, also used of raw cotton 
from which the seeds have 
been taken out. It is some- 
times spelt yanguria and is 

9 0^ 

probably the Ar. j^, cotton. 
anini*, button, used also to de- 
scribe the eightli of a penny 
coin which is in circulation ; 
cf. fulako. 

aniya (Ar. SjUe), diligence, 
haste, intention ; yin aniya 
to show diligence, to hasten, 

T> lb ku dau aniya take to 
yourselves diligence ; cf. Gr. 
p. 131, 1. 41, aniyansu chin 
hatsinku their purpose is to 
seize your corn. 

anjima, by and by; sai an- 
jima good-bye for the pre- 
sent ! see jima. 

anka, verbal prefix to denote 
the passive voice of the narra- 
tive or dependent past. For 
further explanation of the 
way in which this prefix is 
used cf. Gr. p. 39. 

annabi, prophet ; see dndbi. 

annasara, see anasdra. 

ansaki, pincers; see hantsaki. 

anta, hanta, liver. 

antaya, an offer made in Vjar- 
gaining : nawa antaya what 
offer has been made 1 cf. tdya. 

any a, an expression of incre- 
dulity, really ! 

anza(S.), bush with edible fruit. 

ap, an exclamation of wonder. 

2,ra, a pit for catching animals, 
a pot for catching fish. 

S,ra, to lend, borrow; see dro. 

S,raS,ra, a large Bornuese ram 
with conspicuous horns. 

aradu, clap of thunder, thuuder- 
bolt ( Ar. js.j) ; ya yi aradu 
or aradu tafaru it thunders. 

arafia, very fine (thread) (Ar. 




arafichi, fineness. 

araha, arha, cheapness ; da 

araha cheap (probably from 

the Italian arra, Lat. arrha 

earnest money). 
arame, lean, thin, emaciated ; 

see rama. 

lying in wait, eaves- 



see rafake. 

arangaza, a disease of cattle. 

aras, brittleness, breakage ; ka- 
yan aras a load of breakables, 
e.g. crockery ; zaka aras da 
kanka you will get your head 

arataye, hanging ; see rataya. 

arausa, bumping shoulders, a 
children's game. 

arbaa or arba, i.e. Ar. iauj!, 
four, often used for four thou- 
sand ; cf. Gr. p. 66 ; arha mia 
four hundred. 

arbain (Ar.), forty. 

arewa, ariawa, north. 

arewachi, the northern region, 

argini (an Asben word), an 
animal of the cat tribe, small 
leopard with white skin and 
black spots. 

arigingini, prone on the back ; 
see rigingini. 

arja (K.), alja (S.), harm, tor- 
ment ; yin arja to injure. 

arkSjia, to cause trouble. 

R. H. D. 

ark&ne, n. pain; jin arkdne 

to feel pain, 
armashi, beauty ; da armashi 
beautiful, fine. 

ame, ama or azna, heathen, 
i.e. the worshippers of idols ; 
cf. E 6 addini na asna idol- 
atry ; ariian kasa aborigines, 
no necessary reference to re- 

S,ro (Ar. Sj^), loan, hada aro to 
lend, yin aro to borrow ; cf . 
ya karbo aron he took the loan 
of ; ya ara doki or ya yi aron 
doki he lent a horse, maiaro 
a tenant ; see ara. 

arr, be off ! == tdfi chan. 

arradu, see arddu. 

arrafia, very fine thread ; see 

arsaberi, asberi, mat, made 
of thick marsh grass ; see 

arsas, pi. arsashi (Ar. ioLtfy), 
bullet, lead for bullets. 

artai, dung, excrement; yin 
artai to beat, drive away. 

aruwa, arwa, soothsaying. 

arwala, ablution ; see alwala. 

arziki (cf. Ar. ^Jj), prosperity, 
riches; a euphemism for death: 
also used for chance, luck ; A 
65 allah ya kan gama arzi- 
kinka God may give thee 
prosperity; ya yi arziki a 





common expression for *it 
was fortunate.' 
Sisabat, 3,subat, S,sabar, asibit, 

ashibi (Ar. i{-JI), Saturday. 
asali, origin, race, ancestry ; 
see usali. 

asalo (cf. Ar. ^J-Jl, a rush), a 
round mat made of plaited 

Ssalwayi, S,salawi, S,salwai, 
^saulai, halter, leading rope 
of a horse. 

asanchi, azanchi, azenchi, 
meaning, explanation, know- 
ledge, understanding, clever- 
ness ; yin asanchi to devise ; 
enna azenchin wdnan what is 
the meaning of this ? 

asara, misfortune ; see hasdra. 

asasaji*, girth strap. 

asben, pi. ashendwa, the name 
of a tribe of Tuareks in the 
Sahara Desert. 

aserimi (cf. Ar-^*;^, to cut in 
pieces), round flat pieces of 

asha, an exclamation. Oh ! 

ashana, matches; aNupeword. 

ashar, disrespectful language, 
contempt of court. 

ashara, abortion. 

ashasha, a kind of bag made 
of grass with narrow opening. 

ashauma, ashoma, salt used 

ashe,ashioraje, surely, indeed, 
it implies incredulity and is 
a rude way of receiving a 

ashegi, profligate ; cf . shege. 

ashibta, a snare ; see ashuta. 

ashirin (Ar.), twenty; see 

ashuta, ashibta (S.), a bird 
snare made by a line of run- 
ning nooses supported by a 
row of spikes. 

asiri, ashiri (cf. Ar. rt j^\ 
secrecy ; buden asiri (lit. 
open secrets) scandal ; allah 
ya rufe asirinka God pre- 
serve thy secrets: a salutation 
to a superior. 

asirka, a hole in the nose of an 
ox ; see azirka. 

asirta, to make secret, to dis- 
cuss secretly. 

aska, pi. asaki, askake, 1. razor; 
2. a triangular piece of em- 
broidery on a tobe. 

aska, aske, aski, v. to shave. 

askalaye (S.), a kind of green 

askar, pi. askarawa (Ar. j.iL^) 
(Turkish, Persian id., (?)Eng. 
lascar), soldier ; the ordinary 
word for soldier in Hausa is 

askunia, anything used to 
cover the opening of a door- 




way or window opeuing, e.g. 
grass-mat ; windows proper 
do not exist in Hausaland. 

asna, heathen ; see arna. 

asnanchi, heathenism. 

asu, pi. asoshi, a moth from a 
small black caterpillar, its 
larva is very destructive to 
cloth, wool, etc. 

S X J 

asuba (Ar. Aa. .^.o), often pro- 
nounced azuba, dawn, the 
time between jijiji and han- 
chi', assicsuba very early; cf. 

asurimi, a sphere; see azu- 

S,suwa, an ass. 

aswaki, a stick for cleaning 

Sitagara, kwakwan dtagara 
coco-nut palm. Atagara is 
said to be the old home of 
the Arago tribe. 

^tajirchi, riches. 

^tajiri, f. dtajira, pi. dtajirai 
(cf. Ar. jj».lj), a person of 

rank or wealth, a merchant. 

S-tanin (S.), ran' litini Mon- 

ataras, a name given to kola 
nuts newly imported from 
Gwanja, also used generally 
for kola nut ; see under goro. 

atatare, completely, collected 
together ; see tatara. 

atile*, a large tree with edible 

atis]ia(cf. Ar. j^^-lxfr), to sneeze, 
atishawa sneezing. 

atsabibi (Ar.), doctor. 

attabibi, ettabibi (Ar. UjJ*), 
doctor, witch doctor. 

atuni, dysentery. 

aturkiunami, f . aturkurrmmay 
a two humped camel. 

audiga, cotton; see ahduga. 

augulu, vulture ; see angulu. 

auka, to collapse, subside, of a 
trap for animals, to close 
up; i.q. afka, q.v. 

auki, expansion as of rice when 
boiled, abundance, prosperity, 
aquantityof salt ; i.q. afki,c{.Y. 

auna, awuna, auni, to weigh, 
to measure; F 139 ayuka 
awunsu actions are weighed ; 
to measure length or width; 
rmi, auna guzunsa we measur- 
ed the bottom (of the tree) ; 
auna ma to weigh out, i.e. to 
sell; maauni scales ; rnaaunia 
a corn dealer (a woman's 

aura, a red ass. 

aure, to marry ; see amre, 

auro, to marry ; see amre. 

ausigi, half a piece of cloth, 
zane, i.e. about 2J yds. 

auta, smallest, youngest; autan 
2/asathe little finger; cf. M.H. 
p. 167, tumfafia ta auta the 




smallest pumpkin ; autan ji- 
kafiki the small feathers in a 
bird's wing. 

auzu, dog. 

awa, awada, how, like as, 

awai*, a species of rubber tree. 

awaki, goats ; see akwia. 

awart^ki, tongs ; see awortdki. 

awarwaro, a convolvulus with 
small white flowers, eaten by 
sheep and goats. = yeriadi 
and yamhuTuru. 

awS,za, a rib ; see awoza. 

awo, measure, weight; abin 
awo anything to measure or 
weigh with; yin awo to mea- 
sure, to weigh ; awo shi tuku- 
na there is a remainder : awo 
is specially used of weighing 
corn; cf. ya kawo mata awo 
he brought corn for her to 
buy. yin awo is sometimes 
used of a gun, to aim ; cf. 

awoje, abroad, outside; see 

aworta,ki, awartS,ki, hawor-, tongs. 

awoza,, pi. awozaij 
rib, side. 

awuna, to weigh ; see auna. 

ay a, an interjection, well ! 

S,ya (arachis hypogaea), a kind 
of ground nut, sweet inside, a 
quarter of an inch in length ; 

it has a yellow pea-shaped [ 
flower ; its pods contain from 
two to four reddish seeds, 
from which an oil, e.g. the oil 
used by watch-makers, is ob- 
tained ; cf. guchia. 

ay a, pi. ayoyi (Ar. ajI), La 
verse of the Koran, also ap- 
plied to the points o°o used 
as a sign of punctuation; 
2. sign, wonder ; 3. an ex- 
pression of incredulity. 

^yaba (Yoruba id.), 1. banana 
tree ; 2. banana fruit. 

ayagi, the Hausa name for the 
Yoruba people. 

ayari, caravan ; cf. aiyari. 

ayu (Fulah id.), the name of 
a mythical man or creature 
supposed to live in water and 
to drag anyone in who hap- 
pens to see it. ayu is also 
used as the name of a river- 
fish from which oil is ob- 
tained ; cf . M. H. p. 37. 

ayyareye, a meaningless word 
with which nursery rhymes 
sometimes begin. 

§.za, to put a thing on another, 
e.g. on a pack horse, distinct 
from aje to put down, cf . M.H. 
p. 206, shi kan aza tsaranka 
hizhiz dakai it places your 
companion above you. aza 
ma to place on, used of taxes, 
to assess. 



azaba (Ar. ^J^)y pain, punish- 
ment, illness ; wurin azaba a 
dark place in which criminals 
are confined, a place of exe- 

azabta, to cause pain. 

^ " 

azakari (Ar.j^>), penis, word 

used by educated men for 

azalia*, misfortune (Ar. Jjt). 
azalumi, deceiver ; see tsalimi. 
azanchi, cleverness ; see asan- 

chi., a cross-beam on top of 

a doorway, also rafters (e.g. 

of deleb palm) used for ceiling 

a flat-roofed house. 
azS-ra, segment of kola nut. 
azargagi, azazargi (S.), ma- 

zargi, a noose for catching 

animals with, zin azargagi 

to tie in a bow. 
azawa, treasures, F 94 alaza- 

azbin, Asben ; see asben. 
azenchi, meaning; se>Qasanchi. 

azirka (cf. Ar. AijJs), a hole 

made in the nose of an ox to 

put a rope through, a nose 

azne, heathen ; see arne. 
azuba, dawn ; see asuba. 
azuhur, azSJaar, az2,far (S.) 

(Ar.), the time about 2 p.m.. 

I the call to prayer at that 
time; cf. rana. 
azuji, a gossip, 
ftzumaki, a.zurniaki, worms 

in horses or asses. 

9 » ^ 

^zumi (cf. Ar. j>yci), fast, yin 
azmni to fast, D 22 kuna azu- 
mi kuna zaka da haji you fast 
and go on the pilgrimage. 

S,zurfa or a,zurufa (cf. Ar. 

vJLjj-o), silver. 

S,zunnuki, see dzumaki. 
azurumi, asurumi, a large 

pyramid (of salt), a sphere, 
azuzanchi^ gossip ; cf. azuji. 
azuzuka, to be lucky. 

b. There are a number of Hausa 
words, in which an initial 
or medial b has an explosive 
sound and is quite distinct 
from the ordinary b. In this 
dictionary this explosive b is 
written b. The following are 
a few instances : barao, bare, 
bdri, bdtdy bdchi, bdta, bdche^ 
batasda, bauta (a dance), bera, 
boye. Instances of words with 
medial explosive are gdba 
(forearm), sdbo, lebo, tabo, 

b — for interchange of b and f 
sounds, cf. burfumi — -furtumi, 
rubsa — rufsa,, not. It is placed be- 




fore and after the verb or the 
sentence which it negatives, 
thus we may have ha ya gani 
ha mutum or ha ya gani mu- 
tum ha he did not see the 
man; the latter is the more 
idiomatic. In the case of a 
negative interrogation the se- 
cond ha is frequently omitted; 
ha ya and ha ya yi are usually 
abbreviated to bai ; ha na is 
abbreviated to han, thus han 
sani ha I do not know. 

ba, a prefix to nouns to denote 
origin, ancestry, etc. ; thus 
hahaushe a Hausa native, ha- 
laraha an Arab, hature a 
white man. 

ba, to give, to cause ; ya hani 
daria he made me laugh, ya 
hashi tsoro he made him a- 
f raid, han hanu clapping, han 
magana flattery : han kwana 
saying good-bye, ha lahdri to 
bring news, pass. part, hayu 
given. For distinctive uses 
of ha and hada see hada ; cf . 
hayes^ hayasda. 

baa, n. mockery (cf. Ar. Uj, to 
attack with evil eye), yin haa 
to deride, to scoff at, haache 
to mock at. 

babS,, father. 

baba, babba, pi. mainya or 
maiya^ often pronounced hab- 

ha, great, large; as used of 
persons, important, of high 
rank. When placed before 
the noun which it qualifies 
it is usually written hahan; 
thus hahan kai great head H 
(a very common Hausa sur- 
name) ; haha dajeka marabout 
stork = horintumki ; haba ga- 
reka = gaskiarka, used by 
children to confirm an as- 
sertion ; han Tnagana big talk, 
flattery. The use of -n after 
haha suggests that the word 
was originally a substantive ; 
cf . hahan gari, hahar saraiUa. 

bSiba, pi. hahdnij eunuch. 

baba, pi. hahobi, hahuna, hahai- 
bai (indigofera endecaphylla), 
Indigo. It grows wild in 
many parts of Hausaland. It 
is also cultivated for the sake 
of its dye which is obtained 
by the fermentation of its 
leaves in water ; for descrip- 
tion of the indigo plant cf. 
M. H. p. 56. 

baba-juji, a common weed with 
small pink flowers, so called 
because it grows on dung- 

babake, to become black ; see 

babaki, to singe, blacken at a 
fire, used of the growling of 
a lion, or of the crackling of 




hell-tire, A 31 rana kiama kan 
wuta ta hahaki. 

babaku, black, pi. of bak% q.v. 

babambade or bade (lit. great 
hade fool), jester, buffoon, a 
king's singer, a public crier, 
M.H. p. 303 ; cf. hamhada. 

babani, uncle, father's brother. 

babania, aunt, father's sister. 

babarkiya, a special kind of 
earth used for making the 
cement which is placed on 
flat roofs. 

babauchi, baubauchi, bad 
Hausa, patois ; see hohowa. 

babe, f. babania, pi. babaye, 
babuiia, a large species of 

babu (i.e. ba abu not anything), 
nothing, no, not, without; 
babu wonda no one, babu 
komi nothing, or there is no- 
thing the matter, babu keau 
it is not good, babu wawa 
F 137 without doubt (cf. simi- 
lar use in Kanuri of ago 
something, and bago nothing). 
babu is often used idiomati- 
cally, e.g. kajina duka babu 
all my fowls are gone ! M.H. 
p. 170. ba abin da babu there 
is nothing lacking, cf. prov. 
komi ya bache hankuri a ba- 
bu everything goes wrong 
where patience is lacking. 
jinjiri ba ya san babu ba a 

baby won't take No for an 

bS.che, to lose, see bdta^ yaki ya 
bache the battle is lost. 

bache, bachi, to destroy, to 
spoil, to be spoiled, su bache 
tare they perish together, daji 
ya bache the bush is spoilt 
(i.e. nothing can be obtained), 
M.H. p. 196; cf. hata. 

bachi before n., bache before 
pron. obj., to curse, bdchin 
zuchia quarrelling. 

ba-chuche-ni (lit. do not de- 
ceive me), pi. chuchenawa, 
the bachucheni was a sort of 
household servant who could 
not be sold ; cf. dimajo, 

bada (S.), without. 

bada, to give, to give up, usu- 
ally joined with some other 
word ; thus bada girima to 
honour, bada gaskia tohoiiQwe 
or to acquit, bada laifi to 
condemn, bada wuri to give 
place to ; used with hainya it 
means to lead, hainya ya ba- 
damu the road led us to. 
Where the accusative follows 
the verb directly bada is used 
in preference to ba, where the 
indirect object follows the 
verb directly bada must not 
be used. Ex. ya bani kurdi 
he gave me money, but, ya 
bada kurdi ga mutane he 




gave money to the men, ya 
haslii ita he gave her to him. 
hddaj before a pron. oh^.ha.she^ 
to give away, betray ; cf. ha. 

badada, badabada, a fool ; cf . 
hade., badede, some day. ko 
hadade some day or other, 
prob. connected with dede. 

badai, a sedge. 

badagula, fooKsh talking. 

badawa, a kind of guinea-corn. 

badbila, belbela or bilbila 
(buphus leuconotus), a white 
bird like a small heron ; cf. 
helhela chi da moshin woni O 
b — you live by the move- 
ments of others, i.e. it feeds 
off ticks found on other ani- 

bade, jester ; see hahamhade. 

bad! (cf. Kanuri hali), next 
year; B 1 20 makada maizache 
badi meditating coming next 
year ; cf . hanna and hara. 

bSido, water lily (nymphaea 
lotus), wasar hado a child- 
ren's game in which the white 
petals are removed and the 
stalk peeled down to the ca- 
lyx in strips which are wound 
round it, when released like a 
top the flower falls revolving. 

baduka, baduku, pi. dukawa^ 
a worker in leather, a maker 
of shoes ; cf. M. H. p. 76. 

bafade, bafadi, a king's minis- 
ter, a hanger on at court ; 
T^\.faddwa, q.v. 

bafayu, parents, relations. 

bafulatana, 1. a plant like a 
dandelion with edible fruit. 
2. a reddish biting ant so 
called from its colour. 

bafur, a gum used as incense 
made from roots of the taura 

ba-gabazi, one who has come 
from the east. 

bagare, a chieftain : pi. garewa. 

bagarua, by metathesis for 
gaharua (acacia arabica), 
acacia tree, the bark of which 
is used for tanning ; it grows 
near water ; from its seeds 
is made an ink or dye. 
For use of it in tanning cf. 
M. H. p. 57. h. kasa = cassia 
mimosoides, a low herb with 
spindle-shaped edible tubers. 

bagashi, vernoniapumila (com- 

bagidaje, a stupid or rustic 
yokel (cf. gida). 

bago, ambush, lurking place ; 
cf. mahdga watch-tower. 

bagwonja*, a brass pot. 

bahago, a left-handed person ; 
cf. hagum. 

bahar ilnial,the Mediterranean 
Sea, M. H. p. 207. 

bahasi, enquiry, investigation 




(Ar.), used of an alkali's 

bahilchi, shirking, greed; cf. 

bahili* (Ar. J^\ a miser, 
an idle or cowardly person. 

bai, a contracted form of ba ya 
or ha ya yi, also a contraction 
of baya back, M. H. p. 223 etc. 

baia, after ; see baya. 

baibai (a contraction of baya 
baya), backwards, akandar- 
hiishi baibai he was bound 
with his hands behind him. 
waclanan abaibai those about 
(or who followed) him. 

baibai, baibaiya, pi. baibaiyi 
or baubawa, barbarous peo- 
ple, people who only wear 
grass clothes. 

baibaiya, bebeya, to thatch a 
house with grass = yin jinka. 

baibaiyi, a ring put through a 
man's lower lip. 

baichin = bayan after, baichin 
luonga after this. 

baiki, roar, D 72 ; see babaki. 

baiko, a gift ; kurdin baiko a 

baini (K.), a very small bird. 

baiso, a drink, i.q. beso, q.v. 

baiwa, bauya, female slave ; 
baiiuan allah, lit. slave of 
God, a bird rather smaller 
than a sparrow ; cf . bawa. 

baiwa, generosity, gifts ; A 83 
maibaiwa generous, M. H. 
p. 194. 

bajajache*, light coloured. 

baji, baje, to raze or destroy a 
town, to level a road, ya 
bazu it is made level. 

baji, applied to large hips in a 

bajini (K.), bajimi (S.), biji- 
mi, a bull ; also used as an 
adj., very strong. 

bajinta, complaisance ; yin ba- 
jinta to comply with. 

bajumba, a red coral bead. 

b^ka, pi. bdkuna masc, bow ; 
bakan kibia bow and arrows, 
bakan allah (lit. God's bow) 
or bakan gizo (lit. spider's bow) 
a rainbow ; cf. also mashan 
rua. sarikin baka a good 
hunter, bakan gizo used of 
arched roof of house, also 
name of white turban with 
several colours on its edge; 
bakan shiba a bow-shaped in- 
strument used for cleaning 
and preparing cotton ; cf. 
ganderi, masabi. 

baka, bakan gishiri a load of 
salt after it has been cut up 
into small pieces ; cf. kanto. 

bakache, 1. v. to fan, to win- 
now ; 2. n. a fan ; maiba- 
kache one who fans or win- 




bakanta, bakanche, to live an 
idle, useless life, bakanchi a 
gambler, cadger. 

baki, pi. hakuna, mouth, edge, 
brink ; hakin kofa doorway, 
hakin rua the bank of the 
river, hindiga da baki biu gun 
with two barrels, bakin wuta 
stick on which meat is placed 
to be cooked over a fire, torch, 
bakin gatari the handle of the 
axe, yin baki to promise, yin 
baki daia to make an agree- 
ment, to conspire, gama baki 
to speak the same language, 
to agree together, baki daia 
in drill, altogether, at one 
stroke, bakin dutsi foot of a 
hill, abakin in exchange for. 

b^ki, often pi'onounced baiki, 
f. bdka, pi. bdbaku, babake, 
black ; A 21 sun sanfari sun 
san baki they knew the dif- 
ference between black and 
white, bakin zuchia (lit. black- 
ness of heart) evil disposition, 
evil thought ; bakin chiki 
sorrow ; bakin rua plain water 
with no meal in it ; babake 
to become black ; bdki baki 
blackish or dark blue, baki 
kirin very black. 

bakintaka, blackness. 

bako, f . bakua, ^A.bakuna, baki or 
bakokuna, strange, stranger, 
guest, visitor; A 15 bako da 

dangari stranger and citizen, 
yin bako to have a stranger 
staying with one, cf. Gr. p. 
131, 1. 44 gobirawa kun yi 
baki ye men of Gobir ye have 
guests with you; bakuar mache 
a strange woman. 

bakon dauro, see bakwondoro. 

bakonchi (K.) or bakontaka 
(S.), the service done to a 
stranger; yin bakonchi is to 
show hospitality. 

bakua, a glittering earth or 
sand (?). 

bakurme (K.), chief of the 
prison ; cf. sankurmi. 

bakuru, bukuru, a kind of 
saddle; dan bakuru a donkey. 

bakwondoro or bakon dau- 
ro, an eruptive skin disease 
which usually appears when 
the dauro is ripe. 

balaga (Ar.), to arrive at the 
age of puberty, balagage, pi. 
balagagu, onewhohsifi reached 
the age of puberty ; lokachin 
balagage the age of puberty, 
M.H. p. 228. 

balagande, a plant from which 
a yellow dye is obtained. 

balagiro, cattle sickness. 

balaguro, a bachelor. 

balami, a large-nosed ram (?). 

b^lanta, ba,lante, much less ; 
usually preceded by a nega- 
tive ; cf. bale. 




balas*, a kind of trousers. 

balasana, a small plant or grass. 

balatache, worthless. 

balausara, a plant with small 
blue flower ; cf. lausurii. 

balbadu, barbadu, to spring 
up, of water ; cf. barhadi. 

balbalnia, flame. 

balbela, a bird ; see hadhila. 

bale (usually preceded by a 
negative particle), much less, 
not to mention, much more 

balla, to fasten or tie up as of 
a button or loop ; past part. 

balle, to unfasten, untie; ma- 
halli fastening, loop : of a 
bone, to break. 

balle, balla, to sting. 

balli, a large bony fish. 

balli balli, sores, scars, scabs. 

balma, an inferior kind of salt, 
perhaps originally = the salt 
from Bilma, the salt mine at 
the south of the Sahara, 

balshe*, but ; cf . harshe. 

bam, bami, bumbi, palm wine ; 
D 1 aher sha gia da hma da 
buza leave off drinking in- 
toxicants. The wine is ob- 
tained by direct incision into 
the steins of the palm-tree 
(tukurua), it begins to fer- 
ment on the second or third 

bamaguje, pi. inaguzawa^ hea- 
then, esp. those living among 
Mohammedans. It is usually 
applied to pagan Hausas in 
Kano and Katsena ; cf . ma- 

bambada, plur. bambadawa, 
mounted singers who accom- 
pany a chief; cf. babam- 

bambagi, fornicator. 

bambam, different, separate, 
distinct from; F 146 tamhaya 
bambam ga kowa the ques- 
tions at each are different, ya 
yi bam.bam it is different, 
bambam ddga different from. 

bambami, the name of a small 
bird. It usually builds its 
nest of cotton. 

bambSjui, macaranga sp. (eu- 
phorbiaceae), a tall woody 
creeper used for dyeing the 
dark strands in mats. 

bambana, 1. a large tree, with 
edible fruit (asclepias gigan- 
tea ?) ; 2. an aquatic plant. 

bambanche, to differentiate. 

bambanchi, bambanta, dif- 
ference, distinction ; cf. da- 

bambanta, bambamta, v. to 
differ, ba su bambamtathere is 
no difference between them. 

bamibara, roasted maize. 

bam.bare, to loosen or drag 




gently oif, su ka yi su b. hanu 
they tried to set the hand 

bambaro, to peel off; cf. bare. 

bambarokai, dimness of sight. 

bambaroki, 1. egg-shell ; 2. 
scab, or boil. 

bambu, binding up (of corn). 

bamda, besides, apart from, in 
addition to ; bamda wanaii 
in addition to this. 

bami, a beginner, learner. 

bamota, bamawuta, butterfly. 

ban, a contracted form of ba-ni 
or ba-na. 

ban-gaskia, faith, e.g. ina da 
ban-gaskia da abokina, I rely 
upon my friend ; see ba. 

ban-hanu, clapping; cf. ba. 

bana, the name of a fish. 

bana, a small tree with edible 

bananche, to mock, to declare 
falsely; cf. banna. 

bananchi, jesting, horse-play ; 
M. H. p. 229. 

banche (for bante), a loin- 

banda, besides ; see bamda. 

banda, roasting, drying; ban- 
data to roast. 

bandam bandam, the noise of 
a rushing torrent. 

bando, a preparation of food. 

banga, a drum, banga banga, 
bunga bunga, 1. a royal pro- 

cession ; 2. the name given to 

a famine; cf. M. H. p. 201. 
banga, the heap of earth which 

covers the yam in the dry 

bangai*, ribs, 
bangaje, to knock, kick, 
bango, bungo, pi. bangaye, 

banguna (cf. Kanuri bongo), 

1. the wall of a house built 
of mud ; 2. the stiff cover of 
a book. 

bango (K.), the head of the 
market or prison. 

bangori, piece, lump. 

ba-ni-da-mugu, a pimple. 

bankada, bankade, to turn 
round, turn over, push aside. 

bankami, very large. 

bankare, to tie the hands to- 
gether behind, to stretch out. 

banke, 1. a patch on cloth; 

2. V. to patch, to mend, 
bankuru, bamkuru, a cake 

made with oil and meal. 

banna (Kanuri id.), 1. waste, 
evil ; 2. adv. to no purpose, in 
vain, B 133 wonda ya zazari 
banna he who hastens after 
evil ; 3. v. to destroy, to waste. 

banna, this year ; when used of 
age of cattle - a year : sa na 
banna uku a three-year-old 
bull, banna daia a yearling ; 
cf. bara and badi. 




bannai* ^, harm, evil; B 12, 

i.q. banna, q.v. 
bannawa, children (of both 
sexes) approaching the age 
of puberty, 
bante, banche, pi. hantnna 
(Nupe id.), towel, apron, a 
man's loin-cloth. (A woman's 
=f atari.) hakin bante the 
badge of a thief; the usual 
colour is blue and white. 
bante, to give short measure. 
ban-tsoro, a fearful or terrible 

banupia, a kind of bird, 
banya, banye, 1. to loose, let 
go ; 2. to admit, acknowledge. 
banza (Fulah id.), vain, use- 
less, worthless, evil, without 
reward, gratuitous ; banza ba 
shi kai zomo kasua idleness 
does not bring a hare to 
market ; D 20 aber- rikichi na 
banza leave off vain deceit. 
bS,ra, to beg, supplicate, cf. C 1 
na bdra dominka tsarsheni I 
supplicate that thou would'st 
save me. maibdra a beggar. 
bara, masc, the swoop of a hawk. 
bara, point aimed at : yin bdra 

or barata to aim at. 
bara, to recover after sickness ; 
used esp. of vomiting after 

drinking poison (Ar. f^jj) ; 
cf. seq. 

bara ( Ar.), to be guiltless, to be 

discharged from the court. 
b§,ra, to divide ; see bare. 
bS,ra, f. bdrania, baranya, pi. 
bdrori or bdrurua, a servant 
as distinguished from bawa a 
slave. A servant [bara) could 
not lawfully be sold. The 
plural bdrurua implies a large 
number of servants such as 
a king would have, baran 
sariki an officer of the king's 
bara, baria, last year; bara 
wonchan the year before last. 
bara, a charm ; cf . sha bara ; 
maida bara the name of a 
Hausa song concerning the 
guinea fowl. 
barabara, single; cf. baran- 

barage, a narrow line in a piece 
of cloth, usually made with 
silk (cf . saki a broad line in 
cloth) ; it is also applied to 
the whole garment which is 
usually white and red; cf. 
M. H. p. 100. 
baraka, a slit or hole in a seam; 

cf. barke. 
barakonchi,thieving ; ctbardo. 
baramchi*, the name of a 

large fish. 
baran-baran, separation, vari- 
baranchaki, a creeping plant 




the fruit of which is used by 
children as a rattle. 

baranchi, stealing; cf. harao. 

baranda, a system of sale under 
which the broker arranges to 
give seller a fixed price, keep- 
ing for himself any profit and 
taking risk of loss. dan 
haranda a broker who accepts 
business on these terms. 

barandemi (cf. (?) Ar. jjj^, 

an old sword), a hatchet with 
broad blade. 

barankana, difficulty of en- 
trance, sticking fast in a 
passage, ya yi h. he stuck 
fast, used of a dog trying to 
get through a hole in the wall ; 
cf. hokoto. 

barantaka, service, yin haran- 
tdka to serve. 

baranya, servant ; see hdra. 

barao, f. baraunia, pi. hardy e, 
harai, thief. 

barS.ra, freed ; see hara. 

bSrata, barache, to aim at; 
see hdra. 

baraunia, f. servant. 

baraya (S.), private room or 
sleeping apartment of the 
head of a household; cf. tu- 

baraza, barasa, an intoxicating 
drink, a name esp. applied to 
imported gin. 

barbada, to scatter ; harbadua 

spilling, e.g. of corn or 

barbadi, berbadi, crumbs of 

food, grains of sand, 
barbaji, a blood-sucking fly ; 

see herhaje. 
barbara, berbera,the coupling 

of animals or birds, not used 

of a horse ; see haye. 
barbaro, a kind of cloth, 
barde, pi. harade, cavalry, 
bardinuwa, birduduwa (cf. 

Ar. ^^j^, locust's wing), a 
black locust which flies about 
at night, it is frequently at- 
tracted by a light. 

bardo, a pigeon ; see herdo. 

bare, much more therefore 
= hale, q.v. 

bare, bara, 1. to peel, to divide 
in half ; 2. hare, the half of a 
goro nut. 1. cf. ya haru it 
peeled off"; 2. also half a piece 
of cloth ; guda ha hari ha the 
whole not a half, mu hareshi 
'let us divide it' is used as 
the name of a turban, this by 
metathesis becomes harmushi. 

bare* (cf. Ar. ^ij.j), an alien. 

bareshi, a shrub ; see duruku. 

barewa, pi. hareyi, antelope : 
properly applied to Thomp- 
son's gazelle. The following 
are some of the antelopes 




found in Hausaland. gwenJd, 
a roan-coloured antelope. 
kanki, hartebeeste. mareya, 
cob antelope or oryx, deri or 
ddri, a Senegal hartebeeste, 
Senegalensis daraaliscus, kor- 
rigum. hezia or betsia, a very 
small antelope, dinker. gada, 
a small red antelope, oribi. 
(/wambaza, water buck, do- 
doka resembles last = cobus 
defassus unctuosus. kwanta- 
rafij reed buck. walwaji, 
antilope leucoryx. kishimi, 
q.v., a solitary male of any 
species, niazo bush buck. 

barga, burga, stable, horse- 
lines, stable master. 

bargo, burgo, marrow. 

bS,ri, to dry in the sun, to cast 
the young, to miscarry ; hai- 
fua bdri, still-born : also used 
of letting a water-pot slip 
from the head and break. 

baria, hole, opening (a Kanuri 
word ?) ; cf . dambaria. 

baria, last year ; see bara. 

barka (cf. Ar. i)j^ ii), 1. to 
thank, to bless, to congratu- 
late, F 2 1 5 suna barka dajiuna 
they congratulate one an- 
other; 2. barka or berka (q.v.) 
n. an expression of congratu- 
lation; cf. albarka. 

barkata, a herb used in mak- 
ing soup. 

barkatai, confusion, untidi- 
ness ; shina magana barkatai 
he talks nonsense, or, he is 
confused ; duka gidansa bar- 
katai ya ke everything in his 
house is in confusion. 

barke, berke, barka, tr. and 
intr. to tear ; dan barki a rag 
or piece of cloth ; cf . baraka. 

barkonchi, foolishness, daft- 
ness, deceit. 

barkua, a tear, e.g. in cloth. 

barmakai, young of hyena. 

barmushi, a turban ; see ber- 

bama, damage ; see berna. 

bama, twisting of a double 
turban round the head ; see 

bamatS.da, to injure. 

bS,ro, plenty. 

baroro, a bird's crop. 

barra, to beg ; see bdra. 

barshe, so much the more ; or 
following negative, so much 
the less ; cf. balshe, bale. 

bartaka, to point a gun or aim 
an arrow. 

baru, see bare. 

barwa, sand grouse. 

barza,togrind flour thoroughly. 
barzawa regrinding flour. 

barza, outer ditch round a 
town ; see berza. 

barzo, badly ground flour. 

basa*, the name of a vegetable 




poison used for smearing ar- 

b^sara, the hottest part of the 
dry season ; see hdzara. 

basasa, raiding, civil war. 

bashasha, joy. 

bashe, to betray, seduce; see 

bashi, pi. basusuka, debt, credit ; 
shina da hashina he owes me; 
this might also be expressed 
inabinsa bashi; cf.Gr. p. 131, 
1. 47. kun tdfo kun dauki 
bashi ye have come to collect 
a debt, maibashi a man who 
wants to buy on credit, mai- 
chin bashi a debtor. 

basira* (Ar. Sj-j-aj), prudence, 
sagacity, discernment; B 152. 

basiru, basur, a venereal 
disease (Ar.). 

baska, a kind of gourd. 

bS,so, batso, dodowar baso, 
a kind of dodowa (q.v.) made 
from fruit of the yakua tree. 

bS,ta, barta, pi. batochi^bartochi, 
a small box usually made of 
skin, e.g. a snufF-box. 

bS,ta, to talk, converse; see bdtu. 

b^ta, b^che, to lose, be lost. 
na bdta, or na yi bdtankai, I 
lost myself, na bdche hainya 
I lost the road, hainya ta 
bdche the road is lost, bdchewa 
or batta losing ; see bdche. 

bata, bachi, to destroy, be 

spoilt ; see bdchi. 
batache, f . bdtachia^ pi. bdtatUy 

spoiled, destroyed, wasted. 
batachi, destruction. 
ba-taka (do not tread), used 

of a prohibited place into 

which no one may enter, 
bataka, to defend, protect, 
batas, to destroy, to waste, to 

b^tasda, bdtasdct hainya, to 

lose the way. 
batsia, antelope ; see betsia. 
batso, a kind of dodowa; see 

b3,tu, conversation ; yin bdtu 

to converse ; cf . bdta. 
bS,tun, prep, with reference 

bature, baturi (Kanuri id.), 

Arab, lit. son of Arab {ture\ 

a word applied to any white 

man or stranger ; baturen 

chacha a foolish man who pays 

out without counting; cf. 

baubauwa, unintelligible talk ; 

see bobowa. 
bauchi, the land of baibdyi, i.e. 

of pagans who cannot speak 

Hausa ; cf. bobowa. 
bauchi, slavery ; cf. bauta and 

bauchi, 1. a strange or foreign 

speech, 2. the name of one of 




the provinces in N. Nigeria 
where Hausa is little spoken. 

bauda, used with hainya = to 
deviate from a straight course ; 
hautlua deviating. 

baude, to dodge to one side, 
haudia dodging, e.g. to avoid 
an arrow; havdiwa causing 
to deviate ; C 23 taiia baudiwa 
koiva she makes everyone to 
deviate (from the right way). 

bauderi, a small bad-smelling 
cat ; see hitdari. 

baudi, to avoid. 

bauji, girth ; baujin doki horse 

bauna, pi. bakani (cf. Fulah 
mbauna), buffalo. 

bauni, pi. baunuka (S.), fore- 

baura (S.), a block of potash or 

baura, a proper name, dan 
baura the jackal ; cf. M. H. 
p. 198. 

baure, bore, a species of ficus 
which yields a milky juice 
like rubber, and has an 
edible fruit; see gamji. 

bauri*, bitter taste, da bauri 

baushe(terminalia macroptera, 
combrataceae), a large tree 
with flat, winged fruit, bows 
and sticks are made from 

baushia, a hedgehog ; see 

bauta, a dance performed by 

young men. 
bauta, 1. slavery; 2. bauta or 

yin bauta to serve ; D 42 

bawa wanda ke bauta ta banza 

a slave who has served a vain 

bawa, f. baiwa, bauya or ba- 

vxtiya, pi. bayi, bai, slave ; 

bawan allah (lit. a slave of 

God), or simply bawa, a 

servant of God. 
bawali, boali, boli, urine (Ar. 

bawan-allah, esp. applied to a 
learned man. 

bawanchi, slavery. 

bawo or bawa (bawon being 
the connective form), rind, 
bawon kwoi eggshell, bawon 
doiya peel of yam, bawal 
kamanu (lit. the outside of 
appearances) the colours of 
things. M. H. p. 227. 

baya, baia, the back, the hinder 
parts, used also as preposition, 
behind, beyond, below, be- 
sides; bay an hanu the palm of 
the hand, abin baya the past, 
that which lies beyond, bayan 
hdka moreover, after this. 
baya is frequently followed by 
ga, baya ga chin tuo after 
eating food, chimbaya back- 

R. H. D. 




biting, nabaya is used ad- 
verbially, 'afterwards.' hay a 
hay a J cf. 33, ' creeping,' an 
expression applied to a cat. 
hayansa in his absence, ddga 
hay ana while I was away, 
bayan daki away from home; 
cf. M. H. p. 198. jin haya 
to miss, feel the loss of, ka ha 
dokinnan dusa kada ya ji 
hayan dawa give this horse 
bran lest he miss his corn, 

baya, to give ; cf. mahaya a 
giver, F 14. 

bayala, 1. margin of a page; 
2. a sufficiency of goods. 

bayan mareya*, a grass used 
in thatching. 

bayS,na or bayena (cf. Ar. 

4jG ii), 1. to declare, make 
manifest, spread out, appear; 
F 203 masuriha akahayenasu 
those who have made unjust 
profits are made manifest; 2. 
n. manifestation. 

bayare, pi. yarawa (S.), prison 

bayas, bayar, to give up, re- 
store; when followed by an 
object da is added, e.g. na 
hayes or na hayas da shf I 
gave it up. 

bayasda, to give, restore, cf. 

baye, the covering of a mare by 

a stallion, anyi 7na godia 

baza*, a girdle made of fibre. 

baza, moat, fortification ; cf. 

baza, to spread out, e.g. to 
spread out wheat to dry. haza 
doki to spread out horsemen 
in front of an army, hazaje 
spread out ; cf . haji. 

bazar a, the hottest part of the 
dry season just as the rains 
are beginning : the dry season 
ranij including hazara, lasts 
about eight months ; then fol- 
lows darndnd the wet season 
which lasts three months, then 
kdkd the harvest season which 
lasts one month. 

bazawara, a woman without 
a husband. 

baz aware, courting. 

bazere*, a tree the root of 
which is used as a charm in 

bazu, to be level ; see haji. 

bebantaka, deafness. 

bebe, pi. hehaye, a deaf and 
dumb person. 

bebey a, to thatch ; see haihaiya. 

begeyi, a tree the fruit of which 
when eaten acts as a charm to 
reconcile a husband and wife. 

begi, bege (cf. Ar. ^Ju), long- 
ing, e.g. for an absent friend. 





begua (Nupe id.), porcupine. 

belbela, a bird ; see badbila. 

beli (K.), a disease on the 

belu, uvula ; cf. haJcin wuya. 

bene, a tower, the upper room 
in a two-storeyed house, a 
two-storeyed house, used with 
soro, q.v. 

benema, a small white diving 

benue, the river Benue or Binue. 
According to Dr Barth the 
word belongs to the Ball a 
language and means ' mother 
of waters.' 

ber, to leave ; see heri. 

bera or bira, pi. heraye, masc. 

(cf. Ar. 5^1?), mouse; heran 
kamro a reed-grass (water) 
mouse, heran hisa a field 

bera, bira, a young maiden. 

berau, barau, the sole survivor 
of a family. 

berbadi, crumbs; cf. harhadi. 

berbaje, a horse-fly, called 
damisan dawaki, because spot- 
ted like a leopard : tsetse-fly*. 

berberi, pi. bernawa, a native 
of Bornu : herherchi the Kan- 
uri (Bornuese) language. 

berbira, a small black bird that 
eats mosquitoes. 

berchi, berichi, sleep; yin 
berchi to sleep. 

berdo, pi. berdaye, a wild 
pigeon, also applied to a small 
red bird with black beak and 
some white feathers. 

bere, much less, a form of bale, 

berere, f. bereria, pi. bereru, 
freed ; cf . beri. 

berewa, antelope ; see barewa. 

bergima, to roll over and over, 
used of a horse or donkey; 
cf. birgima. 

bergo* burgo (cf. Ar. aijj, 
a veil etc.), covering, blanket. 

bergo, cutting the arms of 
prisoners of war ; cf . birgiji. 

berho, knife with one sharp 
edge; cf. i^w^a with two edges. 

beri, ber, to leave, leave behind, 
suffer, allow ; maiberi an epi- 
thet applied to a carrier who 
keeps putting down his load ; 
bero to leave a thing and come 
back, ya beroshi wuri chan he 
left it there and returned. 

berichi, sleep ; see berchi. 

berikata*, fruit of yakua plant. 

berima* (Ar. i«J>:>), gimlet. 

berka, used in greeting, berha 
da zua welcome ! a blessing 
on your coming, berka da 
yini welcome to you for the 
whole day ; see barka. 

berke, to tear ; see barke. 

berkono, barkono, pepper. 





bermushi, barmushi, a varie- 
gated cloth used for making 

bema, barna, waste, damage, 
loss, mischief ; cf . harnata to 

bema, barna, the folding of 
two black and white coloured 
turbans round the head. 

bero, to leave ; see heri. 

bersa,birza,to grind thorough- 
ly ; see harza. 

berza, barza, 1. mud dug out 
to make a wall ; 2. wall ; cf. 
D 28 idan ya fita hankalinsa 
da herza if he go out, his wits 
remain at home, also used of 
glacis in a fortification. 

beso, baiso, betso, a drink 
made of honey, pepper and 

betsia, batsia, bezia, dinker 
antelope, very small. For 
list of antelopes found in 
Hausaland, cf. under harewa. 

beza, biz a, a kind of salt brought 
from Asben. 

bi, to follow, to obey ; hiyo to 
follow in direction of speaker; 
in the expression ina hinka 
bashi you are indebted to me, 
bi is used in the sense of 
dunning a person for a debt ; 
kana hina bashi lam indebted 
to you. Used with hainya or 
tafarkij A 22 suna bi tafarki 

wanda ta fandare they fol- 
lowed a path that was crook- 
ed ; bi dere to go by night ; 
cf. kdda abi guzunsa let not 
its cause be enquired into ; 
M. H. p. 161, also to go the 
round of, cf. na bi denginsu 
I went the round of their 
family ; cf . idiom sunanka ya 
bika you are true to your 
name, biyeya following, used 
of loyalty to a patron, pass. 
biyu, ta biyu it is followed. 

bia, biya, 1. to pay, to reward; 
2. n. payment, wages; bia 
bashi to pay a debt, biya 
bukata to meet the needs of, 
kowa ya biya bukata tasa each 
obtained what he needed. 

biar (Ko.), bial (Kats.), biat 
(S.), five. 

biawa, following ; see 6i, E 39 
Tnu ke biawa har bakura we 
follow the road to Bakura. 

bibia, 1. n. judgment; 2, v. to 
judge, to discern, to look 
carefully into. 

bibini, grumbling; see bimbini. 

biche, to put out a light, of a 
fire, to go out. 

bichia (S.), a kind of tree. 

bida (S.), a large curved needle 
for thatching. 

bida, small snake with tail like 
a second head, and with two 
mouths, dan bida pin used 




for pressing cotton, so called 
from resemblance to this 

bida, bide (bef. pers. pron.), to 
seek, to search after; sai 
amhideka (wait) till you are 
sought for. hida is also used 
as a verbal n. and is either 
masc. or fern, ina hidan mache, 
suna hidal alherka. 

bidl, the inside of a small ground 
nut; cf. seq. 

bidi, a strong horse; cf. prov. 
sai anfosa akansani bidi only 
when a rout occurs is a fast 
horse known, bidi is usually 
applied to a roan horse, bidi 
kernel of a ground nut the 
colour of which resembles 
that of a bidi horse. 

bldo, to seek and return with ; 
abidota let her be sought and 
brought here ; cf . M. H. p. 2 1 9 
kuka na zua abidoka the out- 
cry about going to seek for 
you and bring you back. 

bif, used of sound of a blow, 
or of a stone falling on 
a roof. 

bige, used as a preposition like 
imiri, bigensu to their place. 

bige*, bigi, seat, place on ground 
for sitting ; cf. F 71 duniarga 
babu bigi ka zamna there is 
no place for sitting down in 
this world. 

bigeri, bigire, place ; bigerinsa 
instead of it, in its place ; cf. 
M. H. p. 227 allah ya yi bigeri 
God made everywhere. 

bijaji, buji buji, biji biji, 
plaits or knots projecting 
under a woman's head-cover- 

bijigi, to trample down. 

bijimi, bull ; cf. bajini. 

bijinta, victory, prosperity; ya 
yi bijinta he is prosperous. 

bika, pi. bikoka, baboon. 

biki, purification of a woman 
after the birth of her child. 

biki, marriage feast ; see buki. 

bikiki, wide. 

bikilli, a dark bay horse. 

bikira, a virgin. 

biko, tribute. 

biko, to go after a wife who has 
returned to her parents' home 
to persuade her to return. 

bilbila, cf. badbila. 

bille, tribal marks on cheek. 

bima, 1. hole in the ground 
used as a trap ; 2. the falling 
in of a well etc. 

bimbini or binbini, bibini, 
1. grumbling, fault-finding; 
B 54 rika binbini refrain from 
grumbling ; 2. to grumble, to 
examine in order to find fault 
with, B 18. 

binchiki, binchike, f. ques- 
tioning; anzo binchiken m,a- 




gana it came to an exami- 
nation of the story; yin 
hinchiki to enquire, to ask 
for news. 

bindiga, pi. hindigogi, gun ; 
bindiga da haki hiu double 
barrelled gun. The word haii- 
duka is used by the Arabs in 
N. Africa for a gun. It is 
perhaps a corruption of the 
word ' Venedigo ' ; in former 
time guns were largely im- 
ported into N. Africa by the 
Venetians. The Egyptian- 
Arabic for gun is d^jjj. 
hundaka in Egypt = bullet, 
in Hindustani hundak = gun. 

bindo, a sling. 

bindu, an edible reed, which 
grows in water. 

bingi, a large dark-coloured 
male donkey. 

bingi, a large cistern, or a pond 
of stagnant water. 

bingira, bingire (bef. pers. 
pron.), to roll, to roll over in 
sleep; cf. birgima. 

bingiri, a cattle disease. 

bini-da-zugu (jatropha curcas, 
euphorbiaceae), a shrub used 
for hedges, the ' physic nut ' 
of the West Indies ; cf. chini 
da zugu. 

binjima, bijima, a kind of 
shirt without arms or pocket. 

bio, to follow and come here ; 

see biyo. 
bira, 1. v. to hop, skip, 2. n. 

bira, a mouse ; see bera, 
birane, pi. of birni, q.v. 
birbira, coupling of animals ; 

see barbara. 
birbiri, a small species of bat 

= kanen jemagi. 
birbizo, dung-hill. 
birdudua, black locust ; see 

birga, reproach, abuse, 
birga, to break a horse, to drill 

birgami (Z.), a large bag for 

holding cowries made of skin ; 

cf. buhu (K.). 
birgima or birkima, rolling; 

D 27 shina birkima kamanda 

chocha he rolls like an ant ; 

cf. note on harawa. 
birgiji, one who cuts off the 

hands, e.g. of thieves ; cf. 

biri, n. yin biri to set free ; 

cf. berere. 
biri, pi. birai, biraye, biruoia, 

monkey ; perhaps derived 

from bira to skip. 
biribiri, a yellow - breasted 

birji, hillock; see burji. 
birkichi or birkiche, to upset, 

overthrow, to shake like a 




leaf, birkiche, usually follow- 
ed by da. birkichi or birkita 
is used of a path, to bifurcate. 

birkida, to dance ; D 1 3 ajashi 
da birkidawa he shall be 
dragged and turned over and 

birkita, tr. to turn over. 

birkonchi, trickery ; see bar- 

bima, waste ; see berna. 

bima, to bury ; see bizne. 

bimi, pi. birane, birnua, town 
[Kanuri berni^ Fulah berniol] ; 
the word is usually applied 
only to large and walled 
towns, smaller places would 
be called gari, e.g. tnasuzua 
ga kofqfin birane those who 
frequent the gates of the 
cities, birnin kano — Kano. 

biroblro, a low coarse grass. 

birtuntuna = o?«t^;« babu ido, 
ie. wheat or guinea-corn 
which has gone bad, or failed 
to ripen. 

birza, to grind thoroughly; 
see barza. 

bisa, pi. bisashe, bisaje (Fulah 
id.), animal, beast; bisashen 
daji wild beasts, lit. animals 
of the desert, bisashen gida 
domestic animals, lit. animals 
of the house. 

bisa, 1. n. top, summit; 2. bisa 
or abisa on, upon ; bisa doki 

or bisan doki on horseback, 
G 7 wanait litafi ta chika bisa 
yerdan allah this account is 
completed by the will of God. 
abisa is sometimes used for 
' in order that.' bisa gare con- 
cerning, mi ka che bisa gareni 
what did you say in regard 
to me 1 bisa zancheff nan 
concerning this conversa- 

bisa, bishe, to bury, dig under, 
pass, bisu (cf. Ar. rt ^JL*^ ii, 
dig holes for planting trees); 
cf. biso. 

bisalami*, a curved sword 
worn by Arabs. 

bisaye (?), erect, an epithet 
applied to a tail; cf M. H. 
p. 94. 

bishara (cf. Ar. Jh£j, to rejoice, 
or in II to bring tidings), 
1. a letter or paper of intro- 
duction ; 2. yin bishara to re- 
joice with anyone ; cf. albi- 

bishe, to bury ; see bisa. 

bishi, a small drum beaten to 
announce games etc. 

bishiga, helmet ; see bushia. 

bishimi, bull, M. H. p. 182; 
see bajimi. 

bisne, benne, to bury; see 

biso, burial, also applied to 
planting of seeds. 




biu,biyu, sometimes contracted 
to bi, two ; nabiu, f . tabiu 
second, hiu biu used idio- 
matically to express folly. 
na yi biu biu I threw away 
the substance for the shadow. 
za ayi biu it will be made 
two, i.e. there will be double 
labour or trouble. 

biya, to pay ; cf. bia. 

biyarana (crotelaria elata (?), 
leguminosae), a yellow flower- 
ing shrub. Its leaves are 
powdered along with honey 
or alewa. 

biyaya, statement, declaration, 
e.g. before a judge. 

biyo, to follow and come here. 
bio bashi to collect a debt and 
return here ; cf. bi. 

biz hiz = bisa bisa, cf. M. H. 
p. 206 talauchi shi kan aza 
tsaranka biz bizdakaipovertj 
places your companion above 

biz a, a kind of salt ; see beza. 

bizki, a careless person. 

bizne, 1. to bury; 2. (S.) to 
sow a field ; cf. biso. 

bizni, n. sepulture. 

bizo (S.), a dung-hill. 

boali, cf. bawali. 

bobawa, bobowa, pi. bobai- 
yi, foreign or unintelligible 
speech ; su yi bobawa they 
talked foolishly; cf.Gr.p. 137, 

1. 10, ya yi bobowa da kun- 
fa he made much spluttering 

and froth. Another form 

babauchi is used of unintel- 
ligible jabber, esp. of pagans ; 

cf. bauchi. 
bobua, a large fly which attacks 

horses and donkeys. 
boda, lowing of a cow or camel. 
boda, kurdin boda, the En- 
* glish Govt, tax of 15 p.c. paid 

by caravans, 
bodami, a kind of fish. 
bodari, see budari. 
boiya, secret; cf. boya. 
bojua, bujua, a contemptuous 

word applied to a small trader 

who carries his own load, 
boka, f. bokanya, pi. bokaye, 

quack doctor, wizard, usually 

used in a bad sense. 
bokanchi, the profession of 

a boka] cf. prec. 
bokoi, seven ; nabokoi, f. ta- 

bokoi, seventh. 
bokoko, yin bokoko to blow 

up, e.g. an empty bag. 
bokoto, difficulty of entrance, 

squeezing through ; cf. baran- 

bola, a horse with white face. 
boli, urine ; see bawali. 

bombegi (cf. Ar. t^^)^ harlot, 
bora, a neglected wife, a concu- 
bore, a plant with edible fruit. 




bori, pi. boruiUka, borwiiiwa, 
1 . evil spirit, demon, delirious 
person ; 2. an inspired dance. 
masubori or masuboli, persons 
possessed with an evil spirit, 
or in a condition of frenzy or 
ecstasy ; kurdin bori tax or 
licence fee paid by dancers ; 
cf. ta rika borin kunya she 
was mad with shame, ta hati 
bori she (drank the medicine 
and) became possessed. 

borintunki, the marabout 

bota, handle of knife. Kano 
equivalent = kota. 

boto, grass covering to a wall 
or roof to keep off rain ; also 
used for the conical grass top 
of a roof ; cf. kwadandemi. 

botsari, kicking of a donkey. 

boya, boiya, hiding, secret; 
maboiya hiding-place. 

boye, boiye, boiyi, 1. to hide, 
to be hid, B 140 munafadi ba 
mu boiye ba we tell you and 
hide it not ; 2. boiyi or aboiyi 
secretly, B 163 muna da mur- 
na boiyi we rejoice secretly ; 
pass, boiyu, boiyo to hide one- 
self, intens. form boboye to 
hide oneself right away. 

bu, yin bu to bleat, bellow. 

buaya, buwaya, n. overpower- 

buaya, buwaya, buaye, to 
exceed, to be too much for, 
ya buayeni he is stronger than 
I, na buayaka I am stronger 
than you, abiit ya buayeni it 
is too difficult for me, na 
buaya I could not do it ; cf . 
faskare^ fa. 

bube, a contracted form of the 
name Abubekr. 

btibe, way, road. 

bubuga, an intensive form of 
buga to strike. 

bubukua, a short-legged peli- 
can, a Sokoto word; cf. kwa- 

buda, bude, budi, to open; 
abude openly ; budu to be 
open ; budede opened ; hainya 
ta budu (or budi) the way is 
open, to open a way through 
the enemy ;ya budesu = ya ko- 
resu; budar kai the ceremony 
of taking the wedding veil off 
a bride; cf. allah shi buda 
daji a salutation to a hunter ; 
intens. form bid>ucle, ta b. id- 
anu she opened her eyes wide. 
budebaki evening meal during 
a fast. 

buda, the winter season, esp. 
the fog and wind in the win- 
ter season. 

budari, bodari, bauderi, a 
small bad-smelling cat about 
the size of a weazel. 



budi, n. opening. 

budi (cf. Ar. rt ^j.j iv, to 

excel), wisdom, cleverness. 
bududugi, large species of frog; 

cf. hurdudugi. 
budurua, budurwa, pi. hu- 

durai (cf. (V) Ar. jjo, to be- 
come full grown), virgin from 
age of puberty ; C l^ yal bu- 
durua dunia the world is a 
virgin child, 
buduruchi, budurchi, bu- 

duruanchi, virginity. 
buga, to strike, to beat ; ambuga 
mata mundaye rings were 
fastened on to her. bugi 
before a n. obj. intens. form 
bubbuge. buga buga to strike 
repeatedly, buga kof a to knock 
at a door, buga bindiga or 
simply bitga, to fire a gun; 
buga tambari to beat a royal 
drum ; cf. ya buga gaya he 
called for help, ambuga musu 
tar a they were fined, buga 
jangali to assess the cattle 

buga, a small back entrance to 
a fox or rat hole. 

bugaji, the slaves of theTuaregs 
(a race name T) ; see buzu. 

bugu, to be drunk, past part. 

bugu, bugo, a blow. 

buhu, a large sack (at Zaria) 


made of skin {^birgami at 

bujaji, a tuft of hair on front 
of a woman's head. 

buje (K.), a kind of trousers. 

bujua, one who carries his own 
load ; see bojua. 

buka, pi. bukoki, tent, tempo- 
rary shed. 

bukachi, to be in need of any- 

bukari* (Ar. jULjj), 1- ii'on 
compass for drawing circles ; 
2. circle. 

bukata, pi. bukatochi, bukatu- 
na, 1. business, merchandise, 
need, desire, C 52 bai kula 
domin bukata he cared not for 
merchandise ; 2. need, M. H. 
p. 228 allah shi babu bukatal 
gero God needs not to eat 
millet, abin bukatar rai the 
necessaries of life. 

buke, helmet of chain mail 

buki, pride, luxury, power to 
do what you like ; da buki 
proud ; cf . prov. wiyar buki 
rashin abin buki the difficulty 
of the feast arises from tlie 
wherewithal to provide the 
feast ; cf. M. H. p. 228 allah 
rtiu ne abin buki nasa. 

buki,biki (Fulah id.), marriage 
feast; abin buki anything 
good to eat, D 83 yin buki 
to make a feast. 



buku or bukui, folding the 

arms and hunching up the 

bula* (cf. (?) Ar. JaC, to be 

white), a long white robe. 
bulaka*, a hole or crevice in 

the ground, 
btilala (K.), pi. hUldlai, a whip, 

usually made of hippopotamus 

bulbudi*, crumbs ; see har- 

bulbule, bulbula, to pour out 

I water. 
bull, an ox with red body and 

white face, 
bulma, the jump or rise of a 

fish or frog. 
bulo, to go round, 
bultu, name of a bird ; see hurtu. 
bum, suddenly, lo ! 
buma*, a trap ; see hurma. 
bumbi, palm wine ; see ham. 
bumbu, child carried on the 

back (cf. (?) It. bambino). 
bumburua, a grass (eragrostis 

tremula) which is eaten in 

times of famine; cf. hurhurwa. 
biunini, intoxicating drink, 

palm wine ; cf. ham. 
buna*, eel (?). 
bundi (S.), swan, 
bundum bundum, used of 

the splashing of water. 
bunga bunga, a procession; 
see hanga hanga. 

43 burburwa 

bungo, cover of a book etc.; 
see hango. 

bungu* an idiot. 

bungula, to pour out. 

buniya, husk enclosing an ear 
of corn. 

bunkasa, to be great or strong, 
may ana ta hunkasa the matter 
has become serious. 

bunsuru, pi. hunsurai, hunsu- 
raye, he-goat. 

bunsurun daji, a long stringy 
grass from the root of which 
a scent is made. 

buntu, rice husks, used in 
schools for washing ink off 
writing boards. 

bunu, pi. hunai, grass for thatch- 
ing or for door-covers ; cf. 
prov. magana zarar hunu a 
word spoken is as the pulling 
out of thatch, i.e. it cannot 
be recalled, maihunu a gindi 
a man with a kilt of grass. 

bunu, black-striped cloth from 

bura, penis; cf. azakari. 

burbishi, brim, that which is 

burbura, birbiri, 1. a bee; 
2. a kind of bat. 

burburwa, bumburuwa (era- 
grostis tremula, gramineae), 
a grass eaten in famine times 
and given to horses ; see 
humhurua; cf. komaya. 


burbushi, crumbs; see huru- 

burdinuwa, a locust; see 

burdudugi or bubudigi, edible 

frog larger than kwado. 
burdumi, 1. wrapping made 

of grass, used for packing 

natron or salt ; 2. a heap of 

burga, to churn ; see hurka. 
burga, to terrify, 
burga, stable ; see barga. 
burgami, a bag for carrying 

cowries ; see birgami. 
burgo, bargo, marrow, 
burgo, covering ; see bei-go. 
burgu, a large rat, larger than 

burgu, a coarse grass which 

grows in water and is eaten 

by horses, 
burguje (S.), a small stone, 
burguma, a young goat. 
burima, burma, a large bag 

made of grass, used by women, 
burji, birji, a hillock, 
burka, burga, to churn, to 

twist thread. 
burkuti, to grope about with 

the hand in the dark, 
burma or buma, a trap, a hole 

in the ground used as a trap, 
burma, a sack ; see burima. 
burme, to break into, of a well, 

to fall in. 

44 busa 

burm.i, a calabash used as a 

water vessel. 
buro, a dead man's eflfects (?). 
burtu, a species of ground horn- 
bill (bucorvus pyrrhops) ; cf. 

ba ayi burtu ma biri, i.e. you 

cannot deceive a monkey; 

hunters put the skin of the 

burtu on their head when 

they stalk game. 
burtuli (S.), burtoli, a hedged 

road used by cattle between 

burtumi (S.), a beehive; see 

burtumi, a castrated bull ; see 

buruda, coarse (thread). 
burugu, a kind of cane which 

grows in the water. 
burugushe,burbushi, crumbs, 

fragments, splinters, used of 

bricks broken up by the sun ; 

cf . M. H. p. 42, or of splintered 

buruji, a lucky day. 
burum, a vague unexplained 

buruntu, loot, the sack of a to wn. 
burushi (K.), a tuft. 
burzu(vernonia perottetii, com- 

positae), a weed which grows 

in cultivated fields with a 

thistle-like flower, 
busa, pi. bushe bushe, any kind 

of wind instrument. 




busa, to blow, to blow a trum- 
pet ; maibusa one who blows 
a trumpet, A 78, raiia da 
maibusa ya busa kafo nasa 
on the day when the sounder 
of the trumpet shall sound, 
F 241, busashe blown upon, 

bushe, 1. to blow away, ya 
bushe masa kiyashi he blew 
the ants off him ; 2. to be 
dry, the past part, used is 
either busheshe or busashe 
dry, bushe bushe is also some- 
times used in the sense of 

bushia, baushia, a hedgehog. 

bushia or bishiga, helmet, 
protective covering for the 

buss (cf. mod. Ar. ^j^\ suffi- 
cient, enough, only, less {=ga- 
rin), e.g. rtietin goma buss — 
190, lit. 200 less 10. Used 
as an exclamation = do not 
speak more ! 

busTi, a mat ; see buzu. 

busu*, an intransitive form of 
busa to blow (a pipe). 

buta, small earthenware bottle. 

buta, to throw, besprinkle. 

butulshi* or butulchi (cf. Ar. 

JJaj, falsehood, vanity), in- 
gratitude ; E 5 maibutulshi 

ba shi tsira he who is un- 
grateful shall not be saved. 

butulu, ungrateful; cf. prov. 
butulu kaman chiki an un- 
grateful person is like the 
stomach (which is always 
wanting more) ; see prec. 

butumi, burtumi, beehive. 
In Hausaland a beehive con- 
sists of a cylinder of matting 
or of plaited bushes placed in 
a tree. 

butuntuna, burtuntuna, 
blighted corn; seebirtuntuna. 

buwa, a small species of bird. 

buwaya (S.), to overcome, to 
be too much for ; see buaya. 

< J 

buza, boza (Ar. Sj^, beer), 
intoxicating drink made with 
salt, honey and water; D 10 
abe?' ska gia da bain da buza 
leave off drinking intoxicating 

buzS-re, bucking of a donkey, 

buzu, pi. bugaje, slaves of the 
Tuareks ; cf. M. H. p. 224. 

buzu, busu*, a mat made of 
goat's skin with the hair on, 
buzu na salla, prayer mat. 
M. H. p. 120. 

buzu, slave; it is specially ap- 
plied to the offspring of a negro 
father and a Tuarek mother. 

buzurwa, a long-haired species 
of goat. 




buzuzu, a night-flying insect 
which falls into food and 
has a bad smell. 

chaba, to sharpen, da chabi 

chabe*, to speak unintelligibly. 

chabe, to be sharp. 

chabi, slush, mire ; apparently 
the same as tabo. 

chacha, a gambling game 
played with cowries or ground 
nuts, karen chacha dice, dan 
chacha a gambler ; cf . ba- 
turen chacha. 

ch^ch^ka, to prick with a 
spur, to press down ; cf . chdka. 

chada, a small bird like a 

chada*, dearness, for tsada, 

chadu, man chadu Lake 

chafa, chS,fe, to take up, catch; 
chdjiya catching, taking up. 

chaffa, chappa, homage ; yin 
chaffa to become a retainer 
of, also to go into partner- 
ship, kurdin chappa fees paid 
on establishment of a partner- 

chage*, to tear; see tsaga. 

chaiaki, a corruption (?) of 
tsak% chicken. 

chainye, chinye, to eat, to 
devour; see chi. I 

ch^ka, to throw (a spear), 

chdke to wound, to spear, 
ch^ka, n. a throw, 
chakagi, a large wading bird 

with white breast. 
chakankami, rings made of 
brass or iron worn on the 
feet by women as orna- 
chakara, an edible root like 

a yam. 
chakasabra, bells for horses; 

see chikasabra. 
chS,ki, a rattle; yin chdki to 

chali, a net used when carry- 
ing grass. 
Champi, fear, panic; cham- 

pache to be afraid of. 
Chan, chana, 1. yonder, there; 
2. that ; used as a demonstra- 
tive pronoun agreeing with 
preceding noun; a substan- 
tive preceding chan usually 
suflSxes n, thus yaron chan 
that boy; cf. H. Gr. p. 12. 
chan spoken on a higher note 
and with a pause after it is 
used to emphasize the pre- 
vious word aka jima chan at 
that place there was a long, 
long delay. A longer form, 
chananka is sometimes used 
in written Hausa. 
chanchanga, a piece of meat 
roasted on a stick. 




chandi (S.), a disease of the 

chanfa, to avoid, be afraid of ; 
cf. champi. 

chanwa, green. 

chanwaka, a small bird with 
green feathers. 

chanza, hazel nut, almond C?). 

chappa, to become a retainer ; 
see chaffa. 

chara, crowing ; zakara ya yi 
chara the cock crew. 

chari, pure, clean ; see tsari. 

charindu, a species of lizard. 

charki, purity ; see tsarki. 

charki, pi. charkoki a black 
bird with a red beak. 

chasa, to thresh (e.g. rice). 

chashe, to make known, de- 

che, to say, to suppose ; mi 
anche (or akache) da shi what 
is its name 1 pres. participle 
chewa, q.v., shiiia chewa he is 
saying, da ka che is used as 
though it were equivalent to 
da kun sani had you known, 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 25; ya ka 
che is also used idiomatically 
of a man who regrets what he 
has done ; cf. Gr. p. 1.52, 1. 9. 

che, the fern, form of the sub- 
stantive verb ; ita che it is 
she, or she is; or, followed 
by masc. = it is, e.g. A 43 ita 
che dalili this is the reason. 

chechewa, a swallow; see 

chechi, to save, to discharge 
a prisoner ; cheche, bef . pron. 

chedia, a large tree with milk- 
like sap, a species of ficus ; 
cf. gamji. 

chefani, commission, errand. 

chefanne*, the ingredients for 

cheffi, to throw up and catch ; 
cf. chdfa. 

chegi, spite ; don chegi for 

cherki, charki, i.e. Senegal 
magpie (cryptorhina afra). 

cheru (S.), chiru, dagger. 

cheta, chetas, to intercede for ; 
maichechi an interceder. 

cheto, deliverance ; A 4 rana 
da ha cheto a day on which 
there shall be no salva- 

chewa, 1. saying, sometimes 
abbreviated to cha, kowa cha 
ya ke = kowa chewa shi ke ; 

2. that, used after the verb 
' to say ' in written but 
not in colloquial Hausa, and 
only when it is desired to 
lay special emphasis on the 
statement which follows ; 

3. because, cf. also domin- 

chi, frequently used as a suffix 




in forming abstract substan- 
tives, used also to denote 
office or work of person or 
thing, e.g. dabamchi differ- 
ence, diyauchi freedom, tu- 
ranchi that which belongs to 
a foreigner; cf. also mutumchi 
position in life, kauyenchi 
brogue, country dialect; cf. 
similar use of suffix ji in 
modern Arabic. 
chi, to eat, to devour, to de- 
stroy, to gain the advantage 
of or over, to gain jurisdiction 
over; chin riba to make a 
profit on a business trans- 
action, chin kdro to meet un- 
expectedly, chin sarota to 
gain possession of a kingdom, 
chin kura to cheat, chim baya 
backbiting, c^^m bashi to owe, 
chin wuta to catch fire, chin 
abduga to pick cotton, chin 
gari to capture or to destroy 
a place, chin kasua to trade 
successfully in the market, 
F 169 masuchin zaka those 
who stole the tithes ; used in 
gambling na chi (or chinta) 
I win ; cf . M. H. p. 172 kadan 
na chika if I win as against 
you ; anachin kasua, or kasua 

ta chi the market is 


on ; ku chi gaba go in front, 
abinchi anything to eat ; also 
to use, cf. em, ba kira mi ya 

chi gavmye if there is no 
smelting how will the char- 
coal be used^ cf. wanda ya 
chi zom^o ya chi gudu who- 
ever catches a hare has to 
run for it; chi da dakansa 
to earn one's own livdngr : 
followed by prep, ma to 
make up for ba shi chim 
masa, it won't make up for 
it (i.e. the other), chiwo to 
capture and bring back a 
prisoner, chiwo gari to send 
an expedition against a place, 
and to bring back its inhabit- 
ants ; m,achiy% a defendant ; 
chida, chishe to give to eat, 
chishe is used when followed 
by a pronoun, e.g. na chi- 
sheshi I gave him to eat ; cf . 
M. H. p. 202 sarautal allah 
ta chishemu; chldakaina sup- 
port myself, chinye or chainye 
to eat up; cf. prov. chiye 
chiye ya fi chainyewa to eat 
a little at a time is better 
than to eat up all at once, 
babu shi ne chia there is 
nothing to eat; cf. M. H. 
p. 205 chima feeding, victuals. 

chi* (Kanuri id.), mouth. 

chia, bad luck ; cf. tsia. 

chiako, fowl ; cf. tsako. 

chiawa, chiyawa, pi. chiayi, 
grass; chiawa dainyi green 




chiawar tamba, a species of 
grass with black seeds. 

chibara, tsibara*, also chi- 
bira, chibra, chura to roll, to 
roll into the form of a ball ; 
used of rolling mud into balls 
prior to using it to build 

chibaru, to be rolled together, 
to congeal ; jinina ya chibaru 
sabada dari my blood is con- 
gealed with the cold. 

chibda (Kanuri id.), or dadin 
chibda a sweet smell. 

chibi (S.), chibia (K.), pi. 
chibobi, navel. 

chibia*, arrow ; see kibia. 

chibiri, chibari, tsibiri*, any- 
thing round, an island, a pill, 
a small piece of anything, 
e.g. of sugar ; chibirin kasa 
a round piece of mud. 

chibirikinkini, chibirkin- 
kine, small reddish berries 
growing on a shrub found in 
sandy places. It is used by 
Hausas in N. Africa to de- 
note grapes. These are un- 
known in Hausaland ; cf. 
M. H. p. 63. The word is 
a corruption of chibiri kan- 
kani little balls. 

chichero, a speckled black and 
white horse; adj. speckled, 

chichifi, flea; cf. koma. 

chichika, pride, F 32 kana 

R. H. D. 

chichika yirma ya hauka thou 
swellest with pride, thou fool ; 
cf. chika. 

chichira, to tear up ; see chira. 

chichiya, tsaitsewa, tset- 
sewa, house swallow. 

chida, distant rolling thunder. 

chida, to give to eat ; see chi. 

chidacheto, to bribe, e.g. a 

chigia, search ; yin chigia, or 
bada chigia to make diligent 
search for. 

chigita, to search for. 

chi-goro* (lit. kola eater), a 
small brown bird like a finch 
with red feathers round base 
of beak, which are thought 
to resemble the stained mouth 
of a man who has been eating 
kola nuts. 

chiji, chije, to bite, chije baki to 
bite one's lips : ya yi haushi 
har ya chije bakinsa he bit 
his lips with spite ; cf. chizo. 
machiji snake, lit. the biter. 

chlka, to fill, to be filled, to 
be complete, in moral sense 
to be perfect ; ya chika it is 
full, or it is completed, chika, 
cf. chika alkawcdi to fulfil a 
promise, chika da to catch 
up, ku chika hurry on and 
catch up, abin nan ya chika 
mani chiki this exhausts my 
patience, ya chika mutum it 





is to a man's credit, chika ho 
mara even or odd (a gambling 
game), maifada da chikawa a 
terrific fighter, cMkawa part, 
filling, completion, chlkake, 
chlkakia^ pi. chlkaku, filled, 
full, complete, D 52 ku7ia 
salla chikaka kuna azwmi 
chlkaka say your prayers in 
full, fulfil the fast ; chika 
hiyidiga to load a gun ; achike 
(q.v.) full; cf. chiko, chichika. 

chikalkora, the pulley of the 
loom on which the peddles 
work, usually made of the 
hard shell of the dum palm. 

chikanta*, chikanche*, to 
make pregnant. 

chikasabra, chikasora, the 
small bells placed on horses' 
heads, rattling of a bridle. 

chiki, 1. a breadth between 
two seams of cloth ; 2. the 
embroidered strips on tur- 

chiki, the inside, the belly; da 
chiki pregnant, rufa chiki to 
lie at full length, face down- 
wards, ya-chiki a short shirt, 
chiki daia an expression used 
of brothers or sisters, chil- 
dren of the same mother, 
also used to denote kindness, 

chikin or dS,ga chikin, within, 
into ; chikin gida at home. 

chikinsa may either be * in- 
side it ' or ' its inside.' 

chikirikida, a fowl plucked 
for cooking. 

chiko, complement, kawo chik- 
onsu fill them up : also change 
of money. 

chikowa, chichikowa, aflood. 

chili, a small present, e.g. a 
sip or a whiff of a pipe : mai- 
chili or masha chili a cadger. 

chilikowa, a species of horn- 
bill which eats locusts (Lo- 
phocerus) : it is probably 
derived from prec. 

chim, a little, e.g. rana ta 
fita chim, sunrise. 

chima, chimaka, food, vic- 
tuals ; see chi. 

chim-baya, lit. to backbite, 
to slander, to whisper; cf. 
chi and haya. 

chimi* (cf. Ar. J^, to put 
right), skill, contrivance, 
D 49 babu chimi ha dahara 
no skill nor craft. 

chimma, chimayi, to go with, 
to accompany, overtake. 

chinaka, chimaka, very small, 
black, stinging ants. 

chinchia*, a broom ; see tsin- 

chinchinta, worthiness, ban 
chinchinta en yi haka I am 
not worthy to do this; yin 




chinchinta or chenchenta to 

chinewa, to spread false news 
=: kormoto. 

chingar^^ to skip words in 
reading (lit. to eat like ants), 
i.e. leaving spaces here and 
there untouched, A 73 kada 
ka ratsa chikinta kai mata 
chingara do not pass over 
its contents, or miss a word 
in saying it (the Koran). 

chingi, to eat much, to devour. 

chinia, chinya, pi. chinioyi, 
thigh, leg; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1. 35 ; ya gudano masuchinya 
he fled from a bare-legged 
people. The Fulahs did not 
wear trousers : cf. Fr. ' sans 

chini-da-zugu, a shrub used 
as a hedge ; see hini da zugu. 

chiniki (cf. Fulah yaunoki), 
trade, business, barter ; yin 
chiniki to do business, to 
haggle over the price of 
anything ; chinikin gida an 
hereditary profession, chini- 
kin dunia the way of the 
world ; maichinika a trader. 

chinkai*, edge of a mat bor- 
dered with cotton or fibre 
thread ; cf, madaji. 

chinkaia, to look at ; see tsin- 

chinkai, tin (Ar. .*U>). 

chinoya (weight lifter), a small 
blue kingfisher with red beak 

chinta, in casting lots = my 
win ; cf. M. H. p. 232 chin- 
tansa, i.e. his lot, or fortune. 

chintua, a find ; see tsintua. 

chinye, chainye, to eat up, 
chinye chinye, gluttony ; see 

chira, c. hanu to raise the hand ; 
c. tuta hisa to hoist a flag. 

chira, chire, to pluck, e.g. 
fruits from trees, to pull out 
by the root, to lift up ; chi- 
chira to tear up. 

chira, to arise ; see tsira. 

chira, to be saved ; see tslra. 

chirara, nakedness; see tsirara. 

chiraro, deliverance; see tsi- 

chirawa, step, yin chirawa to 

chiri, flight, yin chiri to flee. 

chiriri, a gum-bearing tree or 

chirkia, a bow-string; see 

chimaka, ants ; see chinaka. 

chiroma, title given to a son 
of a king, sometimes applied 
to the heir to the throne. 
The word is probably bor- 
rowed from the Bornuese 
language, in which the syl- 
lable ma when used as a 




suffix corresponds to the same 
syllable in Hausa used as a 
prefix ; cf . galadlma. 

chiru, a dagger ; see cheru. 

chisal, a disease in the mouth ; 
see chizal. 

chisga, chizga, to gnaw. 

chishe, chisa-da, chiyarda, 
to feed ; see chi. 

chita, small red pepper ; cf . 

chita, the day following gata, 
which = the day after the day 
after to-morrow, i.e. the fourth 

chitafo, a corruption of chitan 
afo ( Afo, the name of a pagan 
district), ginger. 

chiuta, n. sickness, disease, evil ; 
chiutan birni = syphilis. 

chiutu, to become ill; B 143 
kowa shiga chiki nata ya 
chiutu whoever enters it be- 
comes diseased. 

chiwa, see cheiva. 

chiwo (Landolphia florida, 
apocynaceae), a tall woody 
climber with white fragrant 
flowers and orange-coloured 
edible fruit; see dankon chiwo. 

chiwo, sickness, illness, jin 
chiwo or yin chiwo to be ill, 
da chiwo ill, or to be ill ; it is 
not considered polite to use 
the word chiwo of a friend or 
person of importance. Thus 

a Hausa would say abokina 
hashi da lajia. chiwon sainyi, 
gonorrhoea, na kwanta chiwo 
I was laid up sick, chiwon kai 
headache, chiwo m^a sahon 
dawa a fever which breaks 
out when the guinea-corn 
{dawa) is ripe; to prevent 
being attacked by it, the 
Hausas give presents of dawa 
to the poor. 

chiwo, to capture and bring 
back ; see chi. 

chiwuki, a noise made by the 
mud-fish (gaiwa). 

chiwurwuta, sickness. 

chiwuta, see chiuta. 

chiyawa, grass ; see chidwa. 

chiyS,ya, food in common. 

chiza, a small animal about 
the size of a cat. 

chizaki (lit. lion-killer), a tree 
with long thorns, white flowers 
and edible leaves. 

chizal, chisal, a disease of 
the gums or lips, a disease of 
the mouth in cattle. 

chizara, a disease of the eyes. 

chizga, chisga, to gnaw. 

chizo, n. a bite ; yin chizo to 

chizo, chiza, with pron. obj. 
chije, frequentative form 
chichije, to bite. 

chocha, worm, D 27 shina hir- 
kima kamanda chocha he rolls 




like a worm, another form of 

chokali, tsokali, a wooden 

choro, another form of tsoro, 
q.v. ; the Fulahs who speak 
Hausa generally say choro 
instead of tsoro. 

chuchi, chuche, to injure, 
deceive, chucheni inchucheka 
= deceive me I will deceive you. 

chuda, chude, to mix milk 
with anything, to mix to- 
gether, to rub, scrape ; chuda 
yimhu to mix mud for build- 
ing purposes ; chudawa mix- 

chudanya, to rub smooth, 

chude, to rule over. 

chukumara, chuku, cheese. 

chukurufa, a bag used for 
carrying salt (probably bor- 
rowed from the Tuareg 

chukwichuki, rags. 

chuna, 1. to invite another to 
share one's food ; 2. to in- 
stigate, urge on. 

chuna*, pi. chunoni*, gusset, 
M. H. p. 206 ; see tsuma. 

chura, to take a handful of 
anything, to roll into a ball ; 
cf. chihara. 

churi, a handful of mud, flour, 
etc., squeezed out. 

chusa, chushe, to press down, 
squeeze together. 

chushe, pi. chusoshi, 1. a large 
amount collected together, 
e.g. men, grain, etc.; 2. a 
medicine which is poured into 
horses' mouths. 

chuta, sickness ; see chiuta. 

chuta, to cause distress to. 

chuya*, to be obstinate ; cf. 
D 52 kada ku chuya kuna 
takama be not stubborn nor 
walk proudly. 

d. There are two distinct d 
sounds in Hausa. In most 
words d is pronounced as in 
English (with inspiration of 
breath), but in many cases 
the d is sounded with the 
expiration of the breath and 
in its pronunciation the 
tongue touches the edge of 
the upper teeth, a sort of dt 
sound being produced some- 
what similar to a French or 
German t ; cf . da son, daia 
one, etc. etc. This d is 
generally written ^ by Hausa 
scribes. Where it occurs in 
this dictionary it is dis- 
tinguished as d. 

da, and, if, da... da both... and. 

da, with, used to denote the 
instrument; ya yenki da 
wuka he cut with a knife : 
used with verbs of coming 




and going to express the act 
of taking or bringing, ya tafi 
da shi he took it away, ya zo 
da shi he brought it here. 
ya che da shi he spoke with 
(or to) him. It is combined 
with substantives to form 
adjectives, e.g. da rai alive, 
da anfani useful ; when pre- 
ceded by tore = together with; 
da safe in the morning, da 
wuri early, da rua in the 
rain, da-yawa much, dadadi 
sweetly, dakarifi powerfully. 
da sometimes denotes from, 
of. allah ya tsare gatari da 
noma sai fatainya God keep 
the axe from farm work, only 
the hoe is needed ; cf. ena 
shi ne da wanan where is 
he with reference to this 1 

da, when, is used in the same 
way as saanda or yanda. 

da or -nda is used like wanda 
or wadanda; A 31 Tnata da 
ke tafia a woman who goes, 
abinda that which. 

da, to have, to possess. In an 
expression such as suna da 
yunwa they are hungry, da 
may be either a prep, or verb; 
ina da shi or simply da shi 
there is, there are, ina da su 
dayawa there are many. 

da or daa or lokachin da, 
of old, in olden time. 

da (connective form = dan), pi. 
yaya or ya, 1. son ; dan 
amina Mohammed, dan 
uwana (lit. child of my 
mother) is used for brother 
or as a term of endearment ; 
2. da when followed by the 
name of a place means a 
native of that place, e.g. dan 
zozo a native of Zozo ; 3. it 
is used to suggest character 
or occupation, e.g. dan daki 
a serva,nt,»dan kasua a sales- 
man, danmakaranta a scholar, ! 
dan yaki a soldier, dan gari 
a. citizen ; 4. it forms the 
diminutive of many nouns, 
e.g. dan gatari a small hat- 
chet ; 5. it denotes the young 
of animals, e.g. dan tumkia 
lamb, dan zaki a young lion, 
yan itache fruit ; 6. free as 
opposed to a slave ; ni da ne 
ha hawa I am free, not a 
slave, cf. diya; dan alaro a 
carrier, dan garumfa one 
who carries his own load ; 
dan rua a little stream, dan 
rua kankani a little water, 
yan chiki entrails, dan kasa 
foot soldier, dan sanda a 
policeman, dan banza worth- 
less, da sometimes = mai ; 
cf. tuji dan baban sheka O 
bustard with big nest. yi7i 
da to beget. 




da, used in comparisons, e.g. 
ya Jismia dakai he likes me 
more than you, ba ya sonka 
da riga he does not like you 
well enough to give you a 
coat, gwoma yau dajia better 
to-day than yesterday. 

da, if; da na yi wonan gara 
en mutu rather than I do 
this it would be better to 
die, da na sani da ban yi 
shi ba had I known I would 
not have done it, da ya zo 
nanjia da na tashi gobe had 
he come yesterday I should 
have gone to-morrow ; cf . M. 
H. p. 168 cZa mu7i sani da ya 
kirayemu da niun tafii had 
we known when he called us 
we would have gone ; cf. seq. 

da is used to express unfulfilled 
intention, e.g. da zani tafia 
I intended to go, cf. Gr. 
pp. 34, 56 ; da na sani da 
ba ni jefata da gang an had 
I known I would not have 
thrown her down on purpose; 
M. H. p. 184. 

daa (Ar.), obedience; ba shi da 
daa he is disobedient. 

dab da, daf da, close to, 
touching; cf. dabara. 

d^ba, dabo, pi. dabmia, dabobi 
(probably from Ar. AjI>, an 
animal that crawls or moves 
slowly), Fulah id.; beast. 

creature ; applied to horses, 
cattle, etc. 

dabam, daban, dabam da- 
bam, different, apart from ; 
yin dabam to differentiate; 
cf. bam bam. 

dabamchi, dabanchi, differ- 

dS,bar, yin ddbar to blow 

dS,bara, alongside ; see daura. 

dabara, dubara, dibara (Ar. 
djlj^), contrivance, skill, coun- 
sel, good sense ; dabara ta kare 
I am at my wits' end ; sake 
dabara walk warily; yin da- 
bara to advise; damra dabara 
to plot together. 

dS,be, debe, to stamp down, 
e.g. to beat a floor, so as to 
form a sort of concrete by 
beating in pebbles, ddbe ddbe 
stamping down. 

dabebeyi, dabaibayi, a rope 
to hobble the front feet of a 

dabgi, a species of ant-eater; 
see dapgi. 

dSibi, pi. dabuna, an open shed. 

dabia* (Ar.), character ; see 

dabino (Fulah id.), date; ifa- 
chen dabino or dabino date 

dabori, daboli, daburi, palate, 
lips, e.g. of cows. 




dabra da, close to ; see ddhara. 

dabu, dabo, sorcery, sleight of 

' hand,' M. H. p. 222 ; cf. tsuhu. 

dachi, bitterness ; see doachi. 

dada, to sharpen a knife, sword, 
etc. by rubbing a stone on 
the steel. 

dS.da, dedi, to increase, to go 
on doing anything, to aug- 
ment, to surpass, to exceed ; 
C 49 muna ddda godia we 
continue giving thanks, ddda 
mani kurdi give me more 
money, wanan ya dedi won- 
chan this is better than that, 
allah shi dedi da rainka may 
God pYo\ongyour\iie,dddawa, 
dddewa lasting, dddua in- 
crease, growth of a plant. 

dS,da(S.), again, used in histori- 
cal narrative for by and by, 
later on, so then; also for 

dadade, from a long time. 

dadafa, used in Sokoto for 
daidai correct, etc. 

dadaga, to grind to powder; 
see dadaka. 

dadai, ever, or used with nega- 
tive verb, never until now ; 
dadai ban gani ha I never 
saw it ; possibly connected 
with daia one. 

dadaidai, a plural form of 
dadi ; cf. B 49 muji dadaidai 
we fee] glad. 

dadaka, intensive form of 
ddka, q.v. 

dadS.ra, to pay attention to, 
to take heed, 

dadara, to rub the back of a 
knife backwards and for- 

daddowa, daddawa, also 
cakes made from beans of 
dorowa tree. 

dade, dede, to wait, linger ; 
ddde muna tsofa wait till 
we grow old, 7}iu zamna nan 
ya dede we stopped here a 
long time ; kaka dedewanka 
ka zaka kare how long will 
it be before you finish 1 mun 
ddde we have waited ; dadin 
gushi or dadun gushi a 
hurried pace. 

dS,dewa, lasting ; see ddda. 

dadi, pi. dadaidai, sweetness, 
happiness, comfort; cf. A 12 
zaka sha dadi nata thou shalt 
taste of its sweetness, dadin 
zuchia happiness, jin dadi 
to feel happy, sa dadi to 
please, maidadi pleasant, da 
dadi sweet, nice, agreeable. 

dadi, sharpening ; yin dadi to 
sharpen ; cf. ddda. 

dadoia*, a plant resembling 
mint ; cf. daidoiya. 

dadowa, cakes made from the 
dorowa tree ; see dodowa. 

dS.dua, increase ; see ddda. 




dadume, to seize in the arms. 

daf, up ; used of climbing, ya 
hawa itache daf. 

daf da, or daf daf, close to ; 
of. ddbara. 

dafa, to support oneself with 
the palm of the hand in 
raising oneself up. 

d&fa, d^fe (Ar. ^b), to cook, 
boil, maddfa, ivurin ddfa, 
wurin dd/ua a place for cook- 
ing, maiddfi a cook, ddfdfe 
cooked, ddfdfe da rua boiled. 

dSfafi, blue; possibly from 
ddfa to cook, i.e. prepared 
in a dye pit ; see ddfua. 

dafara (vitis sp.), a woody 
climber, used in making medi- 
cines; from the root-bark is 
obtained a viscid solution 
which is used in making 
cement : its root is also 
beaten up with a pestle and 
put in milk to keep it good, 
and also to thicken it and 
increase its bulk for cheating 

dafari, at first, before, informer 
times ; cf . nafari and fari. 

d§,fail, cooked flesh ready for 

dS,fe, to stick to, to cleave to. 

daferko, at first., poison ; cf. deji. 

dS-fua, cooking ; see ddfa. 

dS,fua, dark blue ; cf . ddfdfi. 

daga, battle-field, line of battle : 
ja daga to form line of battle ; 
kayan daga instruments of 
war., an armlet or wristlet 
made of leather and wood. 

dS,ga, from, from within, out 
of, at; daga enna whence, 
daga enna ka fito whence 
did you come? daga chan 
thence, there, yonder, dd^a 
nan here, from here, ddga 
chiki in, from within, ddga 
garesu from them, ddga nesa 
from afar; often used to intro- 
duce a statement, ddga nan 
well then. 

dS>ga, to hold up at arm's 
length, to raise up. 

dagachi, pi. dagatai, a village 

dSigagaji, to be ver}^ tired. 

dagangan, on purpose ; see 

dS,ge, a small animal. 

dagi, a claw, paw. 

dagi, a kind of straight pick, 
a crowbar. 

dagogo (Kats.), weak. 

dagu (K.), meat. 

dagume, to seize a person by 
the collar. 

dagumi, a collar made of cloth 
used in war or hunting as a 
protection for the back of the 
neck, a dog collar. 




dagura, nerves, veins, net da- 
gura emaciated. 

daguya, to eat. 

daguyau (K.), hyena. 

dagwolo, dagalo, old, used- 
up indigo. 

dahir, of necessity ; cf. dakir. 

dai (frequently pronounced de, 
i.e. like the Eng. day), again, 
indeed ; usually found in com- 
pounds, e.g. saidai, hardai^ 

daia, thrust, blow. 

daia, daya, one ; daia daia one 
at a time, one here one there, 
daianku one of you, daiana 
me alone, daiansu they alone, 
or, one of them, ku berni ni 
daiana leave me alone, bershi 
daiansa leave him alone ; 
daia is often used as an in- 
definite article, wuri daia to- 
gether, ko daia (in negative 
sentence) not even one, duka 
daia ne they are all alike, 
wanan daia kaman wonchan 
this is the same as that. 

daiawa, much ; see dayawa. 

daibo, to take out ; see debo. 

daidai, a contracted form of 
daia daia one at a time. 

daidai, dede, alike, correct, 
just, suitable ; ya yi daidai 
it is correct (an expression 
used in counting money), na 
tsaya daidai I stand upright ; 

sometimes used as a prepo- 
sition, lada d. aikinsa pay 
equivalent to his work, itache 
d. bakin kqfa a piece of wood 
of the same size as the 

daidaiche, to be similar to; 
cf . A 9 suka daidaiche chikifi 
alkafirai they are alike among 
the heathen. 

daidaita, to make things equal 
or parallel, to make like, to 
direct aright, to be equal. 

daideya, a harmless centipede 
- kadanduida. 

daidoiya (or dan doiya), a 
fragrant herb, ocimum Ameri- 

daii or dayi, a small ])rickly 
herb with bitter taste eaten 
by camels (=Ar. jtj-«). 

daiki, room ; see daki. 

daimu*, for ever, D 17; cf . 
davmma and du7na. 

daina, dena, to cease, to desist 

dainya (Spondias lutea, Ana- 
cardiaceae), a tree with yellow 
plum-like fruit, very common 
in the northern provinces. 

dainye, dainyi, pi. dainyoyi^ 
dainyu, fresh, green, unripe, 
raw ; dainyen itache leaves, 
nama dainye uncooked flesh, 
dainyan kasko an unbaked 
pot. dainyan chiawa a harm- 


less green snake = damatsiri, 
q.v. (cf. (?) Ar. ^ji). 

daje, to hem round, make a 

border round, 
d^je, fem. dajia, pi. dazodi, 

a smart fellow. 
daji, thick bush, uncultivated 

forest land (cf. jeji scrub, or 

farm bush). 
dS.ka (Ar. id.), to beat, pound, 

thresh or grind corn. 
d^ka, sometimes used in Kano 

for ddga from. 
daka, see daki. 
dakachi, n. waiting ; cf . dakata. 

dakali (cf. Ar. ixd:>^, thin clay), 
a mud bed built in a house, 
a seat outside a house. 

dakara, dakare, pi. dakaru, 
a foot soldier belonging to a 
king's body-guard, also, gene- 
Tally, a man on foot ; cf . 
(?) dogari. 

dakata or dakanta, to wait 
for ; na dakata maku I waited 
for you ; cf. dakachi. 

daket (S.), dakir (K.), with 
difficulty, with might and 
main ; cf. na gudu dakir. 

daki, daiki, pi. dakuna, a room 
in a house (gida), but often 
used for the house itself, 
especially if it consists of 
but one room ; A 1 3 dunia 
nan kamal daki ta ke this 

59 dS,kwora 

world is like a room, madaki 
chamberlain, F 227, dakin 
dufu prison; another form 
daka is used as a subs, also 
as a verbal form, e.g. yana 
daka he is in the house. 

dakile (Ar. ^^), to prevent, 
to refuse, to forbid, to sulk, 
refuse to answer; B 130 ka 
dakile shiru ba ka amsa ha 
dost thou silently refuse and 
givest no answer? ido ya 
deda dakilewa his eye was 
becoming more and more 

dakir, with difficulty; see daket. 

dako, n. waiting ; yin ddko to 

dakokoi (? f r. da akoi), abund- 
ance of anything, e.g. food, or 
cowries ; = da shi or akoishi, 
i.e. there is plenty. 

dakolua, dakolwa, dokolua, 
a hen which is laying eggs ; 
the word is also applied to 
a woman. 

daku (S.), an army. 

dakua, a gesture ; see amhola. 

dakua, a kind of sweetmeat 
made from the fruit of ay a, 

dakulum, always ; cf. kulum. 

dakusa, bluntness ; yin dakusa 
to be blunt. 

dakushe, to be blunt. 

dakwora, dakwara, the name 




of a species of acacia tree 
from which a gum is obtained. 

dala, a yellow clay made into 
a dye for women's faces. 

dala, the name of a rocky hill 
inside Kano. 

d^la, della, a word for dogs 
used in poetry ; cf. Gr. p. 136. 

dalailu* a little book of prayers. 

dalaje, the name of a dance. 

dalashe, dallashe, dalishi, 
daldishi, to be blunt. 

daldal, pulse. 

dale* — yin dale, to settle at. 

dalele, spittle, M. H. p. 2. 

dallli (Ar. JJ^), cause, origin, 
proof, sign, reason ; the facts 
of the case, the truth of the 
matter; cf. mekia ha ki saukan 
hanza sai maidalili O eagle 
you do not settle on the 
ground without a reason ; 
F 19 dalili ko akan maitam- 
hayawa this is the reason, if 
anyone asks. 

dalma, delma, derma, n. lead. 

dalulu or danlulu, a small 
bottle ; cf . lulu. 

dama (in Kanuri dama = re- 
covery, etc.), improvement, 
opportunity ; jin dama to 
feel better, to improve in 
health, da dama a little more, 
da dama dama moderately, 
sai na ga dama unless I wish, 
ya yi dama it were better, ha 

ya samu damu ha he had not 
the opportunity, ha ni da 
dama I have not time to, 
I do not wish to, dama han 
yi haka ha would I had not 
done this; cf. gari ha da 
girima amma shina da dama 
the town was not big but 
was of moderate size, samun 
dama the ability to do what 
one likes. 

dama, right-hand, right. 

dama, to confuse ; see dame. 

dama, to mix, stir as mortar. 

damachiri, damatsiri, a small 

damafif ito, a wasp. 

damagi, a medicinal herb. 

damai, confusedly; B 142 ka 
kafia damai m,aiafkawa thou 
slippest confusedly and arti 
about to fall., what is mixed up| 
together, mortar; see ddm,a.' 

damana, damuna, the wet 
season which lasts about 
three months ; yin damana 
to pass the wet season. 

dam.ankada, a small plant used 
as a medicine for guinea worm.: 

dam.ara, girdle; yin damara 
to gird oneself ; cf. damre. 

dam.arichiki, girdle ; cf . damn 
and cMki. 

damasa*, confusion, D 9. 

dam.asara, maize; see masara: 


damatsiri, snake ; see dama- 

damba or tsamba, q.v., float- 
ing grass. 

dambara, to put blue stain on 
the face, also to paint any- 
thing. An intens. form dan- 
dambara also occurs. 

dambaria, mouse ((?) child of 
the hole ; cf . haria). Another 
form is damhera \ cf . hera. 

dambe, 1. to give a blow, to 
box ; 2. a blow ; dan dambe 
a boxer. 

dlambiri, a small monkey. 

dambu*, a dish made of gari 
(flour) boiled in a calabash. 

d&me, dSmi, demi, pi. dd- 
muna, bundle, bunch, sheaf ; 
cf. M. H. p. 204 hachi dami 
dari uku 300 bundles of corn. 

dame, dama, to confuse, make 
giddy, to perplex, annoy, 
stagger; cf. prov. kowa yayi 
karia td dameshi whoever 
tells a lie it will confound 
him. dame also means to 
tease, worry; cf. ba na da- 
mua I am not to be annoyed ; 
ya chika dama m,utane he 
worried people beyond en- 
durance ; ya damesu it as- 
tonished them ; dartiu to be 
perplexed ; dam/aa astonish- 
ment, jin damua to be as- 

61 damra 

damfare, to press ; see dan/are. 

damichi, damshi, damtse, 
pi. damasa (Fulah damche)^ 
the lower part of the arm 
from the wrist to the elbow, 
the right arm ; F 242 shina 
damshi muhammad he shall 
be at the right hand of 

damisa, pi. damtsai^ m. leopard ; 
damisan dawaki horse fly. 

damka, dainke, to hold in the 
hand, take a handful : also 
to clasp or grip with the 
hand; cf. dunko. 

damka, handful. 

dammuna* for dumia, goose; 
cf. M. H. p. 197. 

dam.o, lizard ; see damu. 

dampara, to plaster, daub, 
stain the face ; cf. dambara. 

damra, damre, daure, or 
darmi* D 13, to bind, 
tie, gird, put under a spell; 
F 233 adamra siliyu dam^a 
hauni chains shall be bound 
on their right and left hands ; 
damrare, pi. damraru, bound, 
girded ; damre fuska to frown. 
akadamre bound, has a pi. 
akadamarmare ; cf . D 13 
akandarmishi baibai he shall 
be bound with his hands be- 
hind him, damre mag ana to 
concoct a story, to bear false 
witness, ya daure muni ma- 




gana he brought a false 
accusation against me, dam- 
raren magana (or daukekian 
magana) ya Ji daia da mashi 
chiwo a libel hurts more than 
a spear thrust. 

damren-or dauren-guga, ceil- 
ing, arched roof, the name is 
derived from similarity in 
shape to handle of a bucket ; 
an oblong roof = hakan gizo. 
maidaurin jiki the accoutred 
man, maidaurin aniya he 
who has made up his mind. 

damshi, arm ; see damichi. 

damshi, danshi or denshi, 

damtse, arm ; see damichi. 

damu, to be confused ; see dame. 

damn, damo, a lizard (monitor, 
varanus exanthematicus). 

damua, astonishment ; see da- 

damuna, sheaves; cf. dame. 

dan, son of ; see da. 

d§.na, to pull, to lay an arrow 
to a bow ; see dene. 

danbe, to box ; see dambe. 

dan-bida, a pin for pressing 
out cotton seeds ; cf . bida. 

danbubu, calf of the leg. 

danda, a horse with white fore- 
head and white forelegs ; mu- 
tum, ya yi danda the man be- 
comes white, i.e. with disease. 
danda 8ak% a roan horse. 

dandaka or dendaki, an in- 
tensive form of ddka to strike; 
D 15 azaba anadandakasa kor 
man kilago his pain is as 
though he were a skin that 
is beaten ; to pound or break 
up again ; to castrate. 

dandali (Kanuri id.), court, 
yard, or entrance-room of a 
house, esp. of a king's house. 

dandambara, to stain ; see 

dandS,na, n. taste. 

dandS,na, dandS,ni, to taste, 
test, examine ; madanddni 

dandana, a plant used as a 
medicine by women. 

dan-doiya, a sweet smelling 
plant with a red flower. 

d^ne, to press down. 

danf^imi, fence, hedge. 

danfara, danfare, to press 
down, press together, squeeze, 
collect people in one place. 

danfarka, child of a harlot. 

danga, pi. dangogi (Kanuri id.), 
a fence round a garden, a 

danga, relation ; see dengi. 

dang^ba, breast-band for horses 
made of cloth or wool. 

dangana, 1. to lean upon, to 
recline, 2. to rely on, 3. to be 
patient, 4. to tack on to, to • 




dangana, patience, trust,pledge. 

dangana, children whose pa- 
rents having died soon after 
their birth have been en- 
trusted to a stranger to bring 

dangarafai (S.), wooden clogs. 

dangarama, threshold or raised 
ridge in front of a door ; cf. 

dangari, citizen. 

dangi, a shield made with 
buffalo hide. 

dangira, head of the ramma 
plant, said to cause irritation 
when handled. 

dangole, dungole, spot. 

dan-gununfa (lit. son of a hat), 
a carrier who carries a load 
belonging to himself as con- 
trasted with dan- alar a 
hired carrier. 

dangwale, a hobbling rope. 

dangware, a lucky person = 

dani, bite, e.g. of a scorpion. 

dani, the span measured by 
the thumb and first finger, 
the comb of a duck. 

dan-jigawa, a species of guinea- 

danka, cf . damka ; ya danka 
mini ranche he handed me 
a loan. 

dankadafi, louse. 

dankSli (convolvulus batatas), 

sweet potato, very common 
throughout the whole of 
Hausaland and in some dis- 
tricts it forms the only avail- 
able food; its shape resembles 
that of a thick parsnip, in 
taste it is sweeter than either 
parsnip or yam ; for descrip- 
tion and use of cf. 'Hausa- 
land,' p. 155. 

dankam*, for ever; B 73 da- 
dai anazama dunia dankam 
will the world indeed last for 

dankam, pond, pool. 

dankara, to press, to compress, 

dan-katanga, a kind of cloth. 

danki*, a table on which wed- 
ding presents are spread out. 

danki, a handful ; cf. damka. 

danko, dunko, gutta-percha; 
dankon chiwo vine rubber; 
dankon zutnua beeswax ; dan- 
kon kedainya oil from the 
shea-butter tree. 

dankosa, dankoshe, to strike 
with the fist. 

dan-magurji, snake ; see rrm- 

dan-raguwa, a red bird (a 
species of plover ?) ; see rdgo. 

danshi, moisture ; see danishi. 

danuba, the strips of skin at 
the root of the nail, so called 
because the plucking of the 


skin from the nail causes pain 
as would the forcible separa- 
tion of son and father. 

danye, fresh ; see dainye. 

danzumu, the son of a friend 
or relation ; see zumu. 

dao, porridge ; see dawo. 

dapgi, dabgi, or daugi, a 
species of ant-eater. 

dara, to laugh, to ridicule ; ina 
jin tsoro kada sudarani I fear 
lest they should laugh at me ; 
cf. daria. 

dS.ra (S.), to excel, exceed. 

d^ra, dera, a game played with 
cowrie shells, which are 
placed in little holes in the 
ground, or are arranged on a 
board marked with squares. 
It is considered a disreputable 
game, though not so closely 
connected with gambling as 
chacha ; F 1 1 , E 1 6 A;te. 6er na 
dara da tsalumshi musulmi 
cease from playing dara and 
from deceit, O Mussulmans. 

daraja, darajia (Ar. i».ji), 
glory, honour, gorgeous dress ; 
A 4:7 ya ba iyaye daraja he 
showed honour to his parents, 
also value, worth, enda aka- 
san darajar goro where kolas 
are estimated at their proper 

dararabua, an arm-wrap made 
of grass ; see diru7nhua. 

64 dami 

darap, above ; see daf. 

darara, used in phrase dariar 
darara to laugh at laughter. 

darazau, a woman's apron. 

dare, to crack or open up, used 
of a wall. i 

dargaza, the name of a tree, I 
from its branches walking- 
sticks are made. 

dari, a hundred. 

dari (cf. (?) Ar. ^li, to rain 
copiously), cold ; ya yi dari 
it is cold, dari ya kamani I 
have caught cold, na ji dari 
I feel cold. 

d3,ri, deri, Korrigan or Senegal 
hartebeest (damaliscus Sene- 
gal ensis) ; for list of antelopes 
found in Hausaland, cf . under 

daria, dariya (cf. (?) Ar. tji, 
to treat with contempt), 
laughter, smile ; yin daria to 
laugh, ba (or bada) daria to 
cause laughter ; ya bashi daria 
he turned him into ridicule. 

dS-rimi, a court official at Kano, 
Bauchi, etc. 

dariwoye, darwS,ya, to rinse 
with water, to clean. 

darje, derje, to rub smooth, 

darmi, to bind ; see damre. 

dami (cf. (?) Ar. ,>jji, dry 
branches), fence, post. 

dSro 65 

daro, dSlru, a metal basin, 
darsa, to leak, yin darshi to 

darso, daso, a drop; clason 
jiiii, a drop of blood; cf. 
M. H. p. 76. 
darwaya, n. rinsing out. 
darza, to twist thread, 
dasa*, a bottle, = tasa, q.v. 
dasa, dashi, desa, dashe, to 
plant out, dcLshe the plant- 
ing out of com. ddsashe a 
cutting, dashin yar-rani vac- 
dasashe, to be blunt; cf. dor- 

dasashi (K. ), dasori (S. ), gums; 
mauiasashi a person who has 
no teeth. 
dashi, a tree, the bristles of 
which are used for rubbing 
the teeth with ; the tree has 
a milky sap. 
dask^ura (of milk), to curdle, 
dask^re, to cause to curdle, 
dasori, gums ; see dasashi. 
dasusu, a hoi*se disease which 

causes the hair to fall off. 
datana, gall, gall bladder, 
datijo, a person of importance; 

see dotijo. 
datsa, a disease of the mouth, 
datsa, to cut in pieces ; see 

datse, to hold up water by 
means of a breakwater. 

R. H. D. 


datsi, a grass used in making 

dau, a contracted form of dauka^ 

dauda (cl Ar. ^b, to be mag- 
goty), dirt, filth, da dauda 
dirty, yin dauda to make 
dirty ; daxidan kune the wax 
in the ear. 

daudanbayi, tops or bristles 
of a grass, which have short 
spikes and ai*e very adhesive. 

daudau, a gi*ass found near 
water and used in thatching. 

daudawa, a kind of pepper, 
M.' H. p. 123. 

daudu, dauda (Nupe id.), a 
title of respect given to a 
ruler ; in Kano it is given to 
the heir to the throne; in 
Zaria to the galadima. 

daugi or dubgi, ant-eater ; see 

dauka, doka, dauki, dauke, 
often contracted to dau or do, 
to take, take up, take hold of, 
take away, receive, dauka 
rua to draw water; dauki 
6flwAi to collect a debt; dauki 
lu7n/ashi to hold the breath; 
dauki aikauxdi to make a 
promise; akadauke rua the 
rain stopped ; (laukakiyar 
magana the telling of false 
tales ; ya doka jeji he went 
into the desert; dauko to 





take for oneself; daukaka, 
daukake a strengthened form 
of dauka to lift up, exalt, 
honour, B 14:7, ta daukakaka 
yanzu ta gochima it takes 
you up now, it makes you 
fall ; madaukaka the exalted 

daukaka, a substantival form 
of foregoing, exaltation, glori- 
fication ; C 39 maiso7i dau- 
kaka nana dunia he who 
desires the possessions of this 

dauke, to cease, rua ga dauke 
the rain stopped. 

daukekenia, to surge back- 
wards and forwards in battle. 

daukekian-magana, a con- 
cocted story; cf. damre. 

dauki, gallantry ; ya yi dauki 
he did a daring feat; nmi- 
dauki dauntless. 

dauko, to take for oneself, to 

daula, state, kingdom, power; 
yin daula to be fortunate. 

daura or dS,bara, alongside 
but not so close as to touch ; 
when followed by da it is 
used as a preposition, e.g. su 
tsaya daura da juna they 
stood side by side, ka zona 
daura da ni sit over against 

dauraro, doraro, daurara*. 

n. looking round, spying ; cf. 

daure, occasionally used for 
damre, to bind, q.v. 

daure, to endure patiently, to 

daurewa, n. patient endurance 
of suffering. 

dauri, 1. a medicine given to 
young children as a preventa- 
tive against disease ; 2. twist- 
ed locks of hair arranged on 
either side of a woman's face 

0^ Sit' 

(cf. Ar. djl^^, curl of a mou- 
stache) ; 3. sania maidauri a 
cow with a horn growing 

dauri, early ; see dawuri. 

dauria, a small addition to a 
carrier's load. 

dauro, a small edible grain like 

dauro, doro (cf. Ar. rt j^^), 
to look at, to fix the gaze 
upon ; cf. dauraro. 

dausayi, a marsh, or bank of 
a stream. 

daushi, damp, mildew ; cf. 

dawa (sorghum vulgare), gui- 
nea-corn, i.e. a species of millet 
with small red grains, called 
in Egypt dhurra. The plant 
grows to the height of eight 
or ten feet. The grain, which 
is exceedingly hard, is ground 




between two stones and made 
into a sort of porridge which 
has a sour insipid taste. The 
four principal kinds of dawa 
are kaura used for feeding 
horses, farfara used when 
ground up for making gruel, 
muramura cooked and eaten 
whole, giivakamha used as a 
medicine for rubbing on the 
eyes ; dawa forms the staple 
food of the Hausa people (cf. 
* Hausaland,' pp. 153, 154); 
an intoxicating drink is made 
from it ; cf . gia. 

d3,wa (Ar. Stj^), an unin- 
habited place, e.g. a desert 
or forest ; mainyan ddiva the 

dawainia, plague, disease. 

dawainiasda, dawainiashe, 
dawainiarda (K.), dawai- 
nialda (S.), to plague, dis- 

dawaki, horses, pi. of doki, 

dawama (cf. Ar. rt ^j>), to 
remain, to continue, maida- 
wama continuing ; cf. duma. 

daw^tma, duma, continuance; 
C 15 enna da zama na da- 
wama where is a state of 
continuance; D 79 gidan 
dawdraa, i.e. heaven. 

dawS,ra, a dance. 

dawaya, n. return ; cf . dawoiya. 

dawo, to come back ; see 

dawo, porridge (fura) when 
balls have been dissolved ; 
it is used in Sokoto for 

dawoinya, to toil for, to seek 
after ; B 52 shina dawoinya 
da abin wofi he toils after 

dawoinya, n. esp. used for 
attention shown to strangers. 

dawoiya, dawoya, dawaya, 
to return from a place. 

dawoiyo, dawoyo, dawayo, 
to return to a place. 

da-wuri, dauri, early, long 
ago, in former time. 

da-yamma, in the evening ; 
see yamma. 

da-yawa, daiawa, sometimes 
pronounced diyawaordeyawa 
much, great, abundant ; see 

dayi, a small herb with thistle- 
like prickles eaten by horses, 

dazu, already, before, formerly. 

de, indeed ; see dai. 

debe, beat a floor of a house. 

debe, a military expedition. 

debe, diba, debo, to take off, 
take out, pluck from, un- 
dress; dehe kamna to put 
an end to friendship; debe 
rua to draw water; madebi 





a measuring spoon ; debo used 
as an imperative means, take 
and bring it here. 

debi (S.), a grass shelter or 

decha, datsa, dertsa, a sore 
at the corners of the mouth. 

deddi, to continue ; cf. ddda. 

dede, correct ; see daidai. 

defi, dSifi (Fulah id.), poison 
obtained from snakes, plants, 
etc. The following are names 
of vegetable poisons used for 
smearing arrows : zabon defi, 
a plant belonging to the aloe 
family, gwazan kwado^ masa- 
ran giwa, kqfa /ago, rogon 
daji, talonia, kadanya rafi, 
alkaman tururuwa, kiria, 
basa,jato, tawasa, kabankura, 
kokia a plant belonging to the 
strychnine-producing family, 
aia aia, tururibi. 

dege, pi. degogi, a gramini- 
vorous animal, it comes out 
at night; perhaps another 
form of dxibgi ant-eater. 

degetai, headmen; seedagachi. 

deki deki, separately. 

dela, numbness ; dela ya kama 
kafata my leg is gone to 

dela, dala, name applied to 
the Austrian Maria Theresa 
dollar which circulates to a 
limited extent throughout 

Hausaland, value about three 

della, dogs ; see ddla. 

delma, dalma, derma, lead. 

demanta or dimanta, to lose 
oneself in the bush, demana 
the state of being lost. 

demanta (Ar.), to do a thing 
every day. 

demi, dum.i, dim.i, used with 
rua, man demi hot water ; 
rana da dumi it is hot ; jikina 
ya yi dumi I have fever. 

demi, a sheaf ; see dame. 

dena, to cease ; see daina. 

dendaki, to strike; see dan- 

dene,, to press, cover 
up (e.g. a hole), to entangle, 
hold down, pounce upon, to 
put straight, pull trigger of 
gun, to pull a bow. ya dena- 
shi he was holding him down; 
ya dene riga tasa he pulled 
his gown tight round him ; 
andena yarinia the girl was 
caressed, andena kunama the 
trigger was pressed. 

dengi, denga, dangi, degi, 
pi. dengoyi, relation, friend, 
class ; cf . maza dengin gujia 
sai anfasa akansan bidi men 
are like a lot of ground 
nuts, only when they are 
pounded are those with 
kernels seen. 




denki, a handful ; cf. damka. 

dera, to jump ; see dira. 

derduma, a mattress made of 

dere, a game in which the ends 
of pieces of string or grass 
are exposed in the hand ; the 
drawer of the longest piece 
^vins. So called because the 
drawers are ' in the dark. ' 

dere, deri, night, esp. the time 
between lisha and jijifi ; of. 
H. Gr. p. 87, da dere by 
night ; cf. proverb, kadan 
mutum ya yi maku rana ku 
yi masa dere^ if a man makes 
day for you do you make 
night for him ? i.e. do you 
reward evil for good ? B 56 
chikin dere ko ko jijifi by 
night or just before the dawn ; 
jia da dere last night ; ya bi 
dere he came by night; wo 
dere or yiwo dere to start 
business or on a journey at 
sunset ; dere ya yi dere it is 
really night ; dere ya yi masu 
the night overtook him ; 
when followed by the name 
of a day of the week dere 
means the night before, deren 
lahadi Saturday night, but 
lahadi da dere Sunday night. 

derejia, honour ; see daraja. 

deri, Senegal hartebeest; see 

derje, to rub smooth in work- 
ing leather ; see darje, derto. 

dero, to jump ; cf. dira. 

derto*, a file ; see derje, zerto. 

dertsa, a sore at corner of 
mouth ; see decha, derje. 

desa, to plant out ; see ddsa. 

dia, offspring ; see diya. 

diba, to take out ; see dehe, 

dibajo (Ar. id.), brocade, cloth. 

dibara, contrivance; see da- 

didii^hura, a word used by 

didiga, crumb ; cf. dig a. 

didigi, heel ; see duduge. 

didindin, onomat. tinkle. 

diga, a drop, a minute of time, 
yana diga it is dropping. 

digirgire, to balance a load on 
the head. 

digo, dropping ; digon rua drop- 
ping of water. 

dikushi, to kneel ; see durku- 

dila, pi. dihli, jackal, jackal = 
mallamin dawa, M. H. p. 197. 

dila*, melon. 

S fix 

dilali (Ar. JU^), a broker. In 
Hausaland nearly all buying 
and selling are conducted 
through brokers, who receive 
5 p. c. of the price paid ; yin 
dilali to do business, to trade. 

dilanchi, trading ; maidilanchi 
one who trades. 




dilari, a large (Phoenician?) 

dilka, a fork-shaped piece of 
wood, fetter. 

dilkushi, to kneel; see dur- 

dilo, a tall straight tree. 

dimajo (Fulah id.), the off- 
spring of two slaves that may 
not be sold ; cf . bachucheni. 

dimbujin zufa, dumbaji, 
small red beads worn round 
the neck by women. 

dimi* (cf. Ar. 4-o->>, striped 

cotton stuff), a white native 

dimi-dawa, firefly. 
dimilmilo, a black water fowl, 
dimota (S.), fear, 
dimso, to take a handful, to 

fill the hand. 
dindiba, f. a species of grass- 
dindimi, to be dim, used of 

the eyes; cf. dundumi. 
dinga, continuation; cf. ana- 

dinga magana there is much 

talking ; see dunga. 
dingisa, to be lame, to limp. 
dingishi (cf. (?) Ar. i^S, to 

walk with difficulty under a 

burden), lameness. 
dinini, masudinini those who 

blacken their teeth, cf. Gram. 

p. 138, 1. 23. 

dinkin, a tree with edible 

dinya, a goose ; see dunia. 

dinya, black plum; seedainya. 

dira, diri, diro, dera, dero a 
(cf. (?) Ar. jl, to run swiftly), f 
to jump, jump down, leap as 
a grasshopper, to surpass. 

dire, n. hopping. 

dirgila*, a climbing plant with 
sweet smelling flower. 

dirime, to upset ; see durimi. 

dirje, to rub ; see darje. 

dirka, a large beam stuck in 
the ground to support a roof, 
the pi. dirkoki is used of 
the shorter poles on which 
framework of house rests. 

dirka, a game played by fortune- 
tellers, etc. in order to dis- 
cover secrets; F 11 ka her 
dara duka da dirka duka 
da sata give up all playing 
of dara and dirka and steal- 
ing ; when the game is played 
balls of clay are stuck on 
quills and held up till they 
drop off. 

dirka or tsirka, q.v., to beat; 
F 106 suna dirkanka har 
kushe-kusheya they beat thee 
till thou art sore. 
dirumbua, darambua, an 
armlet of plaited grass worn 
by children ; cf, rumbua. 
dishamida*, a dollar, imported 




from North Africa, M. H. 
p. 217. 

diwa, 1. anus; 2. a grass 
used for making baskets; 
cf. iwa. 

diya, 1. offspring, whether male 
or female, daughter, maiden, 
girl, brood of animals, the 
fruit of a tree ; 2. one who 
is free as contrasted with a 
slave ; diyal-rana mirage : it 
is also used of a girl who is 
in charge of one who is not 
her own mother and who 
may be expected to care for 
her only during the day when 
she can be seen and to neglect 
her at night. 

diya (Ar.), price paid for acci- 
dental homicide = 1,000,000 

diyantaka, freedom ; cf. seq. 

diyauchi, diyanchi, freedom, 
liberation from slavery, son- 

do, dau, to take, a shortened 
form of dauka\ A 20 wajih 
mu do hayasu we ought to 
take their road ; cf . use of 
du for duka. 

doachi, dachi, bitterness ; ya 
yi doachi it is bitter (e.g. as 
a kola nut) ; cf. allah shi 
boyeshi a kogon dachi may 
God hide him in a hole of 
bitterness (to prevent witches 

eating him), a salutation when 
a child is born ; madachi, 
1. gall; 2. bitter. 

dobane, self-defilement. 

doda doda, a fragrant herb 
with viscid leaves and small 
yellow flowers (stylosanthes 
erecta, leguminosae). 

dodo, pi. dodonai, evil spirit, 
spirit of a dead man which 
is supposed to walk about on 
the day of his death but to 
rise and disappear the same 
evening : it appears at times 
in trees and catches men. 
The word is often applied to 
a rhinoceros or elephant or 
any large and dreaded animal. 
gidan dodo the juju house 
in a pagan village. 

dodo, yin dodo to show any- 
thing exposed in the hand 
and then snatch it away. 

dod5ka, waterbuck (cobus de- 
fassus unctuosus) ; for list of 
antelopes found in Hausa- 
land, cf. under harewa. 

dodonia, mantis. 

dodowa, dadowa, the cakes 
made from the kalua, i.e. the 
fruit of the doi'owa tree. 

dogara, dogare, to lean upon, 
prop oneself up by, trust in, 
ask favour from ; B 20 mun 
doyareka muna kainna we 
trust in thee, we love thee; 




dogareshi da guiwa press him 
down with the knee ; mado- 
gara a pole to keep a door 

dogarchi, the office of a police- 
man (dogari). 

dogari (cf. (1) Ar. ^S, to re- 
pulse), a soldier of the king's 
body-guard, an executioner, 
a policeman. 

dSgari, support, stay. 

dogo, f. dogua, pi. dogaye, tall, 
high, long; lokachi dogo a 
long time. 

dogua, 1. an evil spirit sup- 
posed to injure tamarind and 
other trees : persons eating 
the fruit become paralyzed 
and die; 2. paralysis caused 
by the dogua. 

doii, doyi, a bad smell, yin 
doyi to emit a bad smell. 

doiya, pi. doyoyi (dioscorea 
sativa), yam ; the root of the 
plant is eaten after being 
boiled or fried, doiyan ku- 
rege (curculigo galla baten- 
sis, amaryllideae), a yellow 
flowering herb with stout 
underground stem, doiyan 
daji, or doiyan hisa a climb- 
ing plant, with small, hard, 
edible fruit. 

doka, plaiting of the hair by 
a woman with the object of 
making it stand erect : cf. 

prov. hukin wata doka bukin 
wata kundumi the desire of 
one woman is plaited hair, 
the desire of another is a 
shaven head; i.e. different 
things please different people. 
doka is also used for a loose 

doka*, used by Hausas in N. 
Africa as equivalent to twelve 

dokS,, large tree with white 
flowers and shining leaves 
(Berlinia sp., Leguminosae) ; 
see far in - doka. 

doka, to take ; cf. dauka. 

doka or doki, used of any 
authorized proclamation ; ka 
chika da doki you have gone 
beyond your orders. 

dokachi, all, total (derived 
from dauka). 

doke, duka, to beat : intensive 
form = doddoki ; see ddka. 

doki, pi. dawdki, dawdkai, a 
horse. The pi. is used for 
horsemen which, regarded as 
followers, are indicative of 
the importance of a chief, 
etc. For words denoting 
various kinds or colours of 
horses, cf. bidiy bikili, safi, 
dukushi, guzumaj /urde, sari, 
akawali, chichero, aharus, 
bola, kili, danda, alshafi. 
dokin allah butterfly; dokin 




huntu starling; doki kuru 
or kuru a pony. 

dokolua, a hen ; see dakolua. 

dolashi, order, commission. 

dolata (Fulah id.), to compel. 

dole, a blot (of ink). 

dole, to upset, pour out. 

dole, doli (Fulah id.), by 

doli-doli, a white grub. 

dolo, f. dolua^ pi. dololi, fool, 

domana, 1. a blight on corn; 
2. a soporific draught. 

domashi, a small tree, the root 
of which is cooked and used 
as a medicine for dysentery. 

dombubu, dongudu, wrist, 

domi, why? wherefore? domi 
is a contraction of don mi on 
account of what 1 

domin, because of, in order 
that ; dominsa for his sake, 
domin hdka for this reason, 
dominsa (or donsa) shi ji in 
order that he may hear, do- 
min kdda lest, in order that 

dominchewa*, sometimes con- 
tracted to chewa therefore, 
for this reason ; not used 

don, 1. because, because of; 
2. in order that ; don wanan 
for this reason, don kdda 

lest, in order that. . .not ; d.on 
wanan ha komi, or ba komi 
don wanan that is nothing. 

done, to hang up, to put meat 
on a stick, to draw back. 

dongudu^ ankle-joint, wrist; 
see dombubu. 

dono, yin dono to pluck out. 

dora, 1. to heap up, increase, 
place ; 2. to begin ; 3. used 
with bindiga to load a gun. 
D 44 aw dora hukata suna sa 
masa uku uku they heap up 
blows, they give them three 
at a time, F 99 dora murna 
to rejoice, F 176 si< dora kira 
they cry aloud, D 43 shi dora 
makarkata he begins to 
tremble, D 14 hal ta yi 
dorawa azdba till the pain is 
increased; also to put one 
thing on another, ta dora 
masa she put his load on 
him ; cf. dura. 

doraro, to look round ; see 

dori, to endure ; see daure. 

dori, the setting or binding up 
of a fractured limb ; niaidori 
a bone-setter. 

dorina, pi. dorinai^ hippopota- 

doro, hump, swelling; maidoro 
hump-backed, a doro on the 
shoulder, ta ke daukar kaya 
a doi'o she humps her load. 




dorowa, doriwa (Parkia 
filicoidea, leguminosae), a 
tree resembling an acacia, 
its fruit, called kalua, is con- 
tained in a pod like that of 
a bean and is eaten in soup ; 
the cakes made from its beans 
are called dodowa. 

dosanna, to set a light to any- 
thing, to kindle a fire. 

doshi, dosa, to front, turn 
towards, pass close to, ya 
doshesu he fronted them. 

doso, to turn towards an ob- 
ject which has just been 
mentioned, e.g. sun dosogida; 
dosa a verbal noun is also 
used, e.g. ina dosar ydbaz. 

dotijo, datijo, dotizo (Fulah 
id.), a person of importance, 
usually a man with a long 
beard. It is usually, but not 
necessarily, applied to elderly 
men, the feminine equivalent 
is giyatuma. 

doya, yam ; see doiya. 

doyi, a smell ; see doii. 

dn, a contracted form of duka, 

duade, to stop up, see duwade. 

duba, n. divination, looking at 
signs in order to foretell the 
future, a frequentative form 
of the V. dudduha is found. 

duba, diibo (cf. Ar. rfc w^j^, 
to use diligence), to look at. 

behold, watch carefully, aim 
at ; duba da kiyo look care- 
fully after, duba behold ! 

dubara, contrivance ; see da- 

dubbara da, close to; see 

dubbo dubbo (cf. Ar. Zii, to 
walk on all fours), an ex- 
pression used of the attempts 
made to walk by a boy of 
one year old. 

dubgi, dapgi, dabgi or daugi, 

dubi, n., yin dubi to consider, 
to act as a soothsayer ; cf . 

diibu, thousand. The same 
word is found in the Fulah, 
Kanuri, Teda and Bagrimma 
languages ; cf. (?) Coptic thba 
ten thousand. 

duchi, a stone ; see d7j,tsi. 

duduga, remainder. 

duduge, didigi, duga-duga, 
pi. dudugai, heel ; ya tashi 
da duga-dugansa he started 
off on foot. 

dufu, darkness ; ya yi dufu it 
is dark, or it becomes dark, 
dere nan ya faye dufu the 
night is very dark, dilfu 
kirim utter darkness, A 67 
ka shafa dufu kirim hiiska 
tasa thou anointest his face 
with utter darkness. 




dufua, darkness, a dark forest. 

diiga-duga, heel j see duduge. 

dugo, diga, pi. dugog% a drop ; 
see diga. 

dugui, tying a piece of cloth 
round the toe of a sleeper 
and lighting it in order to 
awaken him. 

dugiimi, without horns. 

duguza, hairy all over, an 
epithet applied to Dodo, etc. 

duk, all, a common contraction 
for duka^ q.v., duk da wanan 
or duk da haka nevertheless, 
even so. 

duka, duk, all, every, every- 
one; duka daia ne it is all 
the same, there is no difter- 
ence, duka komi everything, 
duka biu (or su hiu) both 
of them ; cf. dukachi, du- 

duka, to strike ; see ddka. 

duka (S.), to bend the head 
or the body, ya duka da 
kansa he bowed his head, 
to look down; cf. M. H. 
p. 180. duka or dukawa 

dukachi, dukanta, all, the 
whole ; dukachin komi every- 
thing; cf. dokachi. 

dukSida, tr. to bend ; see duka, 

dukanta, see dukachi. 

dukau, a nickname given to a 
man who stoops. 

dukawa, leather workers, a pi. 
of baduka, q.v. 

duki*, large carnivorous bird. 

dukiya, dukia, pi. dukoki, 
dukiyoyi^ goods, property, 
riches ; maidukia a rich man. 

dukushi, f . dukusa, pi. dukusai, 
a small horse or mare, a pony. 

diili, a tree, the sap of which 
is a kind of gum. 

dulmiya, to immerse. 

dulmiye, to upset, used of a 

duma, continuance; see da- 

duma, pi. dumaimai or du- 
7name, pumpkin, esp. used for 
making water-pots. 

duraama, to warm up (food). 

dumar - k^da (crocodile's 

gourd), a creeper with white 
flower, when mixed with gei'O 
husks it is made into a hot 
liquid in which patients suffer- 
ing from kdba steam their eyes. 

dumbaji, necklace; see dim- 

dumbuzo, to take much out 
of, to help liberally, dum- 
buji plenty. 

dumi, warmth ; see demi. 

dumi, dimmi (cf. (?) Ar. ^i).- 
noise. It is especially used 
of the hum of conversation, 
B 22 ku ber yawan dumi 
ku ji kahnata leave off 




speaking many words, listen 
to what I say. 

dumia, goose ; see dunia. 

dumia, a tree (vitex cienkow- 
skii, verbenaceae), the fruit 
of which is sweet and edible ; 
a kind of molasses is made 
from it; cf. mddi. 

dumke, dunke, diunka, 
dumki (cf. Ar, A^^, to 
twist or plait), to sew ; F 88 
aduinka duk ana kuma gan- 
gamawa it is completely sewn 
and joined together, mac?z^m^*i 
or madunki a tailor ; hahu 
dumki there is no repairing ; 
kurdin dumki licence fee 
paid by tailors. A freq. 
form dundunka is found. 

dummii, a kind of lish. 

dumshe, dunshe, a tree with 
a sticky sap. 

dumu, a lizard ; see damu. 

dumya, a goose ; see dumia. 

dunane, yin dunane to im- 

dunde, duntse, duntsa, to 
take hold of, hold together, 
enwrap, F 95. 

dundu, a stiff-branched shrub 
frequent in the bush. It 
has light yellow or white 
blossoms, and produces a 
kind of gum. 

dundu*, yin dundu to strike 
with clenched fist. 

dundufa (cf. Ar. w-*^, a small 
drum), a large drum, the 
drum used by the natives for 
purposes of signalling, etc. 

dundum.i, n. an illness which 
prevents a man seeing at 
night, though he can see by 
day ; cf . seq. 

dundumi, to grope about; cf. 
dindimi, madundumi. 

dundunia, the inside of a 
bird's talon, the heel of a man. 

dundurusu, an axe or pick 
used for working stones. 

dune, to close up a hole ; see 

dunga, to keep on doing any- 
thing, ya dunga berichi he 
slept on. anadunga tajta 
they continued travelling ; 
cf. dinga. 

dunge, a bad egg. 

dungo, the name of a small 

dungu, corner of a fence ; see 

dungu, the stump of a leg or 

dungule, dangole, spot. 

dunguli, dungule, 1. butter' 
(a Kanuri word) ; 2. a cow 
tied up by the feet. 

dungum*, much; B 30 shi 
wanda ke jiran kahdki dun- 
gum he who waits for abun- 
dance to eat. 

[ i dunguma 

dunguma, to go together in a 
crowd ; cf. gungu a mob. 

dunhu, a kind of blue trousers; 
cf. M. H. p. 203. 

dunia or dinya, spur-winged 

j dunia, duniya ( Ar. UJ^), the 
world, sky, atmosphere, wea- 
ther; c?2*niac?a^/i fine weather, 
dunia ta yi d&re it is night, 
^^^dunia ta yi rani it is the 
Hftdry season ; na sani dunia I 
HBknow my way about ; dunia 
Hlis often used to denote the 
HI evil principle which character- 
T^ izes the world, so dan dunia 
(lit. son of the world) a bad 
man, B 52 kowa hi dunia 
nan ya rudu whoever follows 
this world is deceived, ya 
samu dunia he has become 
rich ; dunia is sometimes 
used to denote all mankind. 


dunia* (Ar. C)3>)^ ^^^^^y despic- 
able, incredible. 

dunji, bunch, bundle. 

dunke, to sew ; see dumke. 

dunko, gum ; see danko. 

dunko, danko, to withdraw 
the hand ; see damka. 

dunkula, to roll up into a 
ball; cf. prov. dan banza 
rairai ne ko andunkula ski 
ma ya rushe a worthless man 
is like sand, if you press it 



together it falls to pieces 

dunkule, a lump or handful of 
Hour, or of anything soft 
squeezed out. 

dunkurkuda, a kind of grass- 

duno (cf. Ar. ^^^, near), to 
draw near. 

duntsa, duntse, to take hold 
of, enwrap ; cf. dunde. 

dunu, waist ; chi dununka da 
hanu put your arms akimbo ! 

dura, to cram, give medicine 
to ; cf . dora, 

duri, dull, muliebria. 

durimi, dirime, to upset, used 
of a boat. 

durkiisa, to kneel, an adverbial 
form adurkushe kneeling. 

durkushi, dilkushi, n. kneel- 
ing ; cf . prec. 

durugu, durugun kaza a small 
stunted chicken. 

duruku, a shrub with purple 
flowers often pi anted in native 
compounds (Newbouldia lae- 
vis), also called ba-reshi. 

durumi, the name of a large 
shady tree, it is a species 
of ficus yielding a milky juice 
like rubber, the fruit of which 
somewhat resembles a kola 
nut ; see gamji. 

durungu, wart-hog, also called 
mugun dawa ; cf . alhanzir. 




duruwa, yin duruwa to gird 

dusa (cf. Ar. j^li, to tread 
out corn), chatf, husks. 

dushe, to become dim or in- 
distinct ; rana ta dushe it is 
getting dark, fitila ta dushe 
the lamp is going out, muria 
ta dushe the sound is becom- 
ing indistinct. 

dushe wa, dimness, indistinct- 
ness ; used of an eclipse of 
the moon. 

dushi, dimness, yin dushi to 
become dim. 

dutsi, duchi, pi. duatsu, duasu, 
duasa, darwatai, stone, a 
stone; dutsinnika rmW^tone', 
dutsim bindiga bullet. 

duwade, duade, to stop up (a 
hole), close down. 

duwai, duwaiwai, pi. duwai- 
waya^ buttocks. 

duwatana, a kind of grass, 
ruan duwatana gall. 

duwu, a kind of scorpion. 

eblis, the evil spirit ; see ihlis. 
echada, a small bird, 
eiiabar, black. 
efo, adj. grey. 

eko, the native name for the 
town of Lagos, M. H. p. 192. 
elawa, a sling, 
ellelele, elle, allele, a tree 

planted in towns with edible 
capsular fruit (blighia sapida, 

en (Ar. ^1, if) (when followed 
by 6 or m it is pronounced 
em), 1. that, in order that, 
to ; na tdfo en gaya maka, 
I came to tell you; 2. if, 
whether ; en and idan are 
about equally common, en 
being especially used in the 
district around Kano, idan 
in the southern part of 
Hausaland; ya tamhaya en 
sufulani ne he asked whether 
they were Fulahs ; 3. e/i is 
used in an imperative sense 
or to ask a question ; e.g. en 
tafi yawo let me go for a 
walk, em hika let me follow 
you, or shall I follow you? 
B 171 en rarafe ina aza hus- 
kata let me crawl, let me 
place my face on the ground ! 
4. preceded by kdda it de- 
notes a prohibition ; kdda en 
ji kishirua may I not thirst, 
or lest I thirst. 

ena, enna, ina (Ar. jjjl), 
where? ddga ena whence? 

enche, verily ! certainly ; see 

enchi, to free a slave; see 

enda, inda, where ; ban sani 




ha enda shi ke I do not know- 
where he is. 

engurdigi (?), a large species of 

entaya*, a small edible grain. 

enua, inua, shade, shadow, 
shelter; D 68 6« enua sai 
enda tuti muhammad there 
shall be no shade except 
where the ensign of Moham- 
med is, D 75 mu sha enua 
let us enjoy shelter. 

enuar-bauna, a white flowered 
shrub (lamprothamnus spi- 
nosus, rubiaceae). 

enuar-gada, a woody climbing 
shrub with fragrant white 
flowers (opilia celtidifolia). 

erSrahimi* (Ar. ^^AftJJjt), the 

esga, a horse's tail ; see isga. 
ettabibi,attabibi, doctor, witch 

ewa, verily, indeed ; see aiwa. 

f. The letter s^ is used by the 
Hausas to represent both / 
and p, the sounds of which 
are frequently interchanged ; 
cf. /ago, pago. The sound y 
is also interchanged with that 
of b ; and with that of h, cf . 
hako, fako ; huska, fuska. In 
certain words, e.g./bsAi anger, 
the / represents a sort of bi- 

labial sound and might almost 

be written y^. 
fa, a rock ; seefalale. 
fa (Ar. id.), therefore, then, 

fache, to wish for; see fata. 
fache, 1. but, however, only; 

2. up till now. 

fada, fS,di (cf . Ar. j*^, to shout), 
to speak, often implying to 
speak with authority or in a 
tone of command, to say, to 
tell ; D 1 8 kunji/a 7iiun fadi 
do you listen, we say that.... 

f^da, to fight ; A 21 duka sun 
fdda they were all at strife. 

f^da, n. strife ; fadan hata kai 
a petty squabble ; maifadaichi 
a quarrelsome person; yin 
fdda to fight (possibly fdda 
to fight and fdda to speak 
may both come from the Ar. 

j^ to trample down and to 

f^da, ^\.fadodi, a blow. 

fada, pi. fddodi, 1. court or 
palace ; 2. royal council ; ha- 
fdda a king's councillor. 

fada, fadi, to fall down; ya 
fddi he fell down, ya fada a 
rua he fell into the water, ya 
fada rua he flung himself into 
the water ; fdda ma wani da 
duka to fall on a man with 
blows, to beat ; fdduar gaba 




losing heart ; fcida of an ail- 
ment to be cured ; fadi is used 
as a trading idiom to lose 
money on a transaction; ySf/a- 
da to let a thing fall. 

fadake, traders; sQufatdke. 

fadama (Fulah fadamare), 
marsh, esp. ground which is 
inundated in wet weather. 

fadanchi, yinfadanchi to hold 
a council. 

fadawa, a king's officers or 
attendants ; the order of pre- 
cedence diflfers in various 
places : in Kano it is sariki, 
galadima^ madak% wombai, 
makamaj turaki^ sarikin da- 
ivaki, sarikin bayi, chiroma, 
maji ; in Zaria it is sariki, 
madaki, galadima, sarikin 
maikira (= Tnaiizo), makama^ 
etc.; of. hafade. 

fadi, to fall; seefdda. 

fadi, width, breadth ; da fadi 

^^^^^^ide, broad ; cf . prov. fadin 
rua ha zurfi the breadth of a 
river is not (a guide to) its 
depth ; i.e. appearances are 
deceptive; fadin rai haughti- 
ness ; fadin kai conceit, 'swol- 
len head,' 

fadi, fada, ^\, fade fade, speech, 
talking ; cf . prov. fade fade 
ha yi ha ne talking is not do- 
ing ; tana fadan hanza she 
was talking folly. 

f ado*, to fall down ; see fadi. 

fadua, falling; see fadi. 

fafa, to cut up. 

fafa, to plead for, intercede. 

fafake, to feel about as with 
the hand in searching for any- 

fafare, to drive away. 

fafaye, to exceed ; an intensive \ 
form of fay e, q.v. 

fafe, fofe, to fade, of leaves, etc. 

fafe, to rub, rasp, scrape; cf. 
prov. ha afafa gianduma ran 
tafia do not scrape out the 
water-bottle on the day of 
travel, i.e. do not leave a 
thing to the last minute. 

fafo, n. interceding; ci.fafa. 

fagachi, fakache, court of i 
justice, a king's audience. 

fage (Kanuri id.), any open 
space, the open parade ground 
before a king's house, ground 
cleared for threshing, also a 
course; ya yi fage uku he 
rode up and down three 
times ; a king's assembly 
room ; fagen doki a place for 
riding in; cf. fako, pi. fa- 
gaigai fields. 

fS.go, hole (e.g. in a hatchet) 
in which the handle is in- 

fago, pago, a woman's luggage 
carried in a bag or net (a 
Fulani word), cf. Gr. p. 138, 




17. iiiasv/ago men who 

possess but a woman's load. 
« ^ ^ 
fahari, fahri (Ar. jU^), hon- 
our, pride. 

fahimta*, fahumta*( Ar.^i^), 

to understand, 
fai, openly ; fai ga haki openly ; 

fai da hoye openly and secretly, 
faifai, pi. fiyafai, fan or dish 

cover made of woven grass, 

fan for winnowing with, 
faifeto, fefeto, q.v., wing of a 

bird ; of. fikajike a.nd /ai/ai. 
faiy a-faiya, a shrub ; see paiya- 

fS-ja, n. purchasing, esp. whole- 
sale purchasing ; cf . haja. 
fakache, a king's audience ; see 

fak&ra (S.), pakira, partridge, 

francolin ; cf. makertui (K.). 
f&ke, to hide oneself ; fake ma 

to take shelter from rain, 
fako, lying in wait, yin fako 

to set an ambush ; see hdko. 
&^LO, a hard bare spot where 

gi*ass won't grow and where 

there is no dust, esp. used of 

a threshing floor (cf . Ar. U;» , 
to take off the husk) ; 

fai, yin fed to fill up. 

faladara, cap ; ^^^fuladara. 

falaka, falka (cf. Ar. sJi?, 
used of the dawn * to break 
forth '), to awake, arise; D 26 

E. H. D. 

ka yi berchi ku falaka ku 
ta^shi sleep and awake, rise 
up ; cf . faXka^ farka. 

falala (Ar.), riches. 

falale or fa, also a smooth rock ; 
e.g. for drying vegetables on. 

falasa, palasa (D.) (Ar.), to re- 
vile, disgrace, punish, destroy. 

falfada (S.), farfada (K.), a 
fainting fit ; cf . fada to fall 

falfasa, farfasa, to bruise, 
strike, pound ; cf. fdsa^ 

falgaba, fear ; cf . firgaha. 

falia, faria, a fish something 
like a salmon. 

falka, farka, to awake; cf. 

falka, farka, farika, a prosti- 
tute ; see farika. 

falkada, tr. to wake, arouse. 

falke (S.), to break open: cf. 

falke, f. falkia, pi. fatake^ tra- 
velling merchant, trader. 

falma, farma, to fall upon. 

falmaki, assault ; ^eefarmaki. 

fama, strife, battle, fighting; 
yinfama to fight, also trouble, 
vexation; muna fama da 
tafia the journey taxes us to 
the utmost ; na sha fama da 
shi it is all that I can manage. 

fandare (cf. Ar. jjJu?, a 
boulder), to be crooked; A 
58 hainya sun hi wanda ya 





fandare they followed a way 
that was crooked. 

fanfare, to take the handle off 
an axe, etc. 

fanfatsa, to break into small 
pieces ; cf. fasa. 

fankam (or famkan) fayo, 
meaningless words used as 
the commencement of a pro- 
verb about deceptive appear- 
ances, or generally to express 
fear or annoyance. 

fankasu, a cake made of wheat, 
flour and honey. 

fansa, pansa (D.), hansa 
(Zanf.), deliverance, revenge, 
requital, redemption from 
slavery ; yin fansa to redeem. 
fansawa ransoming, redemp- 

fanshe, panshe, fansashe, to 
ransom, redeem, e.g. na fan- 
sheka ddga hauta I ransomed 
thee from slavery ; in playing 
the game of chacha the loser 
says na fanshe^ i.e. I have to 
pay; cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. U 
sarkaki ya fanshi wansu the 
bush saved some. 

fanso, panso, \.({. fanshe. 

fantaria, a hoe, M. H. p. 54; 
see fartanya and fatainya. 

fara (S.), fragment. 

fS,ra, pi. farori, faruna, locust ; 
a locust is supposed by the 
Hausas to be bloodless; cf. 

prov. anema jini ga fara let 
blood besoughtforin a locust, 
i.e. attempt what you know 
to be impossible ; farandere, 
pi. farorindere (lit. locust 
of the night), a black locust 
which comes out at night. 

fara, beginning, A 2 ; cf. fa- 
rawa or yin fara to begin. 

fara, to begin; cf. wane gari 
zaafara isa which town shall 
we reach first? ta fara zua 
she was the first to come ; 
nafara shigowa jirigi this is 
my first experience of a canoe ; 
faruar alameri the beginning 
of the affair, fara aiki to 
begin work ; cf. faru. 

fS,ra, dropsy. 

far^a(Ar. ^yi), joy; fa/rdaor yin 

faraa to rejoice, F 232 anafa- 
raa anamurna da kowa there 
shall be j oy and gladness f or al 1 . 

farafara, farfara, a species of 
guinea-corn used for making 
gruel ; see ddwa. 

fara-kaya (lit. white thorn), 
the name of a large tree with 
white thorns from the fruit 
of which ink is made. 

faralta, to make glad ; faralta 
ma wani to gladden another ; 
allah shi faraltaka may God 
gladden thee. 

faranji, a long, white wedding 
garment for a bride. 




faranta, to whiten. 

farap, an. exclamation, away 
with ! 

farau farau, forau forau 
{iromfari white), water with 
flour oifura mixed in it. 

farauta, hunting; yinfarauta 
to hunt, to chase. 

fSrawa, participial form of 
fdra^ beginning ; D 1 maifa- 
rmva or maifaruwa beginner. 

faraya, pi. farayu, whitened ; 
see fari. 

farcha (cf. (?) Ar. Ui, to heat), 
to blister ; D 65 ^a kan rika 
farcha kai gar emu it will con- 
tinually blister our heads; 
cf, farsa. 

farde, fir da, to split (e.g. cloth), 
rip up. 

farfada, falfada, fainting fit. 

farfade, to recover conscious- 
ness (?). 

farfara, guinea-corn; see/ara- 

farfaro, furfuro, to pursue. 

farfasa, to strike; seefalfasa. 

farga, to perceive something 
wrong; na farga da kai I 
am distrustful of you, i.e. I 
see that you are cheating me. 

fargaba, firgaba, falgaba, fear. 

fari, faria, boasting ; seefahari. 

fari, f. fdra, pi. fdrdre, fdru 
fdru, white, bright; A 21 

sun san fari sun san bdki 
they know the difference be- 
tween white and black, dan 
fari a small piece of some- 
thing white, F SSfarin yun- 
wa drought, far in dabino an 
unripe date, also a name for 
beads, farin karifi (or jan ka- 
rifi) brass, fari ko bdki some- 
times denotes good or bad, 
farin wata new moon, moon- 
light, /arm ^mi good disposi- 
tion, farin chiki j oy , gladness, 
2/m farin chiki to rejoice, 
fari fari whitish, or dirty 
white ; fari fet very white, 
farin ido a bright eye ; cf. 
prov. banza farin ido babu 
gani. farin ido also a pretty 
eye, i.e. a pretty girl; farin 
abu that which is pleasant. 

fari, furi, drought; cf. prec. 

fari, furi, firi, a break of about 
ten days' duration during the 
rainy season in June or July; 
also the early hoeing of the 

fari, used in the compound 
forms dafdri, nafdri, f . tafdri, 
first ; cf . fdra. 

fS,ri, signs of punctuation. 

faria, boasting ; see fari. 

farichi, farche, finger-nail ; 
cf. also ahaifa. 

farifasha, an extensive form of 
fashe, to break in pieces. 



farika (cf. Ar. iJ^, used of 
a woman 'to hate her hus- 
band '), a profligate of either 
sex ; cf . falka. 

farilla (Ar. u^ji>\ the proof or 
visible fact. 

fa,rin-chiki,happiness; see/dri. 

farin-doka (Berlinia panicula- 
ta, leguminosae), a tree like 
doka with paler leaves and 
bark: both have large flat pods. 

fS,rin-gamu, a convolvulus with 
white flowers and silvery 
hairy leaves (Ipomaea argen- 
taurata, convolvulaceae) ; also 
a name given to a white 
mixture which is used as a 

farka, falka, ferka, to awake 
from sleep ; farko, ferko to 
revive, come to oneself. 

farkaji, tortoise. 

farke, 1. to cut, tear, ct/alke; 
2. to seduce ; cf. farika. 

farke, trader; see/alke. 

farko, ferko, beginning = na- 
farko first, da-farko at first; 
yin farko to begin, ferkon 
far a the very outset. 
farina, falma, to fall upon, 
probably an abbreviation of 
fada ma. 
farma,ki, falmaki, firmaki, 
attack, invasion, ambush, 
throng, tumult in war. 

farsa, farisa, a blister; yin 
farsa to cleanse a wound ; 
see farcha. 

farta or yin farta, to scratch. 

fartanya, fatainya, a hoe. 

fartat, headlong flight ; ya Uere 
masafartat he got clean away 
from him. 

faru, a wild stone-fruit from 
which a drink is made. 

faru, chiefly used in the ex- 
pression mi ya faru what 
has happened, what is the 
matter 1 yafaru it happened ; 
cf . fdra. 

fasa, arrow-head. 

fasa, to defer, postpone, miss fire; 
Tnuna da tafia ha fdsawa we 
have a journey which cannot 
be put aside, B 120 mutua... 
ha tana yi ta fdsa ha death 
does not admit of delay, na 
fdsa aike gohe I put off the 
work till to-morrow, fatake 
suna zua ha sa fdsawa the 
traders keep on coming 
without intermission ; cf. 

fS,sa, p^sa, fS,so, to break, 
split, destroy, fashe, q.v., 
to break (tr. or intr.), fa- 
sashe, pi. fdsasu, broken ; 
cf . fdso. fdsa doki to cover 
the front of an army with 
cavalry ; masupashin hainya 
those holding up the road. 




fasadi*, fasada (Ar. ju«?), dis- 
cord, envying ; E 18 ku tuba 
ku ber fasadi repent, leave 
off discord. 

fasaha* (Ar.), eloquence, ima- 
gination, lucidity. 

fasa - kworia (calabash - 

breaker), a large tree, the 
aromatic bark of which is 
ground up as a medicine. 

fasali, interpretation ; see foy- 

fasali (Ar.), 1. division, allotted 
portion, fasalin damana the 
wet season, ya yi maku fa- 
salin aiki he will apportion 
your tasks. 2. class, cate- 
gory, doki maikeaun fasali 
a horse of good class, wuri 
yoj yi fasali the place is ex- 


fasara, fasaranta (Ar. j-^), 
interpretation, explanation, 
quickness of intelligence; yin 
fasara oxfasarta to interpret, 

fasawa, postponing ; ^eefasa. 

fashe, pashe, to break, to 
burst; kasua ta fashe the 
market is over, inteus. form 
=fafashe or farfashe; fa- 
shewa splitting ; cf. idiom 
fashewa da daria bursting 


out laughing; F 114 tana 
kona fa kainua na fashewa 

it will burn their heads, it 
will split them; maifeshe, 
mafashi brigand ; see fdsa. 
fashi, fashe, v. of a woman to 

have her periods, 
fashi, delay, interruption ; fa- 
shifi kwana bin ya kan zo 
he comes at intervals of two 
days, babu fashi without 
delay ; cf . fdsa. 
fasiki, pi. fdsikai, a profligate 
man ; fdsika (Ar. iAwl*), a 
profligate woman, 
faskara, n. overcoming; cf. 
babu konii faskara ne no- 
thing is impossible ; see fas- 
faskara, to split, cleave; cf. 

faskara-giwa, a small shrub 
with purple flowers. The 
name has reference to the 
extremely tough nature of 
the wood. (Ormocarpum sp., 
faskarari, bound hand and 

foot; cf. seq. 
faskare, to overcome, to be 
unable to do anything; ya 
faskareni I cannot do it; 
also used as an impersonal 
verb ; cf. faskara. 
faskari, the shaving one side 
of the head as a sign of 
sorrow ; if a woman has three 
children who die in succes- 




sion she shaves half her head, 
if four die, the whole. 

faskari, n. splitting, e.g. of a 
plank or board, yin faskari 
to make into planks. 

faski, -pi. faske/aske, n. breadth ; 
dafaski broad. 

fS.SO, breaking of the skin, e.g. 
as result of cold ; da fdso 
torn, rent, cracked. 

f^SO, to break; ^QQfdsa. 

lata, T^X.fdtuna^ frequently pro- 
nounced jt?ato ; 1. the skin of 
an animal; 2. the rind or 
bark of a tree. 

lata, wish, desire, usually in a 
bad sense, yin fata to desire 
that which is wrong; see 

fS.tafS,ta, complete. 

fatainya, hoe; see fartanya^ 

fataka, pataka (probably in- 
troduced from Lagos), a florin. 

fatake, merchants ; pi. oifalke, 

fatala, pi. fatalu^ a woman's 
head-kerchief; cf. alfuta. 

fatalua, fatalwa, ghost, hob- 
goblin, spectre. 

fatara (Ar.), dawdling, slack- 
ness of work. 

fatara, to miss, lose. 

fatari, a woman's loin-cloth, or 
under petticoat. 

fatatSika, rending ; cf. seq. 

fatatake, to tear to pieces. 

fatauchi, trading, travelling 
for purposes of trade; yin 
fatauchi to trade or travel as 
a trader, maifatauchi trader; 
cf . fatake. 

f^ti fS,ti, a porridge like kiinu. 

fatiha, the opening verse of 
the Koran; see alfatia. 

fatila, fitlla, pi. fatllu, fatllai 

or fatUoli (Ar. 3JLJL% wick 

used in a lamp), lamp ; main 
fatila lamp oil. 

fS,to, tax, caravan tax. 

fatsa, faza, a fishing hook, 
itachen fatsa a fishing rod, 
kugian fatsa a fish hook, 
igianfata a fishing line ; also 
a small throwing net ; yin 
fatsa to fish, dan fatsa a 

fatsi*, yellow. 

fau, up to the brim, kura ya 
tashi fau the calabash was 
filled to the brim, ya haw 
fau — ya hau bisa. fau is 
probably another form of 
hau, cf. similar interchange 
in huska, fuska. 

faufau (S.), assuredly. 

fauta, to slaughter ; mafauchi 
or mahauchi a butcher. 

fawa, n. slaughtering; wurin 
fdwa abattoir. 

fawa, folly; da fawa iooMsh. 




lawo*, a greeting ; yin fawo 

to greet. 
faye, to abound or excel in 
anything, to do something 
very much, to be addicted to 
or fond of anything ; yara 
suna Jaye yin worigi the 
boys are fond of plaj'; ya 
faye da girima he was too 
big to...j makqfi sun faye 
talauchi blind men are very 
poor : an intensive form fa^ 
faye is also used. 

faza, a fishing hook; ^Qefatsa. 

feda, fede, fIda, fide, to flay, 
open out, prepare food, feda 
nama to dress meat; mai- 
fedi a skinner ; wukar feda 
a knife for flaying. 

fedua, whistling; ctfeto. 

fefe, to fade. 

fefeto, maifefeto winged, M. 
H. p. 158; ci. faifeto. 

feke (S.), to peel, shell. 

fere (K.), to peel, e.g. with a 

ferko, beginning; see far ko. 

ferko*, to revive; seejirko. 

fgsa, to spit, fesawa spitting; 
feshi spitting, mist or driving 

fet, used with fari, very white. 

f eta, to fan ; mafechi one who 
fans; intens. iorm fifita. 

feto or fito, whistling with 
the lips ; of. fedua. 

fi, to surpass, to be better ; ya 
fi it is better so ; when" used 
to express the comparative 
degree it is followed by the 
substantival form of the cor- 
responding adjective, e.g. ya 
fini tsawo he is taller than I 
(lit. he surpasses me in 
height), ya fini wiya it is 
too difficult for me, ka ji 
dama ya fi jia do you feel 
better than yesterday, see 
ffita; ya fisu karifi he was 
stronger than they ; it is 
often used with duka to ex- 
press a superlative, e.g. ya 
fi duka keau he is the most 
beautiful, mafi is often pre- 
fixed to a noun or adjective 
in order to form a compara- 
tive or to strengthen the 
positive ; thus mafii kunche 
narrower, or very narrow ; 
fiye da over and above, shina 
da duhu fiye da wanan he 
has 1000 over and above 
this. fiyayci superiority. 
mafiyi a superior ; cf. fu. 

fi, ^\' fiye fiye, n, surpassing. 

fiache (probably onomato- 
poeic), to blow the nose. 

fiade, to flog; seefiyadi. 

fichi, to get away, escape; 
34 kowa ke so shi fichi 
whoever desires to escape. 

fida, to take out, cast out, 




drive away, save from, fida 
naushi to punch. The word 
is probably a contraction of 
fUa da. 

fida, to play; s,ee/eda. 

fida-hakuka (grass tearer), a 
plant with sharp-headed seeds 
which when expanded in 
water are used to extract 
objects from the eye. 

fida-kai, a word used to de- 
scribe the custom of adding 
four cups of grain when 
making a bargain in the 
market. This amount of 
grain if given to a malJam 
is supposed to procure the 
forgiveness of sins committed 
during the previous year. 
It is also applied to allocation 
of one measure of grain for 
each inmate of house at close 
of Ramadan to be given to 
raallams, etc. The Arabic 
name for this feast id ul fiir 
may perhaps explain origin 
of word fida. 

fida-sartse, a cactus used in 
making hedges. 

fideli, fidili (S.), fidali, a 
shrub, from the bruised seeds 
of which an eye medicine is 

fidia, cutting out, castration. 

fifiche, n. a fan ; see mafuchi. 

f ifika, fufuka, to flee ; cf . fichi. 

fifike, wing ; cf . fikafike. 

fifiko, n. surpassing, used of 
interest, or usury ; yin fifiko 
to excel ; cf . fiko. 

fifita, fanning; see ^e to. 

fifita, fifiche, to surpass, used 
esp. in comparative state- 
ments, ya fificheshi he was 
greater than he ; seefiu 

figa, n. plucking, snatching. 

fige, figi, to take, take away, 
pluck (a fowl), snatch ; fige 
jiki to pluck all the feathers 
off. figa plucking ; Jigege, f . 
figegia, pi. figagu, plucked or 
stripped, used of an ear of 
corn ; cf . fisge. 

figina, figini, pi. figinai, an 
ostrich-feather fan. 

fijir, a kind of raddish. 

flka, to sharpen. 

fikafike, fukafuki, pi. fika- 
fikai,fukafukai,fi(ffuke, wing 
of a bird, feathers ; cf . fifike, 
faifeto *. 

fike, a sharpened stick, a filed 

fIko, power, excellence ; yin 
flko to surpass ; flkowa sur- 
passing ; cf . saying, flkon 
du7iia wofi ne the excellence 
of this world is vanity. 

fila, stratagem ; see hila. 

f ilafile, fulafule, a paddle for 
a canoe. 

filania, clitoris. 


filasko, the name of a plant, a 
drink made from which is 
used as an antidote for snake 
bite, also for diarrhoea. 

filfil, a tree from which spice 
and scent are obtained. 

filfilwa, a sand-fly. 

filfita, firfita, to fan ; seejijita. 

fill, pi. Jllaye (cf. Ar. ^, 

plains, deserts), plain, any 
unoccupied spot or space; 
babu fili wuri nan there is 
' no room here, 
finche, used of the cutting off 

Iand stealing little pieces of 
meat during flaying. 

findi (cf. Ar. S^tj^l?, an axe), 
a sword with broad blade. 

finfin (S.), finfini (K.), soot. 

finso (i.e. fi-n-so), preference, 
yin finso to prefer ; cf. fiso. 

fira, yinfira to shell, of children 
to lose the teeth. 

fira, hira* (cf. Ar. Ajj.?), con- 
versation, tale, a story that 
is not true. 

firchi, the stalk of a grain of 

firda, to rip up; seefarde. 

firde, blocks of wood. 

firdi, lion, wild beast; dan 
firdi an epithet applied to a 

firfita, to fan ; see filfita. 

89 nta 

firgaba, to be distressed; cf. 
far gab a. 

firgigi, an exclamation on a- 
wakening. sun tashi firgigi 
they started out of their 

firgita, firgiche, to frighten, 
be frightened, shiver, e.g. 
with cold, shrink, tremble. 

firi, drought; seefari. 

firi, furi, to heap up earth, 
e.g. round the roots of yams. 

firko, to revive ; see/arka. 

firmaki, assault; seefarmaki. 

fisa, to put out, equivalent to 

fisa, to complete. 

fisge, fusge, to snatch, draw 
forth, take out, take off; used 
of a stream, igiar rua ta fisge 
shi the current carried him 
away ; gulbifisga gareshi the 
current is very strong; cf. 


fishe, fushe, to drive out, draw 
out, enthrone (a king), take 
away, save ; cf. fisa. 

fiska, skin, cuticle. 

fiso, i.e. fi so, to prefer, wish 
rather; na fiso wanan da 
ivanchan I prefer this to that; 
cf . finso. 

fita, to go out of, take out, 
followed by da it means to 
take away ; ya fita da shi he 
went off with it, rana ta fita 




the sun has risen, ya fita na- 
gari he turned out well, fita 
jini to bleed, fito to come out, 
fitas to take out, fishe to draw- 
out, fitasda to take out, take 
off, undress, fissai, M. H. 
p. 223, for fitasdashi expel 

fita, departure. 

fitara, n. fanning. 

fitila, a lamp ; seefatila. 

fitina (Ar. a;;^), to annoy, 
punish j maifUina a scold. 

f Ito, feto, n. whistling ; yinfito 
to whistle. 

fito, to come out from. 

fito, n. a paddle ; yiii fito to 
ferry across a stream. 

fito, 1. a tax paid on leaving 
a country, tax paid to the 
king in the Kano market 
when purchasing a slave ; 2. 
a patch on clothes. 

fitsare, urine; yin fitsare to 
make water. 

fitsarin gwauro, used of a 
disease which comes out in 
boils on the knee. 

fitta, a leaf (Thaumatococcus 
Daniellii) used by the Hausas 
for thatching a house or 
wrapping up kola nuts. 

fiyadi, fiadi, flogging with whip 
or birch; fiyade, fiydcla to 

fiyaya, fiyS,ye, superiority, ex- 

cellency ; F 51 ka duha liar 
fiyayan annahawa consider 
the excellency of the pro- 
phets ; cf. fi. 

foche or fochen gishiri, a 
cake, or cone of salt. 

fofi, fafe, to fade. 

fofo (S.), altogether, used in 
emphatic denials. 

fofo, a leaf or blade of corn ; 
fofon hifi the scale of a fish. 

foge, a sprout of rice; ta yi 
foge it sprouts up, also used 
of a rice farm. 

^ ^ J 

foma (cf. Ar. i-ojo^?, pride), 
pride, boasting ; maifoma a 
proud, arrogant man. 

fora, fori, fore, to instruct, 
direct ; ahinda anforemu da 
shi that which we have been 
instructed to do; sun foru 
they have been reproved and 
have amended. 

forau forau, foro foro, the 
water or soup in which fura 
has been made ; see farau 

foma, a small fish net. 

foro, 1. punishment, discipline ; 
E 22 masubidar wushewa don 
asansu anaforonku those of 
you who seek for adornment 
in order that they may be 
known shall be punished ; 
2. instruction, E 23 ya ki 6m 
foron uhamu he refuses to 




follow the instruction of our 
fathers ; foro^ maiforo or 
mafori, pi. mafora, instructor, 

foto, dan Joto a male dancer, 

fU, fua; cf. wanene ya fu 
wanene who excelled the 
other ? see fi. 

fuche, to cool down after boil- 
ing, used of food, liquids or 
molten metal : of a wound, 
to cease from inflammation, 
pronounced fliuche. 

fUche, to rest, afuche in peace, 
to abate ; cf . futa. 

fuchi*, to pass away ; see 

fuchi, hissing sound, e.g. of a 
snake, yin fuchi to hiss ; cf . 

fada, huda, to open, pierce, 
bore, dig in the ground, 

fadi, n. boring. 

fudowa or fudawa, the be- 
ginning of the day, early 

fudu, to be opened; see/uda. 

fudu, fudo, to rise or come 
forth; cf. D 28 hal rana ta 

fadu, four, nafudu, f. tafudu 
fourth, anafuda (?) it was 
done a fourth time ; cf. M. H. 
p. 98 (cf. Coptic /«;w). 

fufu, huhu, 1. a mixture made 
with kola nuts and fitta 
leaves ; 2. the packing placed 
round kola nuts. 

fufu, kufu, the lungs; F 198 
fufu da hanjl na zuhuwathQir 
lungs and bowels shall be 
poured out. 

fufuji, to pierce many holes, 
used of water dropping quick- 
ly ; ct fuji. 

fufuka, f ifika, to flap the wings. 

fufuna, mildew ; ^QQfunfuna. 

fufunda, the phoenix bird ; cf. 
Gr. p. 155. 

fuguma, a load ; bale of goods. 

fuja*, affair; see huja. 

fuji, a form of fiida to pierce, 
of a ship, to sink. 

fuji, a hole ; cf. wuri da ha fuji 
a cowry shell without a hole 
through it. 

fuka, shortness of breath, 
asthma ; na yifuka I breathe 
hard ; intens. form fufuka. 

fukafuki, wing; SQQfikafike. 

fukumchi* judgment; see 

ful*, very many ; see pul. 

fula, pi. fuluna, cap or fez ; 
fula saki a blue or black 

fulafule (S.), filafile (S.), pila- 
pili (K.), pi. fulafulai, the 
paddles belonging to a canoe. 

fulako, 1. shame, embarrass- 




ment; 2. a coin worth one- 
eighth of a penny ; cf . anini. 

fulandara, a fez, made of red 
cloth with a tassel. These 
caps are for the most part 
imported across the Sahara 
Desert; cf. tagia. 

fulata, ba-filache, fem. ba- 
filata or ba-filatana, a 
Fulah ; pi. filani, or fulani. 

fulata, fulani, fulanchi, 
fulbe, belonging to the Fulah 
tribe ; ha fulata a Fulah 
native, fulani Fulahs ; fu- 
lanchi _ the Fulah language. 
fulbe (a Fulah word) is used 
as the name of the people. 

fululuwa* (Ar. JJs3,, to be 
superabundant), exaggerated, 
superfluous; B 154 yawan 
dumi na fululuwa much loud 
talking and superfluous.... 

funfuna, mildevf, damp, smell 
of damp. 

funi, the twisting of a turban. 

funjun, the noise made by any- 
thing falling into water. 

funtu or da funtu, naked; 
properly, stripped of the loin- 

funtunchi, nakedness. 

funturu, futuru, chill, especi- 
ally applied to cold felt at 
night ; also the cold season 
beginning in Dec. or Jan. 
and preceding rani. 

fara (cf. Ar. jl?, to boil), a 
sort of thick porridge made 
with various kinds of grain, 
it is one of the commonest 
kinds of food amongst the 

fura, fure, furi (cf . C?) Ar. Ij!?, 
heat), used with wuta to light 
a fire, to blow ; maifura 
burning, wuta ta furu the 
fire is lit ; mafiri bellows. 
fura kune to persuade, fura 
kasa to swallow up the 
ground, of going very quickly, 
lit. to blow a hole through 
the ground, ykra salka to blow 
up a leather bag ; cf . hura. 

furaki*, a military leader. 

furau (from fura to blow), a 
species of scorpion which 

furche, to escape, to flee away. 

furchi, confession ; seefuruchi. 

furde, a bay horse. 

fure, 'p].furanyi,furaye,^ower, 
blossom, fure is often used 
for tooth-paste which is made 
from the tobacco flower, fu- 
ren tsuntsu (bird's flower), a 
shrub with a scarlet flower ; 
cf. prov. kariafure ta kan yi 
ha ta yaya, i.e. the karia tree 
(or, a lie) does not produce 
any fruit. 

furfura, grey hair ; see furu- 




furfura, furfuri, to exchange, 

furi, to blow; see/wra. 

fari, fari, drought. 

furi, firi, to hoe or earth up 

furji, to sneeze, to spit. 

fumai, the piece of wood to 
which the koma {foma or 
horna), i.e. hand fishing-net, 
is attached ; it includes both 
the bow of the net and the 

furta, to tell, speak to. 

furtali, leather blinkers for a 

furtumi, burtumi, castrated 

faruchi, furchi or huruchi, 
confession ; yi7i furchi to 
confess, to declare positive- 


farufi*, a chisel for cutting 

furufura, furfura, turning 
grey, as from old age, grey- 

furufuran tsofua, a grass with 
a whitish flower. 

furza, to spit out; see furji. 

fus, onomatopoeic, pop, the 
sound of bursting. 

fusata, to be angry; ci.fushi. 

fusge, to pull out ; see fisge. 

fushe, to take out; seefshe. 

fushi, pronounced fhushi (Ar. 

,^1^), anger; yin fushi to 
be angry; cf. haushi. 

fuska, pi. fuskoki, fuskuna^ 
face, countenance ; fuska biu 
face to face ; darrire fuska 
to fro^vn, yin hakin fuska 
to frown, look angry. 

fuskanchl, fuskanta, 1. to 
face in a given direction, e.g. 
east or west ; 2. cf. na fus- 
kanta da ahu nan I must 
have that. 

fuskat-riga, the pattern on the 
front of a tobe. 

fusuma, a quarrel; see husuma, 

futa, to rest; cf. fiiche and 

futa, futawa, futu, n. rest; 
futun hanza an unnecessary 

futasda, to allay. 

futo, to swim. 

futuru (S.), sunset. 

fuzu, quarrelsome ; see hutsu. 

g. The letter c is used by 

the Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English hard g. 
It sometimes represents the 
Arabic •*•; cf. galadima, 

ganduy etc. 
ga, to, at, for, towards; har 
ga until, as far as, bisa ga 
upon, kitsa ga near to, baya 

ga 94 

ga behind ; ga and a are fre- 
quently interchanged. 

ga, to see; frequently used as 
an imperative, gashi wanan 
behold this one, gashi see 
here ! ga shi nan stop thief ! 

ga, or rather -nga,-rga, -Iga sing, 
and pi. this, these ; cf . wuringa 
this place, akwialga this 
goat, f. 

g§,ba, before, in front ; ya taji 
gdba gareni he went in front 
of me, yin gdba or chin gdba 
to advance, gdba ga in front 
of, over against, gdba, gd- 
hama later on, gdbania na 
samu kurdi later on 1 shall 
get some money ; the form 
gdban is used as a pre- 
position, in front of. shi 
ne gdbansu duka he is the 
greatest, lit. he is great 
before all. 

gSiba, pi. gabobi, joints or limbs 
of the body, F 175 shi karya 
kashi shi yenke duk gabobi it 
will break their bones, it will 
cut all their limbs. 

gaba, pi. gabobi, the name of a 
white bird with red beak 
which lives in trees, wild 
goose ('?). 

g^ba, forearm (cf. damshi upper 

gaba, masc. pi. gababi, bosom, 
heart ; cf. gabana yafadi my 



heart failed me. faduar gaba 

loss of heart. 
gaba, war, enmity ; abokin 

gdba enemy, anazaman gdba 

the battle was on the point 

of starting. 
g^ba, a fathom. The measure 

is the span of the outstretched 

gaba, gachi, bank, shore, 
gabachi, eastward ; cf. gabas. 
gabadai, gabadaia (lit. with 

single front), together, at 

the same time or place. 
gabarua, and by metathesis 

bagarua, q.v., a kind of acacia 

gSibas, gS,baz, east, eastwards, 
gabata, gabache, to go before ; 

gabdta da to take a thing to, 

masugabata those who lived 

in former times, 
gabato, to come to, face 

towards, bring together 

{manzo),to come to announce, 

gabatoni come here to me ! 
gabche, to fall in, fall into 

ruin ; see gubchi. 
gabduwa, a kind of wax. 
gabji, field mouse; cf. qyauji, 
gabo, a fool. 
gaboba, an eye-tooth, 
gache*, to slip; see gubchi. 
gachi, brass, copper. 
gachi, geche, shore ; gdba (or 

gechen) kogi the near bank of 

gada 95 

a stream as opposed to keta- 
ren kogi the far side. 

gada, pi. gadu, oribi antelope ; 
for list of antelopes found in 
Hausaland, cf. under hareiva. 

g&da, ground nut ; see geda. 

g&da, an exclamation of joy 
used by women whilst danc- 
ing and throwing their arms 

gada, gade, gado, to inherit ; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 39 zasu 
gadowal saraki they will be 
the inheritors of kings, gada 
da to have as heir, to be 
succeeded by. 

gadan - kurmi red - flanked 

gadanga, very strong, an epi- 
thet especially applied to a 

gadaunia, interference, te- 

. merity. 

gade, to inherit ; see gada, 

gadegi, a grass eaten by horses., pi. gdddje, gddashi, bed ; 
gddon machiji, lit. snake's 
bed, the name of a herb in 
which snakes are often found. 

gado (pronounced gyado), f. 
gadonia, pi. gadodi, gaduna 
(Kanuri id.), wild boar; the 
domestic hog is called gur- 

gado, bird with yellow breast 
about the size of a thrush. 


gado, inheritance, usually oc- 
curs in the compound magado 
or maigado an heir; gddowa 

gado, an official who has charge 
of treasure. 

gafa,ka, gufaka, small leather 
satchel, case for a book. 

gafara (Ar. jA^), forgiveness, 
kindness ; D 34 kuna roko 
ku sa gafara pray and obtain 
pardon ; C 46 allah ya hisu 
da gafara God follows them 
with kindness ; aikin gafara 
an act of kindness; ka yi 
mini gafara excuse me ! cf. 
prov. rashin facia yafi neman 
gafara avoidance of quarrel- 
ling is better than the quest 
for pardon. 

gaferta or yin gafara, to for- 
give, excuse. 

gS,fiya, pi. gafiyoyi, a large rat, 
palm rat. 

gafiya, battle-axe, hatchet. 

gaga (S.), folly, thoughtless- 

gagafa, a large bird, probably 
a species of eagle ; it eats 

gagai, a tree from the roots 
of which is made an aphro- 

gagaishe, to salute several in 
turn ; see gaida. 

gagara, to exceed in strength. 


to overpower ; ya gagara or 
ya gargaru it is impossible ; 
dawa ta gagara I was not 
able to eat the dawa (lit. the 
dawa was too much for me). 
ya gagareni it is too much 
for me ; cf . prov. lifidi ya fi 
kafadan dilali gagara hature 
ajia a coat of mail is too 
heavy for a broker's shoulder, 
too big for the Arab as stock- 
in-trade, Gr. p. 98. 

gagS.ra, to saw ; see magagdra 
a file or saw. 

gagara-bado, a bar used to 
close a doorway ; see kagara. 

gagata, followed by da to lose ; 
gagata da hainya to lose the 
way ; na gagata da shi I 
failed to understand it. 

gagauta, gaugauta, to be in 

gagawa, gaugawa, walking 
fast or excitedly. 

gage, gaga, to be stiff or be- 
numbed, agaga tottering ; 
B 109 dunia agaga tsofua 
the world is old and totter- 
ing ; see kage. 

gago, gagato (a word usually 
employed in a contemptuous 
sense), the most important 
man in a pagan (not Hausa) 

gahawa, gahwa (Ar. S^), 
coffee. Coffee is not used 

96 gaishe 

by the Hausas, but only by 
Arab traders. 

gala, assembly ; see gaiya. 

gaida, gaishe (with pron. obj.), 
to greet, salute, thank, bid 
farewell ; gaisa to salute ; 
gagaishe to salute several in 
turn ; gaisua salutation. 

gaigaye*, the gnawing of a 
head of millet. 

gainya, ganya, pi. gainye, 
gainyaye, leaf -blade, herb ; 
cf. prov. ha dukan man samct 
ne da chiwo ha man gainye 
it is not the beating of the 
rain that hurts but the drip- 
pings from the branches ; cf. 
Gr. p. 99. 

gainye, fresh ; F 95 dan haki 
gainye a little fresh grass. 

gaira (Ar. j-^^), less, e.g. metin 
gaira ashirin (lit. 200 less 20) 
= 180; ha gaira comiplete, e.g. 
m,etin ha gaira — 200 without 
deduction ; cf. en daia ya yi 
gaira if there was one short. 

gaira, better ; see gdra. 

gaira, to make good ; ha na 
iya gairashi I can make no- 
thing of him ; cf . gerta. The 
participial form gairawa is 
also used. 

gaisa, to salute ; see gaida. 

gaishe, to salute ; gagaishe to 
salute several in turn ; see 






gaisua, salutation, greeting, 
tribute ; it was esp. applied to 
tribute paid to Sokoto; see 

gaiwa, the mud fish (proto- 
pterus) found in most of the 
W. African rivers and re- 
garded as a delicacy to eat. 
Its length is about three feet. 
During the dry season the 
gaiwahur'ies itself in the mud, 
and according to the Hausa 
tradition eats its own tail. 
During the wet season it se- 
cretes fat in its tail which 
supplies sufficient nourisli- 
ment for five or six months ; 
cf . similar use of fat in camel's 
hump. At the approach of 
dry season, it forms a regular 
chamber in the mud, which 
it lines with a protecting coat 
of hardened mucus. When 
the rainy season returns it 
takes to the water again. Its 
skeleton is notochordal, and 
a single vertical fin surrounds 
the posterior part of the body. 
Its tail being upwards is 
partly exposed to hardening 
of mud and rots away and 
occasionally breaks off so as 
to leave a wound ; for de- 
scription of the gaiwa, cf. 
M. H. p. 54. 

gaiya, a tree the root of which 

R. H. D. 

is used for making medi- 

gaiya, n. assembly ; a camp ; 
yin gaiya to assemble ; suria 
gaiya juna they are gathering 
together ; cf . gaiyata. 

gaiya, scorn, mockery. 

gaiyata, to cause to assemble., to become tired ; see ga- 

gaje, to inherit ; see gdji. 

gajera, a short black and white 
viper (echis carinatus) = ker- 

gS,jere, f. gdjera, gdjeria, pi. gd- 
jeru (Ar. /-j-ai), short. 

gS-jerta, gajarta, shortness. 

g^jewa, gajiyawa, weariness, 
inability, failure from fatigue ; 
cf. gaji, gazawa. 

gS,ji, gS,je, to be tired, fatigued,, 

gaji, gaje, to succeed as heir; 
cf. gddo. 

g^jia, fatigue. 

gajimare, 1. clouds ; 2. a spirit 
in the form of an enormous 
snake which lives in wells, 
the male being red, the fe- 
male blue ; it comes out at 
night; 3. the spirit of the 
rainbow which is supposed to « 
hide in the clouds till it 
emerges in the form of the 

gajje, a pool of water. 





gS,la, galla, a small black odor- 
ous bee = rakua. 

galadima, pi. galadimai, an 
official, civil and military, 
probably from Ar. j^^U^ 

the plur. of ^UL*. a title given 
to head of police etc, in Egypt 
and Arabia ; cf . prov. ido da 
ya ga sariki hai ya tsoro ga- 
ladima, i.e. he who has seen 
the king will not be afraid 
of his minister ; the word has 
probably come through the 
Bornuese, the suffix orna corre- 
sponding to the Hausa prefix 
ma or 7nai ; cf. chiroma. 

galadimanchi, or galadan- 
chi, the office of galadima. 

galala, a find, treasure-trove. 

galan-kumburi, a round blue 

galgade, gargadi, to guide, in- 
struct; M. H. p. 228; see 

galgasa, gargasa, a hairy 

galhanga, a fool. 

gali, a sickness prevalent during 
the wet season. 

galkadi, garga.di, warning ; 
B 136 ji galkadi to listen to 
warning, D 30 m,u7ia galkadi 
gareku we warn you. 

gallo, a hard and transparent 
salt, rock-salt. 

galma (S.), garma (K.), q.v., 

pi. galmuna and galem,i a 
large hoe bent back like a 
small plough; cf. kariegalma. 

gam*, a locust which is pound- 
ed in order to make arrow 

g^ima, 1. to finish, complete, 
join ; cf. riddle, dan karam,in 
abu gdma dunia a very small 
thing, but the world is not 
complete without it. Ans. 
The moon. 2. to form a plot 
or conspiracy ; with wayo or 
kai to use stratagem ; gdma 
kai da, gdm,a haki da to con- 
spire with ; gdma fuska to 
meet face to face ; cf . gamawa, 
gamshe, gamu, gangam^a. 

gSma, because, because of, 

gama, to suit, please ; cf . gam- 

gamadidi, a moth with red 
abdomen, white thorax, and 
black and orange wings. 

gamafada, a tree with a yellow 
flower like laburnum. 

gamagari, a species of kola 
nut ; see goro. 

gamata*, D 14 a fainting 

gamatoro, a large, black and 
red, edible caterpillar covered 
with yellow spikes. 

gSmawa, mixing, joining to- 
gether ; gamawan hanu hand 




gamba, pi. gambob% flour of 
i^iiiiiea-corn mixed with water. 

gambo, a child born after twins; 
see gumbo. 

gambu, door of a house made 
of wood. 

gamdare, a bow used in thin- 
ning cotton ; see ganderi. 

garni, garni da or game da, to- 
gether with, concerning; abin 
gamin magani that which is 
needed to mix with medicine, 
the complement. 

gS,mi,to curse, abuse; seegumi. 

gS,mLinbanta, two trees planted 
together so as to grow into 

gamiinbauta, two odd shoes. 

gamji, gumji, ganji, genji 
(ficus sp., Urticaceae), one of 
the rubber trees, baure (with 
bauren rafi, bauren-faddam- 
ma etc.), chedia, durumi, 
gamji, kawuri, wa, and 
others, are all names of dif- 
ferent species of ficus, and 

■ all yield milky juice having 
some of the properties of rub- 
ber, that of gamji being the 
best of those mentioned. The 
figs of baure and durumi have 
sometimes sufliicient succu- 
.lence to be edible; cf. tabor 

gamki, gwamki, an image; 
see gumki. 

gamo, ganwo, a pad on a 
carrier's head ; see gumo. 

gamon-katar, gamon-katar- 
ta (S.), good fortune, luck, 
from Katar the name of a 
man who had extraordinary 
good luck according to a 
popular story. 

gamraka, crested crane ; see 

gamshe, to meet so as to fit, 
to suit ; ya gam^heni or ya 
gamani it pleases me. 

gamsheka, a snake ; see gum- 

gS,m.u, followed b}^ da, 1. to 
meet with someone or some- 
thing ; C 2\ en ta gamu fa 
da kai if she meet (or agree) 
with thee ; to join or be joined 
together ; A 7 ya gamu da 
wuta he comes to the fire ; 2. 
gamu da mache to cohabit 
with ; ranan gamu the day 
fixed for beginning war, or 
the day for meeting, or the 
first time of meeting with one; 
rangam,u id., D 8, 29 ; 3. to 
collect, assemble ; kurdin 
gamu tax paid to native kings 
for the support of mallams; 
intens. iorm = gangamm^ to 
fall foul of, run up against. 

gamurji*, to embrace. 

gam.zaki, morning star; see 





gamzaro, the headman in a 
city in time of war. 

gamzo, champion, hero. 

gana ; yin gdna to talk se- 
crets ; gdnawa, understand- 
ing, friendly relations; ha ta 
kara ga7iawa da shi she broke 
off intimacy with him. 

ganba, to eat too much. 

ganbo, sore, ulcer. 

ganbu (S.), a door. 

gancheruwa, hollow- backed ; 
see gantseruwa. 

gandama, gyandama, a ca- 
labash used as a water jug. 

gande, gyande, f. gandua^ pi. 
gaiidaye, a destitute per- 

ganderi, a reed instrument like 
a miniature bow used in thin- 
ning and cleaning cotton ; cf . 
hakan shiba, masahi. 

gandi, a large cowrie-shell. 

gando, a man who works, but 
receives only food, not money, 
as wages. 

gando, a breakwater, used for 
catching fish. 

gandu, gundu, tribute; kurdin 
gandu tribute money, tax. 

gandu, pi. gandai, a large farm, 
esp. applied to an official 
farm attached to an office as 
part of the emolument of its 

gane, to see ; see gani. 

ganga, pi. gangu7ia, large drum 
used by soldiers. i 

gangama (a reduplicated form J 
of gama to join), to put up 
together, to mix ; E 7 agan- 
gama dukiansu let their 
goods be gathered together, 
gangamav-a^ F 88, pass, ana 
kuma aangajnawa it is also 
joined^together, magangamif 
confluence of rivers. 

gangami, a large drum, a pro- 
clamation ; yin gangamin a- 
zumi to proclaim end of a 

gangamu, intens. form of ga- 
mu, q.v. 

gangamu, specially used of a 
yellow powder made from the 
pounded root of a tree used 
for affections of eyes. 

gangan (possibly an abbrevia- 
tion of gani-gani) : da gan- 
gan on purpose. 

ganganchi, purpose, intention. 

gangante, to push into the 
water and drown, 

gangara, gangari, to roll down, 
to jump down, descend ; pass. 
gangaru to be rolled down. 

gangarawa, rolling, F 153, 165. 

gangare, gangara, pi. ^mi^arw, 
a steep incline, declivity, the 
foot of a mountain. 

gangaria, a kind of guinea- 




gangaro, rolling down. 

gangawari, a herb supposed to 
be an aphrodisiac. 

gani, n. sight; yin gani to 

gani, gane (with pron. obj.), 
to see, behold ; frequently 
contracted to ga or gari. gd- 
shi behold him! na ganshi I 
saw hira ; used metaph., to 
think, to think advisable, see 
with the mind, comprehend ; 
abinda na gani my advice is, 
or in my opinion, e.g. abinda 
na gani ya fi anfani sai mu 
tafi in my opinion the best 
thing for us is to go ; gani is 
sometimes used as a substan- 
tive, e.g. ina murna da ga- 
ninka I am glad to see (lit. 
at the sight of) you ; gano, 
ganu, to look closely at, get 
a good view of; ganene^ ga- 
nenia, pi. ganenu, seen. 

ganjigaga, a light-coloured 
kola nut; see goro. 

ganna, rampart ; see ganwa. 

gano, to see ; see gani. 

gantseruwa, gancheruwa, 
gantsarwa, gantsara, to be 
hollow backed, of a pack 
animal to be overladen ; to 
bend the back inwards in 

ganwa, pit, ditch, rampart or 
wall round a town ; ganwar- 

amina ruined town-walls, so 
called from Amina a mythi- 
cal queen who wandered a- 
bout the world, walled cities 
springing up in a day wher- 
ever she stopped. 

ganwo, a carrier's pad ; see 

ganya, leaf ; see gainya. 

gara (cf. Ar. jU in, to trade), 
the small addition which the 
seller is expected to make to 
the value of the article sold 
by him on the completion of 
the purchase. When a man 
buys nuts or anything else in 
a small way, he gets his fifty 
or a hundred cowries worth 
and so many extra thrown 
in for luck ; this addition is 
called the gara; ena gara 
= how much are you going 
to give me into the bargain ? 

gara, gaira, it is better ; gara 
hdka it is better so, ni gara 
en tsaya it is better for me 
to stop ; cf . gwanda. 

g3>ra, pi. garani, termites (ter- 
mesbellicosus), usually known 
as white ants ; gara is some- 
times used of ants generally ; 
gara is properly applied only 
to the female white ant, the 
masc. is zdgo. 

gara (usually pronounced gy- 
ara), to prepare, to put a 




thing right, to^ arrange mat- 
ters ; gara kaya to get ready 
a load, gara hainya to pre- 
pare a way ; gerta, q.v., is 
probably a secondary form of 

gara, 1. a wife's or relative's 
marriage presents given to 
a bridegroom ; yin gara to 
rejoice at a marriage; 2. a 

garafini or garafunu, a bitter 
plant, its leaves used in 
making sauce, fruit red. 

garaiya, guraiya, karaiya, a 
two stringed musical instru- 
ment with long oval body, 
bigger than a molo, also used 
for a kind of zithern. 

garaje, impatience; cf. garaje 
ha kariji ha hurry is not 

garaji, a grass eaten by horses. 

garama (cf. Ar. 4-«tj^, debt, 
tax), money paid to a king 
for permission to travel ; also 
used of any kind of tax ; 
maikarhar g. tax collector. 

garama* or dan-garama, a 
raised ridge. 

garanya (K.), a reed. 

garara, one who has defective 

garashe, haste ; see garaje. 

garatse, a point. 

garauwa (K.), a first present 
given as a sign that a larger 
will follow. 

gardama, dispute; see gerda- 

gardawa ; see gardi. 

gardaye, skilful, especially in 

gardi, gerdi, f . gardia^ savoury, 
e.g. geda tana da gardi the 
ground nut has a fine flavour. 

gardi, gerdi, pi. gardawa, a 
Hausa snake-charmer who 
begs, beggar. 

gare, to, at, unto. Its use with 
pronominal suffixes corre- 
sponds to that of ga with 
nouns. Used with them it 
expresses possession, like the 
modern Arabic jUc, thus 

^^ jU^ = gareni I have. The 

forms garasa, garas, garai 
and gare are sometimes used 
instead of gareshi ; for this 
use of gare, cf. also French 
c'est a moi. It is often pre- 
ceded by ddga, hisa and kusa, 
dag a gareni from me, kusa 
gareshi near to him, htsa 
garesa upon it. 

gare, a boy's game. 

gare, a cricket. 

gare, pi. garuruka, a white 

garera, oesophagus. 




garewa, pi. of hagare^ a chief- 

gargd.da, to warn, i.q. galkadi, 

garg&dl, n. warning, teach- 

gargami, garkami, strong in 

garg&ra, to exceed in strength ; 
see gdgdra. 

gargasa, galgasa, a hairy per- 

gargasa, gargaza, pi. gargasu, 
a large fish with white scales 
below and red tail. 

garge, pi. garuga (S.), cattle 
shed ; see garike. 

gari, pi. garurua, garuruka, 
garu, garigaru, 1. country, 
town, frequently used of a 
small town as contrasted with 
birni a large town; 2. sky, 
in the phrase gari ya waye 
the day dawns, lit. the place 
becomes light; dunia ya 
waye is used in the same 
way ; gctri ina wolkia it 
lightens, gari yai dufu the 
sky became dark ; 3. place. 
Hence gari(n)j to, in order 
to, e.g. garin shan iska in 
order to drink the air, i.e. to 

' enjoy the fresh air, ya taji 
garin yawo he has gone for 
a walk ; cf . ku hani gari (in 
asking riddles) = do you give 

it up ? Ans. mu haka we 

give it you. 
gari, flour, 
gari*, a minute, 
garikaye* beanstalks used as 

food for camels ; cf. M. H. 

p. 63. 
garike, gerke, garge, pi. gari- 

kuna, gerkuna^ garuga, 1. a 

place where cattle are kept 

by night, stall, fold ; 2. flock, 

garimaka, garmaka, crested 

crane ; see goraka. 
gario, a missile knife, a kind 

of sword with three cutting 

blades used for throwing, 
gariwaji*, strong in war. 
gariwoya, to mix ; see gar- 

waya. « 

garje, a scab, sore. ^ 

garkami, strong in war ; see 

garki, garikine, cavalry with 

garkua, gerkua, pi. gariki^ 

^arA;mi, shield, Fordiflerent 

kinds of shields cf. kwungura, 

kutufani, kunkeli, etc. 
garma (K.), a large hoe bent 

back like a small plough ; see 

garmaka, crested crane ; see 

garowa*, a fine male slave, 
garr, quickly, used of running ; 




ya yi ta gudu garr he was 
off like a shot. 

garn, a wall, a building. 

garunfa, garumfa, a straw 
hat; the word frequently 
occurs in the phrase dan- 
garunfa, q.v., i.e. a trader 
who carries his goods upon 
his head. 

garura, a red dye, brought as 
a powder from the East, used 
for staining the hands and 
for dyeing silk. 

garwashi, pi. garwashoshij 
cinders, burning charcoal ; 
usually followed by wuta ; 
cf. gawoi. 

garwaya, gariwoya, to mix, 
mix together, pass, garwayu. 

gasa, an exclamation of dis- 
content or resentment. 

gasa*, to be tired ; used in 
M. H. p. 149 for gaje. 

gasa, imitation, rivalry, emu- 
lation ; yin gasa, or gashe to 

g^sa, to make a large tire ; 
to bake, roast ; naman gd- 
sawa meat for cooking ; gasa 
hanu to warm the hands. 

gasaiya, a herb the leaves of 
which are used as a vegetable 
(Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 
Capparideae) ; cf. yar-ungwa. 

gasara, inter j. a cry of astonish- 

gasashe, f . gasashia, pi. gasasu, 
1. caught, of afire; 2. roasted. 

gase, with yi, to refuse to keep a 
promise, also to announce the 
intention of doing something 
without really meaning it. 

gSiShi, n. roasting, warming; 
wutar gdshi to fire to cook by. 

gashi, vomiting ; cf . gesa. 

gashi, 1. hair or wool of men, 
sheep, etc.; 2. feathers of 
birds, sahon gashi down ; 3. a 
single hair, cf . F 144 kararata 
taswa gashi it was narrow as 
a single hair (cf. Fulah gasa). 

gashi, i.e. ga shi behold it ! a 
very common form of excla- 
mation to attract attention to 
anything; gashi wanan look 
at this ! cf. fem. form gata. 

gashi, in the phrase mugim 
gashi, quarrelsomeness, bad 

gashiere, short, M. H. p. 173 
for gajere, q.v. 

gashimare, clouds, etc.; see 

gaskami, a food prepared from 
the fruit of the dor owa tree. 

gaskanta, gaskata, to establish 
the truth of a thing, to assure 
a person of the reality of any- 
thing, to speak truly ; cf. /mi 
che duba ba gaskanta che we 
say that divination is not to' 
be trusted. 




gaske and da gaske, true, truly ; 
cf. seq. 

gaskia, masc. or fern, truth, 
certainty, trust, righteous- 
ness ; da gaskia truly, cer- 
tainly ; bada gaskia or yin 
gaskia- to believe, ba gaskia 
to speak the truth, used of a 
judge ba or bada gaskia to 
acquit, gaskia ne it is really 
so, marasgaskia false ; ban- 
gaskia faith. 

gata, gatanchi, happiness, 
prosperity ; dayi gata, yar 
gata a boy or girl of good 
position ; ya yi mani gata he 
has brought me luck. 

g&ta, pi. gataye, spy, sentinel, 
especially applied to a man 
on watch up a tree, or on a 

gata or gatan biri, large mon- 
key with red belly. 

gata, the day after the day after 
to-morrow, the third day ; cf. 

gatana, 1. used in the phrase 
gata gatana (see it, see it 
here) which is used to intro- 
duce a story ; 2. a story or 

gatanchi, wealth ; see gata. 

gatari, pi. gdfara, gdtura, gd- 
tarua, hatchet ; dan gatari a 
small hatchet; gatarin aradu 
a meteorite. 

gato, 1 . buttock ; maigato a fat 
man ; 2. bottom, foundation, 
e.g. gaton darni bottom of a 

gatsa, to bite off : n. a stump. 

gatse, to vomit ; cf. gashi, 

g3<tse, sarcasm, irony ; yai gatse 
ga ski he laughed at him. 

gatsina (K.), pride. 

gatuma, old woman ; see giya- 

gatura, axes ; see gatari. 

gaude, a shrub with white 
fragrant flowers, yellow edible 
fruit (Gardenia thunbergii, 
Rubiaceae), gauden kura is 
another species with coarser 

gauga, gyauga, a game. 

gaugata, gagauta, to hasten; 
gaugawa\ya.^tQi\mg', cf. M.H. 
p. 11 7 tana yin gaugawa she 
was hastening along ; da gau- 
gaiva in haste. 

gau.ji,a large species of monkey, 
an old monkey. 

gauraka, crested crane ; see 

gauraya, mixing up. 

gaure, to mix, intermarry. 

gauro, sprouting ; see gyauro. 

gaushi or garwashi, live cin- 

gaushi, gautsi, gausi, brittle- 




gauta, pi. gautaye, a plant 
closely resembling a tomato, 
of a bushy growth, its fruit 
has a bitter taste. 

gautan kaji, a species of wild 
tomato with edible leaves, an 
ointment is made from its 

gautan kura, a prickly bush, 
with coarse leaves and smooth, 
yellow, tomato-like fruit : a 
fatal poison (Solanum sanc- 
tum, Solanaceae). 

gawa, pi. gawaweki^ corpse. 

gawa, Coffee ; see gahawa. 

gaw^sa, gawaza, pi. gawdsai, 
gawdsuna, gawdsoshi, a stone 
fruit, brought from the East, 
not grown in Hausaland. 

gawayi, charcoal ; see gawoi. 

gawo, pi. gawake, a kind of 
acacia planted near houses 
for the purpose of obtaining 
water during the dry season 
by digging under it. Its 
wood is red, its berries white ; 
the leaves, which are eaten by 
goats and cattle, fall ofi* during 
the dry season ; cf. kawo. 

gawoi, pi. gawaye, charcoal, 
not burning charcoal, for 
which cf. garwashi. 

gawurta, gawusta, to grow 
big, increase, to be firmly 
established ; yaro ya gawurta 
the boy has grown up ; also 

to talk big, to boast ; ga- 
wurtache, pi. gawurtatu, full 
grown, developed. 

gaya, evil ; rama gaya to pay 
off scores. 

gS,ya, alliance, also reinforce- 
ment, assistance ; ya huga \ 
gaya he called for support ; " 
gayache to call on; angaya- 
cheta she was invited to join , 
in a feast ; cf. gdyato. \ 

gaya, dough ; gayan tuo dough 
before it is flavoured with 
meat or gravy. 

gS-ya, to reveal, to make mani- 
fest or known ; ka gaya mani 
explain to me. 

gaya (K.), boundary. 

gayara, fatigue, trouble ; sa 
gayara to cause trouble. 

gS,yato, to ask help from. 

gayauna, a farm given by a 
master to his slave on which 
he works on Sundays and 
Thursdays, and of which the 
produce belongs to the slave. 

gaye, n. demonstration; yin 
gaye to make clear ; see gdya. 

gayya, assembly ; see gaiya. 

gS,za, to fall short of, to be 
unable to do anything, to 
fail ; na gaza (or na kasa) 
tafia I am unable to go; sun 
gaza isa they failed to over- 
come, M. H. p. 224 ; suka yi 
wojen arba ko sun fi ko sun 




gaza da Mdan oho there were 
about 4000, whether more or 
a little leas does not matter ; 
'Kami ya gaza masa his hand 
failed him. 

Tigazaguni, a giant. 
ga,zama, gyazama, a kind of 

gazara, a reed from which 
arrows are made. 

gazari, a species of hanurnua 

' nut, somewhat like a kola 
nut ; cf. sandahv. 

gazau*, a hyena. 

g3,zawa, weariness; F 15 shi 
ne aziza da bai gazawa He 
is mighty and is not weary ; 
cf. gaje and gajewa; for 
similar interchange of j and 
z cf . jarimi and zarumi. 

,gazo, da gazo strong. 

jgazunzumi, a bad smelling bug. 

Igeaeya, giyaiya, a tree which 
grows in damp localities (Mit- 

I rogyne Africana, Rubiaceae). 

Igeasa, to belch ; see gesa. 

I geauga, play ; see gyauga. 

igebe, a slit in a stick, a fissure 
in a rock, a watercourse, also 
the beak of a bird ; cf. M. H. 
p. 200. 

, geche, bank ; see gachi. 

geda, gyeda, to wag the head, 
to beckon, especially in phrase 
geda kai to assent ; cf . kauda 
kai to dissent. 

geda, g^da (arachis hypogaea), 
ground nut, monkey-nut, the 
oil obtained from it {main 
geda) is used for food and 
for lamps in Hausaland and 
is very largely exported ; it 
is obtained by expression 
with heat, and is of a light 
yellowish colour. 

geduwa, a disease which causes 
the fingers and toes to fall 
off; inaigeduwa a man who 
has lost a finger or toe from 
this disease; cf. 'Hausaland,' 
p. 152 ; possibly from Ar. 

Sj^, scrofula. 

gefe, bank of a river, the out- 
side or edge of anything. 

geffcu, girdle, used by women ; 
dan geftu id. 

gege, to pass near, go close to. 

gekau* = timjere. 

gembo, the next child born 
after the birth of twins; see 

gembo, pi. gembuna, ulcer. 

geme (S.), gemu(K.), pi. gema, 
beard ; cf . en ka ga gemu dan 
uwayika ya kam,u wuta shafa 
naka rua if you see your 
brother's beard catch fire 
pour water on your own, i.e. 
if trouble befalls your neigh- 
bour take care for yourself; 
maigeme a bearded man. 




gemro, grain that springs up 
of itself ; see gyauro. 

gendama, calabash ; see gyan- 

gendi, f. gendia, a strong, mus- 
cular, fat person. 

gengeda, sleepiness ; cf. M. H. 
p. 186, kana yi gengeda 
da kwana you nod in your 

gengedi, to feel sleepy, to be 
overcome by sleepiness. 

genji, a rubber tree; see 

geno, an ant ; see gwano. 

gera, to prepare ; see gdra. 

gera, eyebrow ; see gira. 

geran geran, an imitation of 
the sound of anything break- 
ing — kilin kilin. 

gerdama, gardama, dispute, 
denial, a dispute in which 
something is denied ; ya raba 
gerdama he settled the diffi- 
culty; yin gerdama to dis- 
pute, deny. 

gerdama, v. to dispute, deny. 

gerdawa, snake-charmers ; see 

gerdi, savoury; see gardi. 

gergi (S.), a cotton farm. 

gerke, fold ; see garike. 

gerkua, shield ; see garkua. 

gero, a species of millet (pen- 
nisetum spicatum), very gene- 
rally used as a food by the 

Hausas ; geron tsuntsu an- 
other species of millet, 
gerta, 1. to mend, repair, im 

prove ; 2. generally, to make 

ready, prepare, to comb (the 

hair); cf. gdra, 
gertache, f . gertata, pi. gertatu, 

adorned, garnished, cleaned, 

gertawa, particip. form of gerta, 

mending, etc. 
gesa, geasa, to belch, 
gesbi, an animal resembling a 

large mole, 
geti*, stingy. 
geto, hollow ; used in the phrase 

geton kune the hollow behind 

the ear. 
getse, a saddle sore on a horse's 

gewaya, to go round; see ke- 

waya and jeioayi. 
gewoye, around ; maigewoye 

(lit. one who goes round) a 

spy; see kewoya. 
geza, pi. gezuna, 1. tuft of corn, 

rice or wheat ; 2. the name 

of a horse or lion. 
gia, an intoxicating drink ; see 

gianduma, gendama, a gourd 

used as a water-bottle ; see 

glbi, tooth-gaping, applied to 

men who have lost two 

teeth ; cf . wushiria. 




giche, gichi, to step over, to 

overthrow ; cf. gigiche. 

gichi, gichia, n. intersection ; 
yin gichia to sit cross-legged ; 
cf. ginchira. 

glda, pi. gulaje, gidashe, gida- 
daji masc, 1. house, dwell- 
ing, premises, gida includes 
the whole compound which 
may consist of more than 
one house (daki) ; rnaiglda 
householder ; gidan tsira 
house of escape, refuge, e.g. 
house of king, galadlma, etc. ; 
gidan gohe, B 27 hdka fa 
dunia da gidan gohe so, too, 
earth and the next world, lit. 
house of to-morrow ; gidan 
wasa theatre ; 2. receptacle, 
used of cases, covers, etc., as 
gidan alura needle-case, gl- 
dan kibia quiver, gidan zu- 
mua beehive; 3. it is some- 
times used for household, e.g. 
ka gaida gida give my salu- 
tations to your household ; 
kaka glda how are the inhabi- 
tants of your house? kaka 
gida is also an expression 
applied to the children in a 
home for freed slaves ; cf. 
M. H. p. 183, da gishe 
homewards, hankalinsa (or 
kainshi) ha shi agida he is 
not 'all there,' lit. his wits 
are not at home. alherhi 

gida biu a blessing in this 
world and the next, hayan 
gida closet, stool, gida biar 
and gida rina parts of the 
embroidery on the front of 
a gown, gidan tururua the 
name of a plant ; gidaunia 
a large bowl or calabash con- 
taining fura. It is used of 
a fish bowl, when empty the 
bowl is called kivaria. 

gidibi (S.), kidibi, pi. gidiba, 
kidiba, kidney. 

gigar, leg-irons. 

gigi, n. lack of understand- 

gigiche, to fail to understand, 
to stumble as in a faint ; see 

gigichi, giddiness, vertigo. 

giginia, giginya, pi. gigangani, 
giginyoyi, giginai, fan or 
deleb palm (borassus flabelli- 
formis), the fruit {kurdugo) 
is white inside with red skin, 
the leaves are used for mak- 
ing hats, mats, etc. ; the fan 
palm owing to the height of 
its foliage from the ground, 
throws its shadow at a dis- 
tance; cf. prov. enuar giginia 
na nesa kan shaki shadow of 
fan palm ! at a distance men 
enjoy you : addressed to a 
man who lavishes his bounty 
outside his own house. 




gigita, to fail to understand, 

to be wanting in sense, 
gigiwa (K.), insolence ; see 

gije, a bird's nest ; cf. seq. 
giji, house, home; cf. M. H. 

p. 206, mi zai sa aher giji 

wliat causes anyone to leave 

home ; uhangiji master of 

the house ; see gida. 
gijirta, to sit with crossed legs; 

cf. ginchira. 
gilgiji, girgiji, cloud, moving 

cloud as opposed to lumshi, 

q.v., a still cloud. 
gilgiza, girgiza, to shake, e.g. 

a tree : also to raise the hand 

in salutation ; gilgizaze, f . gil- 

gizazia, pi. gilgizazu, shaken, 
gilma, to cross, to walk across, 
gilma, an axe, M. H. p. 100. 
gilme, pi. gilmomi, gilnomi, 

crossing ; gilmen itache two 

pieces of wood crossed, 
gima (S.), oil palm. 
gimba, pi. gimbayi, 1. a large 

white seed used as a bead ; 

2. the son of a king; cf. 

gimbia, daughter of a king, 
gimshi, a large, shady tree. 
gimshiki, gumshiki, pillar, 

middle supporting pole of 

gina, to dig, to build ; used of 

roads, to build, construct; 

gina karia to fabricate a 
lie ; magini, fem. maginia, 
ip\. magina, builder, potter; 
ginane built, fem. ginania. 
ginaria or ginania, rain during 
heavy storm, storm ; cf. zir- 
ginchira (S.), to sit with cross 
ed legs ; aginchire with cross- 
ed legs ; cf. gijirta. 
gindi, 1. bottom or foot of a 
tree, hill, etc. ; 2. buttocks ; 
3. rope tying a horse's leg to 
a post. 
gindo, a poor man. 
gini, name of large fish from 
which oil for eating is ob- 
gino, to dig, grub up; cf. 


ginsa da, to be overdone with ; 

ginsa n. surfeit ; ya yi ginsa 

it causes surfeit, also ginshe 

to cause surfeit ; cf . raun chi 

shinkafa har ta ginshemu we 

ate rice till we could eat no 


glnshimi, corpulent. 

ginsu, to over-eat. 

gira, gera, giro, pi. girori, gir- 

gira, eyebrow, 
giraya, a kind of drumming, 
giraza, beam, fringe; girazal 

rana ray of sun. 
girba, to cut, to reap, 
girbi, n . har vest ; rrmgirhi sickle. 




girgamo, guinea worm. 

girgiza, to shake ; see gilgiza. 

girgizo, a spider ; see gizo. 

girigiji, cloud ; see gilgiji. 

girike, white tobe. 

girima, to grow, to become 
large ; cf. girma. 

girima, great, large ; see girma. 

girin girin, the sound of fall- 
ing glass, etc. ; see kirin kirin. 

girip, the sound of a drum. 

girje, scab ; see kurji. 

girke, to place upright, place 
together, e.g. pots on a fire ; 
giggirkaairequentative form, 
e.g. angiggirka iukwane a 
number of pots were put on 
the fire. 

girkeke, f. girkekia, pi. gir- 
keku, closed, fastened ; cf. 

girma, girima, masc. greatness, 
importance, size ; yin girima 
to grow ; da girima large ; ta 
yi girima da shi she is older 
(or bigger) than he; nafUo 
ha girima ha arziki I had to 
quit in piteous guise ; gir- 
mankai pride, conceit, swollen 
head ; ha (or hada) girjna to 
honour ; D 62 rana nan da 
manmaza kun samu girma on 
that day you shall speedily 
attain glory ; cf. proverb sai 
da rai asamu girma great- 
ness will not outlast death; 

maigirma great, important, 

girmama, to honour. 

girmama, greatness ; Y 12 ka 
her hidan/agirmamaka leave 
off seeking after thine own 

girmankai, pride E 25 ; masu- 
girmankai proud F 167; see 

girme, to excel, be greater than, 
be older than. 

giro, eyebrow ; see gira. 

girsa, girshe, before pron. obj. 
to attack, fall upon. 

girtsa, to cut in pieces. 

gisago, an axe for cutting 
grass ; see gizago. 

gisaka, kisaka. a hairy cater- 

gishi, a moth. 

gishiri, salt; cf. prov. mutum 
da yishirinsa shi kan ddfa 
kafo a man may boil a horn 
with his own salt, i.e. one 
may waste one's own sub- 
stance if one pleases. For 
other words denoting salt, cf. 
halma, ashauina, galo, aserimi, 
kantu, zakanku. About half 
the salt in Hausaland is im- 
ported by way of the R. Niger, 
the rest is brought from dif- 
ferent parts of the Sahara, 
especially from the Oasis of 
Bilma. Salt is also prepared 




from the ashes of different 
grasses and plants which are 
placed in water and strained. 

glso, spider ; see gizo. 

gita (K.), a war axe. 

gitsawa (S.), a speckled goat. 

giwa, pi. giwaye, elephant ; toron 
giwa male elephant, for fem. 
see tagua f hakorin giwa or 
haurin giwa elephant's teeth, 
ivory ; cf . prov. giwa awani 
gari zomo a great man is no- 
body where no one knows 
him ; in war giwa is applied 
to the king's body-guard, i.e. 
the strongest point of the line; 
giwan ma a large fish, 'Nile 
perch ' ; giwan hdsa a large 
leather bottle used to hold 

giwakamba, a kind of guinea- 
corn used for rubbing on the 
eyes ; see dawa. 

giwaya, kewaya, jiwaya, to 
go round a thing in order to 
examine it, to gaze at, to look 
on at. 

giya, an intoxicating drink 
made by soaking guinea-corn 
in water for three days till it 
begins to sprout, it is then 
beaten and boiled. 

giyaiya, geaeya, a tree (mi- 
trogyne Af ricana,Rubiaceae), 
grows in damp places. 

giyatuma or jatoma, a woman 

who is beginning to grow old ; 
generally used by the Fulanis 
as equivalent to mother. 

giyauji, mouse ; see gyauji, 

gizago, a small axe used for 
cutting grass, a scoop to scrape 
out gourds, etc. 

gizaka, a hairy caterpillar, the 
touch of which makes a sore 
on the skin. 

gizgari*, strong warrior. 

glzo, often pronounced gisso, 
spider, used as an emblem of 
envy and jealousy, cf . M. H. 
p. 200, the fem. form is hoki. 
hakan gizo the rainbow. 

gizo, fear, used in the phrase 
ya yi gizo = ya ji tsoi'o. 

gizo, an abundance of long hair 
on the head in the fashion of 
the Asbenawa (Tuaregs) or 
the itinerant snake-charmers 

goama, better; see gwama. 

goami, a re-kindled fiire; see 

goata, to stick out, project, 
excel ; kdda woni ya goata 
woni let not one project be- 
yond another ; cf . goche, 

goaza, an edible tuber; see 

gobS,ra (Ar. j^\ 1. conflagra- 
tion ; 2. ruins left after a con- 
flagration ; 3. pain, torment, 




cf. B 12 ko gobara bai ta don 
hanai even the torment (of 
hell) is not equally harmful. 

gobdodo, bush ; see kobdodo. 

gobdua, yolk of egg ; see kobdua. 

gobe, 1 . the morrow, to-morrow ; 
sai gobe a parting salutation 
— till we meet again to-mor- 
row ; gobensa on its morrow, 
i.e. the next day; cf. pro v. 
yau da gobe shi ya sa alura 
ginin rijia, i.e. perseverance 
makes a needle dig a well ; 
yau da gobe kayan allah to- 
day and to-morrow are God's 
possession, i.e. continuity is 
the prerogative of God ; gobe 
na nan to-morrow is coming, 
i.e. there is another chance ; 
2. used to qualify nouns of 
time, as week, month, etc. 
= next, proximo, e.g. watan 
gobe next month ; 3. the last 
day, the judgment day ; 
B 87 wanda ke shiri domin 
gobe who is making prepara- 
tion for the last day ; ranan 
gobe the last day ; B 11, 140 
ran gobe id.; gidan gobe B 27, 
125 the next world ; cf. mai- 
gobe, B 3. 

gobir, pr. name of a large dis- 
trict in Hausaland. 

gobra, gobre, gobure, gum- 
beri, to knock against, dash 

R. H. D. 

gobro, gwauro, gauro, 
gwamro, fem. gobnm, 1. 
bachelor, widower, spinster, 
widow ; cf. idiom, na yi go- 
bron tashi I have made an 
early (lit. a bachelor's) start ; 
cf. goro ; 2*. used of a bad 
kola nut that has gone black. 

gobso, n. poking, e.g. with the 

gobta, an old horse. 

gochema, to make to fall, 
B 147; cf. seq. 

gochi, goche, 1. to turn off 
from the way, to pass anyone 
on the path, to lose the way; 
2. to be out of joint ; 3. to 
knock against ; cf . haderi ya 
goche da rua the storm came 
down in torrents; cf. goata. 

gochia, guchia, avoidance, of 
a missile, etc. 

g6da, to weigh, to measure. 

goda, gwoda, to show, to point 
out; cf. C 17 shi kan goda 
muna takitaki dunia he would 
show to us the course of the 
world ; cf. godu. 

goda, pi. gododi, antelope ; see 

godabe, path, road. 

godawa*, joint, section. 

godayi, pi. of gode, q.v. 

gode, g5da (Kanuri id.), to 
thank, give thanks to, constr. 
with ace. and also with prep. 





ma; na gode maka thank 
you ; the word is frequently 
used of thanksgiving to God, 
as in E 2 mu gode uhangiji 
sarki sarota, F 256 7ia gode 
ma allah. 

gode, pi. godayi, 1. a thorny 
creeper used in making 
thatched roofs; 2. the circu- 
lar bands of sticks which 
are tied round the reed rafters 
of a thatch to keep them in 

godia, pi. givaddi, a mare, 
used as the fem. of doki. 

godiya, thanks ; viunagodiazua 
ga allah we give thanks to God ; 
cf. D 101 muna godia don 
muhammad we give thanks 
on account of Mohammed, 
yin godia to give thanks. 

godo, a coarse white cloth. 

godo, the name of a tree the 
leaves of which are used in 
making soup, M. H. p. 74. 

godo, flattery, yin godo to 

godobe, a broad road. 

godogo, a faked cowry shell 
used by dishonest gamblers, 
made by joining two small 
shells together so that the lips 
or back are always exposed. 

godu, intr. and reflex, form of 
goda, to appear, make oneself 
known to. 

gofa (K.), pi. go/anni, the fork 
of a bifurcating branch or 
stick, itache niaigofa a stick 
with a fork in it. The equi- 
valent for gofa in Sokoto is 

gofa, to excel in size ; ya gofani 
he is bigger than I ; cf . gota. 

gofo, an ass with black mouth. 

gogali, a mixture of nuts, 
beans, etc. 

gogamasu, small plant with 
white globular flower, a pur- 
gative is made from it. 

gogara*, boastful warrior ; see 

goge, n. a stick for a musical 
instrument resembling a vio- 
lin; also the instrument it- 

goge, a shrub with jasmine- 
like, fragrant blossoms (Cre- 
mospora sp., Rubiaceae). 

gogi, goge, to scrape, polish, 
clean, to rub in, goge zane 
to rub spots, M. H. p. 197. 

gogo*, Fulah id., aunt, father's 

gogo, a black, tailed baboon 
5 ft. high found on banks 
of the R. Benue. 

goguwari, a small lizard, with 
black head; its bite is said 
to cause leprosy. 

goho, an obscene gesture used 
by children. 




goi, charcoal ; see gawoi. 
goino, yin goino to fall in 

price ; cf . gonjo. 
goiwa, gwaiwa, testicles. 
goiya, goya, goiye, to tie up 
together ; to bear in the ear, 
as corn, etc. ; goiya hanunka 
fold your arms, 
goiyo, a child carried on the 
back. Infants are always 
carried thus in Hausaland, 
bound to the mother by a 
fold of cloth; B 116 6a s^i 
mutu goiya ha does not an 
infant die 1 yin goiyo to give 
suck to. goiyo is used of the 
care of children up to age of 
12. amhada yaro goiyo the 
boy was put under guardians. 
maigoiyo guardian, goiyo is 
also used for a bundle; cf. 
M. H. p. 155 ta yi goiyo 
woni ga hayanta she made 
another bundle (of corn) for 
her back, goiyo, or goiyon 
masara is used of the cob 
or head of corn. 

goji (Z.), pumpkin ; mijin goji 
a small tree with white flower, 

. cuttings of which are often 

. planted with the goji; cf. 
kabewa (K.). 

gojia, ground nut; see guchia. 

golgoda, gorgoda, to measure, 
to compare by measuring; 

/ golgodawa, gorgodawa mea- 

suring; cf. M. H. p. 100 shina 
tafia golgodawa kafansa da 
na uwansa he would walk so 
as to compare his steps with 
those of his mother. 

golgodo, gorgodo, measure; 
cf. D 25 kowa shi samu gol- 
godosa every man shall receive 
his measure (of reward) ; used 
also adverbially with suffixed 
pronouns, e.g. A3 ka yi gor- 
godonka na kokari make what 
attempt thou canst, lit. do 
thy measure of attempt. 

goli (S.), a leather band worn 
round the neck. 

golma, a walking stick. 

goma, good, applied to women 
only, an old woman. 

goma, card, number, ten; used 
with particle ska and the 
units to form numbers eleven 
to nineteen, goma sha daia 
eleven, goma sha biu twelve, 
etc. gomia, a plural form of 
goma is sometimes used to 
express the decades above 
ten ; thus gomia biu twenty, 
gomia uku thirty. This was 
probably the original method 
of counting large numbers 
before the Hausas borrowed 
Arabic numerals. With el- 
lipsis of goma, sha daia = 
eleven, sha biu twelve, etc. 

gomache, to prefer ; cf . gurtia. 





gomaza, a species of antelope : 
by metathesis for gonzana. 

gomdazaki, gondazaki, gan- 
dazaki, gamzaki, morning 

gomi, a club or heavy stick. 

gomki, gonki, roan antelope. 

gomraka, crested crane; see 

gona, pi. gonaki, 1. farm, culti- 
vated field ; 2. fig. fosterer ; 
B 109 dunia gonal chiicta the 
world is the nurturer of sick- 
ness ; maigona farmer. 

gonda, often pronounced gwan- 
da (carica papaya), pawpaw- 
tree or fruit. The leaves 
and fruit are greatly valued 
by the Hausas. A piece of 
tough meat wrapped in a 
pawpaw leaf becomes tender 
in half an hour. The same 
result is produced by placing 
a piece of the fruit in the 
cooking pot. The fruit re- 
sembles a melon and is bright 
red inside. For description of 
the gondar mazar (^Egyptian 
pawpaw) cf. M. H. p. 52. 
gwandar daji, a species of 
custard apple with yellow 
edible fruit and fragrant 
leaves (Anona sp., Anona- 

gonda, a cloth with white 

gondazaki, see gomdazaki. 

gondo, a fish resembling an eel. 

gongola, gwongola, a ISTupe 

goni, gwoni, gwani, pi. go- 
nai, gonaye, clever, skilful, 
expert ; as adv. cleverly, skil- 
fully, expertly, gwanin rua 
an expert swimmer ; gtvanin 
doki a good horseman. 

goni, profession, occupation, 
skill, art ; cf. seq. 

goninta, cleverness; cf. M. H. 
p. 219 goninta wuya gar eta 
cleverness is a hazardous 

gonjo, cheap sale, reduction in 
price ; anahuga gonjo a cheap 
sale is being announced on 
the drums ; cf. goino. 

gonki, gomki, a roan antelope ; 
see gwenki. 

gonzama, antelope; cf. gomaza. 

gora, pi. gorori^ fern, reed, bam- 
boo ; gorar jiki straightness 
of body from hips to shoulders : 
goral hanchi bridge of the nose. 

gora, pi. goruna, a kind " of 

gorS., pi. gorina^ masc. calabash, 
cup, water bottle ; cf . prov. 
kowa ya kas kifi goransa who- 
ever kills a fish (it is for) his 
own basket, i.e. a man's acts 
come home to himself. 

goraka, gauraka, garmaka, 




gamraka, gomraka, ipi.gau- 

. raki (balearica pavonina), 

' crested crane; a large bird 
with golden crest, the spread 
of its wings is over six feet, 
its breast is white. 

goreba, dum palm ; see goriha. 

gorgodo, measure ; see golgodo. 

gorgunguma, a large black 
beetle with long legs. 

gori, mockery ; yi7i gori to 
mock at. 

goria* a large goro nut. 

goriba, goreba, pi. goribaiy 
gorihohi (crucifera thebaica), 
the dum palm, mats, fans, etc. 
made from its fibre. 

gorje, gwarje, gurje, 1. large, 
buzzing horse-fly ; 2. small 
bell on horses, etc. 

goro, pi. gwurra (urr pronounc- 
ed as in English currier), the 
kola nut, the fruit of the 
sterculia acuminata, found 
in the greatest perfection in 
the hinterland of the Gold 
Coast Colony. The nut, which 
is the size of a large chestnut 
and of brick-red colour, has 
a bitter taste somewhat simi- 
lar to quinine, and is chewed 
by the Hausas as a stimulant, 
and enables them to go for 
a, long time without food ; 
cf. 'Hausaland,'pp. 95 — 117. 
namijin goro is a small white 

kind of goro nut used as a 
medicine. Various messages 
are conveyed by the gift of 
different kinds of kola nuts ; 
cf. M. H. p. 200 suka kawo 
goro na tamhaya they brought 
a kola nut with the object of 
enquiring; goron saiyan baki 
kolas given by the best man 
to the bride in order to over- 
come her shyness ; goron ya- 
ki the share of the spoil claim- 
ed by a successful war chief. 
There are three common kinds 
of kola nuts, 1. atarus; 2. la- 
bujcj less bitter and dearer 
than 1 ; 3. ganjigaga. An 
early crop of a bright red 
colour and often insect-riddled 
which is sold about November 
is called nata^ the later crop 
is called jankarago and a 
specially good crop sold early 
in the year gamagari. To 
the salutation albishirinka 
(lit. your news?) the answ;er 
is goro. The answer implies 
that the messenger will receive 
his reward, e.g. a kola nut. 

goro, bachelor ; see gobro. 

goron-rua, a tree with plum- 
like fruit ; Irvingia Smithii. 

gorori (K.), a white cloth with 
red stripes. 

gorTia,gobrua,avirgin; ctgoro. 

gorzo, gwarzo, pi. goraje, 1. 




strong, muiscular person; 2. 
husband*; C 50. 

goshi, forehead, brow, front ; 
^ 61 ku sainya lahiralka ga- 
han goshi place the next world 
before your forehead ; goshin 
hauna (buffalo's forehead), 1. 
a sandal with a triangular 
piece of cloth attached to it 
to protect the toes as the 
base of the horns protects the 
buffalo's forehead ; 2. a small 

* plant with yellow flower ; cf . 
tsuhu ; goshin kure (the fore- 
head of the male hyena), a 
name given in Sokoto to a 
woman's coiffure. 

goska, a tree ; see gwaska. 

gota, to exceed in size ; see go/a. 

gouma, better ; see guma. 

goyo, to give suck ; see goiyo. 

goza, sweet potato ; see gwaza. 

gu, always with connective n^ 
and pronounced m before 6, 
= wuri ; 1. with, at, in ; gun- 
chan there. Bill gun duni- 
ana in this world, B 155 gun 
malamai with the Mallams; 
preceded by har=harga A 25 
ddga kasua har gum huki 
from the market unto a mar- 
riage feast ; 2*. = guruhin 
instead of, for. 

guano, stinking beetle, M. H. 
p. 205 ; see gwano. 

guba, 1 . a poisonous plant, B 1 4 ; 

2. a mixture of dead flesh and 
adua tree eaten as a pre- 
ventive charm against injury 
in battle, etc.; 3. a thing 
which has died of itself. 

gubanta, to poison. 

gubchi, gache, 1. to slip, to 
slip into, to slip off a wheel ; 
2. applied to a well, to fall 
in ; cf . gochi, gabche, kuhche. 

gubo, back teeth. 

gubri, to knock against ; see 

guchia, ground nut, see gujia, 

guchia, avoidance of a missile, 
etc. ; see gochia. 

guda (S.), 1. an excrescence, 
swelling; 2. the dot above 
or under one of the letters of 
the alphabet. 

guda, prepared meat of the 
ragon laiya, M. H. p. 154. 

giada, number, times ; guda 
nawa how many ? Used with 
numerals as guda uku three 
in number; also with the 
force of our numeral adverbs, 
as guda uku three times, 
thrice; in phrases, guda ka- 
nena my only brother ; B 25 
shi do guda guda ta tsire let 
him try to take one, the other 
flees away ; gUda corresponds 
to English * unit,' guda guda 
one at a time; gudarsu one 
of them ; cf. daiarsu. 




glida, gudu, shout, acclamation, 
crying out for joy ; esp. ap- 
plied to sound of joy made 
by a woman by holding the 
nose and trilling the tongue. 

gudaje, cf. gudajen zumua 
young of bees ; also used of 
seeds in pods, possibly =^i- 
daje ; see gida. 

gudana, to happen. 

gudano, to flee from; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 35, ya gudano masu- 
chinya he fled from a bare- 
legged people. 

gudawa, diarrhoea ; cf. gudun- 

gude gude, a grass eaten by 
horses (Dactyloctenium Ae- 

gudu, crying out for joy ; see 

gudu, to run away, to make 
one's escape ; see guje. 

guduma, pi. gudicmeya, a 
hammer, club, knotted stick. 

gudundaji, diarrhoea or dy- 
sentery ; cf. gudawa. 

gudungumi, log fastened to 
neck to prevent escape. 

gudunmawa, gudumuwa, 
guduinawa,help, assistance, 
especially in war. 

gudunya, a cooking pot. 

gufa (S.), to lie with. 

gufa, gufata (Ar. aas), large 
grass basket or pannier. 

gufaka, a satchel ; see gdfaka. 

guga, rubbing ; see goge. 

guga, pi. guguna, masc. bucket, 
skin used for drawing water 
from well ; dauren guga a 
square arched roof, seedamre; 
guga also is used to describe 
the way in which a hen ruffles 
its breast when sitting on eggs. 

gugana, formed from preceding, 
to draw water. 

gugara*, gogara*, a mighty 
man ; kai gugari thou mighty 
one ! used in exclamations. 

gugi*, pi. gugui, swelling in 
front of a man's body; ele- 

gugi, a large quantity ; see gugu. 

gugu, gugi, large quantity, 
much ; ha shi da gugit he has 
but little ; gugin rairai much 
sand ; da gugu much. 

gugua, also pronounced gugwa 
a whirlwind, whirling dust, 
commonly known as 'wind 

gugurta, to lame ; see guragu. 

gugutu*, horse enema. 

guiba, gwiba, guibi, dirt, 
muddy water, dregs ; D 57 
tnairaakara ha shi sha rua ha 
sai na guiba he who is late 
shall have nothing but muddy 
water to drink ; cf. proverb 
jini ya Ji rua guibi blood is 
thicker than water, i.e. those 




akin to one another will cleave 
together, M. H. p. 196 ; used 
of the substance or body of 
fura or kunu. 

guiwa, gwiwa, pi. guiwaye, 
guiwoye, gwiwu^ knee ; gui- 
wan hanu elbow. 

guje, a form of gudu to run 
away, to flee ; cf . ya guje 
masa he escaped from him ; 
ya tafi aguje he went off at 
a run; man guje running 
water; cf. maguje. 

gujeje, fugitive, vagabond, run- 
away slave. 

gujia, guchia, pi. gujeye, guji- 

yoyi, ground nut (cf . Ar.j^e^, 
Pers. gauz nut) ; a species 
of small ground nut which 
is largely used for food ; cf . 
prov. maza dengin gujia ne 
men are like a lot of ground 
nuts, cf. Gr. p. 102 ; cf. asni 
dan gujia, M. H. p. 231. 
gujia is used in Sokoto for 
chacha a gambling game, it 
is also used with da saki in 
describing colour or texture 
of cloth. 

gtila, n. pushing with the knee. 

gulbi, pi. gulabe, river, any 
large amount of water in a 
, deep place ; gulhin ido the 
socket of the eye. 

gule, to dislocate, e.g. a bone. 

gulgudu, measure ; see golgodo. 

gulgusa, to move back ; ef. 

guluba, fruit of a tree. 

gululu, pi. gululai, 1. the mud 
ball on a kind of spindle 
used for winding thread; 2. 
gululunzomo 'hare's spindle 
balance,' a plant with a 
mauve compound flower like 
a thistle's, which is thought 
to resemble a gululu ; a con- 
coction made from this is 
used in boiling water in order 
to treat diseases of the eye. 

guma, gwoma, goma, used 
like gar a to express superi- 
ority, as gara hdka, guma 
hdka it is better so. guma 
yau da jia better to-day than 
yesterday ; cf . gomache. 

guma, finish ; see gdma. 

gumagumai, stumps, pi. of 
gungume, q.v. 

gum.asakawa*, gum.sakawa, 
a place where anything is 

gumaza, a kind of wrestling 
game played by boys. 

gumba, a mixture composed of 
rice, milk and honey. 

gumba, honey-guide. 

gum.beri, goburi, gobro, 
gobre, to knock against, to 
dash together. 

gumbo, gambo, gembo, the 


gumda 121 

next child born after the 
birth of twins tuguaye. 

gumda, a boring insect ; see 

gumde, to fill the mouth. 

grime, beaten out rice. 

gumi (Ar.^, to oppress with 
stifling heat, of the day), 1. 
heat of the sun, 2. perspira- 
tion ; yin gumi to perspire. 

glimji, a tree from which a 
kind of rubber is obtained ; 
see gamji. 

gumka-rua, a small calabash 
placed in a water pot to pre- 
vent the water spilling when 

gumki, gamki, gwanki, pi. 
gumakai, gwumaki, 1. idol, 

" graven image, worship of 
idols ; 2. place of torment 

' for unbelievers. 

gumki, a ransom paid for a 
captured slave ; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1.33, zasu chin tara da gumki 
they will have to pay fines 
and ransoms. 

gumo, ganwo, gamo, the cloth 
worn by carriers on the head. 
■] gum.sakawa*, a store-place; 
see gumasakawa. 

gum.she, to meet, etc. ; see 

gum.slieka, gam.sheka, 1. a 
large species of snake, some- 
times applied to the cobra 


(naia nigricolHs) ; 2. an epi- 
thet applied to a warrior. 

gumshiki, pole; see gimshiki. 

gumza, roaring, e.g. of a lion. 

gun, with ; see gu. 

guna, pi. gunainaif gunane, a 
small species of pumpkin, the 
seeds of which are put in 
soup; there are two kinds, 
one bitter, one sweet. 

gunaguni, grumbling, mur- 
muring; yin gunaguni to 
grumble ; see guni. 

gunche, to mutilate. 

gunda, 1. edible bark of a tree ; 
2. strips of leather. 

gunda, a bud; yin gunda to 
sprout ; e.g. kahewa ta yi 

gunda, gumda, a boring in- 
sect, death-watch. 

gundu, tribute ; see gandu. 

gundu, short ; see guntu. 

gundua, a slice, e.g. of a fish, 
also the act of cutting up a fish. 

gunduma, club, D 41 ; see gu- 

gunduma (S.), a division or 
district, masugundum,a dis- 
trict headmen. 

gundura, to over-eat; cf. 

gungama warrior. 

gungu, a mob or rout; also 
used as a verb, to gather 




gungu*, pi. gu7iguna, island ; 
the word is probably bor- 
rowed from the Songai lan- 
guage; commonly pronounced 
by Nupes lungu. 

gungume, pi. gumagumai, the 
stump of a tree after it is 
cut down, also used of a beam 
of timber or a large log. 

gunguni, murmuring ; see 

guni, to growl ; see guna- 

guniya, gunya, light-brown 

gunsul*, a Moorish corruption 
of Consul, commonly used by 
the Hausas in N. Africa. 

guntsari, curds of milk which 
have become sour. 

guntu ; guntun taha stump of 
a cigarette. Also used as an 
adj. fem. guntua, pi. guntaye, 
short, truncated ; guntun ahu 
a small remainder or frag- 
ment of a thing, a small piece 
cut off. 

gunzu, pig. 

gura or gurai, a small bird. 

guragu, gurgu, fem. gurgua, 
pi. guragu, 1. halt, lame; 
E 36 guragunmu our lame 
ones ; 2. with bent legs ; 3. 
without legs; it is not used 
of animals, e.g. a Hausa would 
say of a horse ha shi da kctfa, 

lit. he has not a foot; gugurta 
to lame. 
guraiya, a musical instrument ; 
see garaiya. 

gurara (Ar. Sjt^), a large sack 
for oxen or camels. 

gurasa (Ar. li;i), bread ; usu- 
ally confined to wheaten 
bread, which is only made 
in the northern parts of 
Hausaland, red pepper being 
one of the principal ingredi- 
ents ; kiirdin gurasa a phrase 
used in asking alms. 

gurbache, to be destroyed, to 
disappear; B 93 gdhas da 
yamma zata ta gurhache the 
east and west will disap- 
pear; gurhache, of water, to 
be fouled, cf. tapki ya gur- 
hache-, gurhata to foul, make 
muddy, also intrans. to be- 
come dim ; gurhatachen rua 
muddy water. 

gurfana (S.), to kneel; see 

gurgu, lame ; see guragu. 

gurgunchi, gurugunta, halt- 

gurgunguma, a large black 
beetle, kula kai gurgunguyna^ 
agudun shafo O beetle (why) 
do you trouble to run away 
from the hawk ? i.e. the hawk 
would not eat so repulsive a. 

gurgura 123 

thing as you are, also huru- 
gunguma, q.v. 

gurgura, to gnaw, bite at. 

gurguri, runner ; see guriguri. 

gurgusa, to gush out abundant- 
ly ; see gusa. 

gurguzu, gurgusu, 1. seeds 
crowded together; 2. a crowd 
or warlike array. 

guri, used as an adv. and prep, 
in the same way as wuri; 
na tafi gurinn I went there ; 
see gu. 

gtu*!, 1. pride, lust, evil desire; 
yayi magana da guri he talks 
proudly ; 2. wish ; ha duka 
guri kan ruska thou receivest 
not everything that thou 
wishest for. 

guri, 1. grumbling; yin guri 
to grumble ; see guni ; 2. to 
entertain some bad design, 
to desire, to wish for, to be 
proud, to boast ; of. prec. 

guria (S.), gurya, the seed of 
the silk-cotton tree. 

guribi, gurbi, nest; gurhin 
ido, socket of eye; cf. prov. 
gurhin ido ha ido ha ne the 
socket of the eye is not the 
eye itself, i.e. things that look 
alike are not necessarily iden- 
tical : also a hole scooped in 
the earth to hold a pot. 

guriguri*, evil ; cf . guri. 

guriguri, gurguri (Fulah gor- 


goro), runner in front of a 
horse, used of foot soldiers 
generally; cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 17. 

gurimi, a musical instrument ; 
see gurumi. 

gurjago, a file; cf. gurzago. 

gurje*, small bell; cf. gorje. 

gurje, a scab; see kurji. 

gurje or gurza, to press cotton 
seeds out of pods, also to roll 
raw cotton ; cf . magurji. 

gurjia, a large tree, the bark of 
which is used for staining 
the teeth : it is like the silk- 
cotton tree but smaller and 
has red tulip-like flowers and 
stout thorns on its branches 
(Bombax buonapozensis, MaU 

gurmu (S.), lame, pi. guramu^ 

gurmunta, halting, limping. 

gumani, purring or growling^ 
of a cat or hyena. 

guro, used in Sokoto for kahewa^ 
a gourd. 

gursuna, gurusuna (Fulah 
id.), hogs, also applied ta 
domestic pig. 

guru, a man's leather thong; 
cf . jigida of a woman. 

gurubin, instead of, guruhinsa 
in his place ; cf. gu. 

gurufana, gurfana (S.), to 
kneel down, to bow down, to 
prostrate oneself; yin guru- 
fani id. 




gurugunta, gurmunta, gur- 
gunchi, halting; yin guru- 
gunta to halt. 

gurugusa, gurugushe, to move 
away from ; see gusa. 

guruguso, to move towards; 
see guso. 

gurumfa, hat made of straw ; 
i.q. garumfa, q.v. 

gurumi, gurimi, a musical 
instrument made with hair 
from a horse's tail ; cf. M. H. 
pp. 94, 187. 

gurunguntsi, gristle, bridge of 
the nose. 

gurus (cf. Ar. cA^^' P^- cA^j 
piastre), small money used in 
N. Africa. 

gurusunu, hogs ; see gursuna. 

gurza, to scratch. 

gurza, the pressing of the 
cotton; see gurje. 

gurzago, gurjago, a file, 

gusa, to move a little way back, 
to rise up, gush out ; gusawa 
moving a little away ; guso, 
guruguso to move a little way 
forward, to draw towards a 
person ; gusa guso to move 
backwards and forwards ; 
gurgusa gulgusa to gush out 

gusda, to twist, bend. 

gushagushi, a sort of itching 

disease which attacks the 
roots of the toes or fingers. 

gushe, to take away, do away 
with, e.g. a custom or law. 

gushe gushe, to gush out 

gusum, south. 

gusumchi, southwards. 

gutsi, a piece, small portion 

gutsu, see guzu. 

gutsura, to take a little of ; 
see guzura. 

gutsura, pi. gutsure, 1. small 
piece, crumb or fragment ; 2. 
the remaining piece after cloth 
has been measured out. 

gutsuri, to break a piece off". 

guwa, water, a sip of water; 
ina da guwa there is a little 
water, guwa sai ya regi the 
water decreases. 

guza, a species of monitor about 
one foot in length (varanus 

guzu, gutsu, 1. bottom; guzun 
itache stump of a tree; 2. 
cause, kada abi guzunsa let 
not its cause be traced ; mean- 
ing, minene guzunsa? what 
is its meaning? 3. matrix; 
enna ruan guzu da taba H.e. 
they are entirely different ; 
a knife worn at the waist is 
arataya ga guz2i ; guzun at 
the foot of. 





giizuma, 1. lean; 2. an old 
lean goat, cow or horse ; also 
applied to women in the same 

guzura, gutsura, to take a 
pinch of. 

guzuri, provisions for a journey ; 
yin guzuri to make provision 
for a journey. 

gwabi, n. fat ; da gwabi or mcti- 
gwabi, adj. fat. 

gwada, a species of lizard. 

gwada, gwoda, to measure a 
thing to see if it is the right 
size ; cf. prov. ko ha agwada 
ha linzami ya ji hakin kaza 
even without measurement a 
bridle is obviously too big 
for a fowl's mouth. 

gwado, a kind of Nupe cloth. 

gwafsa or namijin gwafsa, a 
tree with fragrant blossoms, 
and black plum-like fruit 
(Hannoa undulata, Sapin- 
daceae) ; cf . takandar giwa. 

gwaiwa, gwowa, goiwa, tes- 

gwalo, a grimace ; yin gwalo 
to make faces. 

gwallo, gwoUo, a small bundle, 
e.g. of grain. 

gwama, to put one thing on 

the top of another. 
(^ama, better, rather; see 
guma, gwamache to prefer, 
to come near; see seq. 

gwamatsa, gwamatsi, draw 
near, press together, intr. 

gwambaza, water buck = do- 
doka; for list of antelopes 
found in Hausaland, cf . under 

gwami ; cf . gwamin wuta re- 
storation of a fire which has 
nearly gone out. 

gwami, 1. lameness, a bent leg; 
2. bandy-legged, f. gwamia; 
maigwami id. 

gwamro, gwauro, bachelor; 
see gohro. 

gwana, gwano, geno, the 

gwanda=gara: dahahuwawa 
gwandxi da wawa better have 
a fool than no one. 

gwanda*, pawpaw ; see gonda. 

gwandarakune (pawpaw ears), 
a plant with fleshy edible 
leaves, in colour like a paw- 

gwangama, a kind of banana 

gwanja, name of district ; see 

gwano, the stink-ant; seegwana^ 

gwari, name of a large town 
about fifty miles west of 

gwarje, a fly ; see gorje. 

gwarje, gwalji, a small bell, 
e.g. bell hung on horse's 
breastplate ; see gorje. 




gwarmi, to join ; also n. socket, 
joint of scissors ; cf. kwarmi. 

gwarzo, strong ; see gorzo. 

gwarzo (S.), the first hoeing 
after sowing. 

gwaska, an ordeal by water, 
given to slaves only ; the 
name of poisonous tree (sass- 
wood) used for trial by ordeal 
on the R. Benue. 

gwauro, bachelor, widower ; 
see goro. 

gwaza, goza, pi. gwazuna, gwa- 
zoyi, a cultivated plant with 
large arrow-head leaves and 
an edible tuber (Colocasia sp., 
Aroideae). gwazan-giwa is 
the name of an Aroid plant 
with large lurid, purple 
spathe, and a bulky tuber 
with acrid, poisonous juice. 

gwazankwado, the name of a 
poison used for arrows. 

gwenki, gwonki, a roan ante- 
lope, hippotragus equinus. 

gwiba, dirt ; see guiha. 

gwinki*, oak, terebinth. 

gwiwa, knee ; see guiwa. 

gwodo, cloth coat. 

gwoggwo, aunt. 

gwoma, better ; see guma. 

gworaache, goumache, to 
prefer ; see gwamache. 

gwonda, gwanda, gwanja, 
the name of a district in the 
hinterland of the Gold Coast 

whence kola nuts are im- 
gwongwola, a canoe-pole ; see 

gwongwon, basin, bowl (a 

Nupe word ?). 
gworo, gwamro, a bachelor; 

see gohro. 
gyandama, a water bottle made 

of a calabash, 
gyara, to repair ; see gara. 
gyauji, a species of field mouse; 

cf. gabji. 
gyauro, gyamro, sprouting 

from an old root, e.g. of 

guinea-corn, or sugar-cane, 
gyazama, a broad-leafed grass; 

see gazama. 

h. In the case of certain words 
taken from Arabic an initial 
h tends to disappear al- 
together; cf. Ar. hasratun 

S^-*^, Hausa hasara, asdra, 
and tasdri. The sound h is 
sometimes interchanged with 
that of y'; cf. huda and fuda^ 
hila and ^la, hudu avAfudu^ 
hako and fako. In some cases 
the sound of the h is very 
uncertain ; cf. iska or hiska 
wind, achi or hachi corn, 
haba, hubba, an exclamatory 
particle expressing astonish- 
ment, indignation, incre- 

haba 127 

dulity or denial ; it most 
frequently occurs in the ex- 
pression hubba mana good 
gracious ! 

hd>ba, pi. hdbohij chin ; habal- 
kdda (crocodile's chin) a cap 
with two flaps to cover the 

habaichi, pi. Aa6ai^ai, 1. abuse; 
yin habaichi to abuse behind 
one's back ; 2. signs between 
two men understood by them 
but not by spectators; a 
covert sneer, or innuendo 
conveyed by use of a proverb ; 
3. a fable or riddle, maiha- 
baichi masofada wanda ya 
tanka ko ya fishi the man 
who is full of trite sayings 
rejoices in a discussion, the 
man who answers may sur- 
pass him. 
■' habaka, used of a fire, to catch. 

habaki*, pi. habaka (cf. Ar. 

ill.**., cloud); B 169 habakal 

kamshi clouds of incense, 
habama*, to expand as boiling 

water, D 65; see habuma. 
habdi (S), ashes, 
habe, indigenous tribes (a Fu- 

lani word), it is a plural 

form of kado^ q.v. 

haberta (Ar. jli-), 1. to ex- 
plain, declare, publish ; 2. to 
warn, hahertawa*^ declara- 

tion, warning 

moner forai is laberta. 


The com- 


habki, wild onion or leek. 

h&bo, bleeding from the nose. 

habri, harbi, to kick, used of 
a horse. 

habshi, n. bark ; see hafshi. 

habuma, the rise and fall of a 
man's breathing, also used of 
boiling water ; cf. habama. 

hachi, hatsi, corn ; see a^hi. 

hachin-tumkia, a tree; see 

had, until, i.q, har, q.v. 

h3,da, 1. to pile up, bring to- 
gether, complete; A 11 ta 
kan hada maka riguna it will 
heap up for you tobes, A 51 
ahddasu chikin wuta they 
shall be brought together in 
the fire ; hada hanu da to 
owe ; hada tajia to go to- 
gether, hada da to meet. A 
neuter form hddu is found; 
cf. ba su hddua they will 
not assimilate ; cf . idiom ya 
hddu tafariki he entered the 
road ; hadan zare intertwined 
cotton staples. 

hadaka, pi. haddku, stranger, 
a new-comer. 

hadama, greed, coveting; ya 
chika hadama he accomplish- 
ed his desire. 

hS,dari, storm ; see hdderi* 

hade, hadie, to swallow ; hadu 




to be swallowed ; hadiya 
hMeri, hMari, pi. hddura, 
storm, flood, rain-cloud. 

hS.di (Ar. j.»-), the limit of the 
law, the law ; ya keta hddi 
he broke the law. 

h3.dichi* (cf. Ar. %t>ju». ii), to 
explain, declare ; D 5 zamu 
fa hddichi akan majia kalami 
we will speak out if there 
is anyone to listen to our 

hafarn, a trench at the bottom 
of a grave. 

hafshi, hapshi, habshi, hau- 
shi, hamshi*, barking; yin 
hafshi to bark. 

hS,ge, to blarney, deceive; ya 
hageni he wheedled me into 
(lending, etc.). 

hS,gU, a small spear or dart for 
catching tish. 

hagu, hagun, hagum, left 
hand ; cf . hauni. 

hai*, a form of the particle 
har; E 47 hai adamawa as 
far as Adamawa, E 50 hai 
mu wushe till we pass by — 

haiba*, beautiful clothing. 

haifa, haife (Ar. rt ou*.), 1. 
to bring forth, to bear, of 
human beings, animals, trees 
and plants; mahaifia a mo- 
ther; 2; of the male, to beget; 

haifu, 1. to be delivered . 
2. to be confined. , 

haifafe, f. haifafa, pi. haifafuy 1 
pass, particip. of haife^ born. 

haifua, birth ; tun haifua from 
birth ; haifua, also the be- 
getting of children ; allah 
hai hashi haifua ba he was 

haiinchi, haiyinchi (cf. Ar. 
^l». deceived), 1. alloy or 
metal with which alloy has 
been mixed ; 2. fig. deceit, 

haila (Ar.), menses of a woman. 

hainya, hanya, hay a*, pi. 
hainyoyi, used both as masc. 
and fem., 1. road, way, street; 
hata hainya to lose the way; 
2. fig. path of faith, custom, 
etc. ; E 1 8 masuzama ga hain- * 
yoyin musulmi those who 
continue in the ways of Mus- 
sulmans; cf. tafariki. 

haiya, an expression of regret : 
I am sorry. 

haiya, a hoe ; see hauya. 

haiyeta, haiyS.ta, to trouble, 
to annoy ; see haiya. 

haja, anything exposed for sale, 
goods; ci.Jaja, 

hajetu*, the vowels. 

hSji, pi. hajoji (Ar. rt 9«<^)», 

1. pilgrim; 2. pilgrimage; 
B 162 guri gareni en tafi 

hajijia 129 

haji ne I have a strong de- 
sire to go on the pilgrimage ; 
D 22. haji, to go on the 
pilgrimage, i.e. to Mecca. 

hajijia (Ar. JL(;L»., an intoxi- 
cant), drunkenness, giddi- 

haka (Ar. lift.), 1. so, thus, 
F 153 ; hdka ne ko ba hdka ha 
is it so or not 1 duk da hdka 
nevertheless ; hdkanga in this 
way ; 2. right, truth ; cf . Gr. 
p. 131, 1. 47, zamu hdka babu 
fashi we will do that which 
is right without delay. 

haka, to dig ; haka rijia to dig 
a well ; mahakin kurege a 
jerboa catcher. 

hdikanan, thus, in this or that 
manner, also a periphrasis 

- for ' the same.' 

hakarikari, ribs. 

hakauche, mad, M. H. p. 191 ; 
see hauka. 

haki, hakin wuya uvula ; see 

h&ki (S.), gasping, panting. 

lld>ki, pi. hdkukua, a kind of 
grass ; F 95 akawo dan hdki 
gainye aduntse a little new 
grass is brought and pressed 

hakia, hekia, hakanya, dis- 
ease of the eyes, esp. applied 
to leucoma. 

R. H. D. 


hakika (Ar. lAtjA*.), truly, 

verily, indeed, 
hakikanta, to assert the truth 

or certainty of anything, to 

convince, to certify. 

governor, ruler, landlord. 

hako*, a roof. 

hS,ko, pi. hdkok% 1 . pit or hole 
for game to fall into, pitfall ; 
2. fig. of what leads into error 
or harm, a snare ; yin hako 
to make a pitfall for animals, 
also to take animals in a pit- 
fall ; ina hako bakin mutum, 
I watch the words of anyone 
for a slip of his tongue to be 
used against him ; cf . fako. 

hakora, patience ; see hankurL 

hakori, pi. hdkora, tooth ; hak- 
orin giwa ivory ; hauri, q.v.^ 
is probably a corruption of 
hakori ; hakorin machiji a 
weed with sharp spicules 
directed downward, hence its 
name (Achyranthus aspera, 
Am arantaceae) . 

hakukua, grass, pi. of hdki^ 

hakumche, see hakumta. 

hakumchi, hukumchi, 1. 
order, command; 2. judgment; 
D59, hal allah shi wanya hu- 
kumchi nai ga hayi until God 
hath finished His judgment 





upon His servants, M. H. 
p. 209, allah ya gama wanan 
hakumchi God hath accom- 
plished all this ; maihukum,- 
chi or raahajcumchi judge. 

hakumi (Ar.), power, influence. 

hakumta, hakumche (Ar. 

^^iC^), to order, to command ; 

sariki shina hakumtasu the 

king directs them, M. H. 

p. 154. 
hakura, hakure, to show 

])atience ; see hanhuri. 
hakurchi, mahakurchi ; see 

hal, as far as ; see har. 

haia,ka(Ar. jLii ii), to destroy; 
G 2 2/a halakasu he destroyed 
them ; ya halaka it is lost. 

lialaka, n. (Ar. a5CJLa), destruc- 
tion, misfortune, disaster. 
halal, halas, or hallata* (Ar. 

^J.^), what is lawful, proper, 
becoming, pure, ceremonially 
clean ; opposed to haram. 

halalchi, purity, propriety. 

halalta, halatta, halasta, to 
be lawful ; halalta ga to permit. 

halama, perhaps, it may be ; 
cf. seq. 

halama (Ar.^^), 1. anything 
put in a book as a marker ; 
2. a mark on the ground. 

halam.u, appearance, evidence, 

indication, expectation ; cf . 
sama yana halamun yin rua 
the sky looks like rain ; shina 
da halamunshi it looks like 

h3,lara, to appear in court, to 
come to a meeting. 

halas, lawful ; see halal. 

halasa (Zanf.), to destroy ; cf. 

halbi, halbe, harbi, 1. to dis- 
charge a bow, gun, etc.; ya 
halbi kibia or da kibia he dis- 
charged an arrow, ya halbi 
bindiga or da bindiga he fired 
a gun ; 2. to shoot or hit 
with a bow or gun, ya halbeni 
he hit or shot me, akahalbeski 
da kibia he was shot with an 
arrow ; 3. of serpents, insects, 
etc., to sting; 4. to kick; cf. 
prov. halbi atvutsia yajikus- 
kure to hit in the tail is better 
than to miss, damisa da wu- 
yan halbewa the leopard is 
hard to shoot ; naman halbi 
game which has been shot; 
halallabi f req. to shoot many 
of ; halbo implies motion to- 
wards ; ya halbo maka ita he 
shot it (i.e. an arrow) at you. 

h^li, pi. halaye (cf. Ar. ^jt».), 
^~T. manner, mode, custom, 
peculiarity, fashion, charac- 
teristic, trait, e.g. sata hdlin 
barao, theft is characteristic 




of the thief ; 2. temper, dis- 
position ; suna karfi hali they 
have a hard disposition. 

halichi*, to cvQa.tQ=halita, q.v. 

haliki, haliiki* (Ar.), creature. 

halita* (Ar. J^), creature, 
creation ; F 208 sahon haUta 
a new creation (i.e. creature), 
also the state in which one 
was created, one's appearance ; 
maikeaun halita the good- 
looking man ; shugaban halita 
bill the Lord of both worlds. 

halita, halichi, talita*, to cre- 

halshi, halshe, harshi, pi. 
halshina, 1. the tongue; 2. 
tongue, language, enuncia- 
tion, pronunciation; halshin 
wuta flame. 

halshin rago or halshin tum- 
kia, a shrub with large white 
heads of flowers (Protea sp.). 

halwa* (Ar.), maihalwa a 

h&ma, gaping; yin hdma to 

hamada (cf. 1 Ar. rt ju^a), 
desert, stony plain. 

hamadanchi, n. canter. 

hamaktiku, a Hausa cloth. 

hamata, pi. hamatu, arm-hole, 

hambudiga, ainhum, i.e. a 
disease which causes painful 
cracking of the skin in the 

under-joints of the little toe, 
see kudumbia ; cf . * Hausa- 



hamburki, hanburki, the 
name of a cake (massa) made 
with wheat, also applied to 
large balls of flour used in 
making soup {fura). 

hamfude, hamfudi, to eat 
greedily, to throw into the 
mouth; hamjuden gari roll- 
ing flower into little balls and 
thro wins: them into the mouth . 

hamila, pi. hamllu ( Ar. dS^;^^, 

sword-sling, usually made of 
silk, also used for the cord 
which carries the dalailu. 
hamiya, rivalry. 

hamsa (Ar. a,.>..o^ ), card. num. 
five ; often used for five thou- 
sand, the Hausa word biar 
being the ordinary equivalent 
for five, hamsa miya 500. 

hamshi, to bark ; see hafshi. 

hamsin (Ar. ^.j.....^^.^,), card. 

num. fifty. 

hamso*, a small branch or twig. 

hamsoro, a fool. 

hamzari, hanzari, n. purpose, 
also excuse ; gajeren hamzari 
a poor excuse; D 76 muna 
hamzari zua gidanmu we 
hasten to our homes, da ham- 
zari hastily. 





hamzarta (K.), hanzarta, 
hamzanta (S.), to hasten, 
accelerate., 1. to hinder, prevent, 
restrain, A 51 en bai hdnasu 
ha if he restrain them not; 
2. withhold, deny, refuse, say 
no. In buying and selling 
na hdna — I refuse the offer 
made, or I decline to do busi- 
ness, Jhdnawa refusing, re- 
fusal ; F 1 6 shi ne ko karimu 
da ha hdnawa He is gracious 
and refuses not; ya hdna 
masa ddga laifi ov ya hdna 
masa kdda shi yi laijii he 
prohibited him from doing 
wrong ; hana takama (pre- 
vent boasting) a creeping 
plant with prickly capsules. 

h^nani, giddiness. 

hanau, a tree the sap of which 
is used for washing newly 
bom children. 

hanbare*, to kick away. 

hanburki, a cake; see ham- 

hanchi, early morning; see 

hanchi, hanshi*, pi. hantuna, 
1. nose, nostrils; hanun han- 
chi the trunk of an elephant ; 
goran hanchi bridge of the 
nose ; 2. the knot made in 
thread to prevent the strands 
from unravelling. 

hanchi, found in the phrase 
hanchin kade hanchi the twis: 


or stem which holds the fruit 
of the shea butter tree (kade), 
used in Sokoto for kanun- 
fari cloves, a name based 
on likeness of clove to the 
stem by which the shea nut 
is attached to the twig. 

hanfude, to throw food into 
the mouth ; see hamfude. 

hanga, hangi, hange, to look 
out for, gaze afar in hope of 
seeing ; na hangeshi ddga nesa 
I saw him from afar; hango 
to espy, i.e. to see before 
the speaker, ya hangoni he 
was the first to espy me, ya 
hangoka he caught sight of 
you before you saw him. 

hangara, 1 . swelling caused by 
the guinea- worm ; 2. a beetle. 

hangarma*, a deep pit. 

hangum, a swelling on the 
throat ; cf. hangara. 

hani, n. prohibition; anyi hani 
it was prohibited ; see hdna. 

hania, noise ; see hayania. 

haninia, neighing ; yin haninia 
to neigh. 

hanji, 1. bowels; 2. bobbin. 

hankada, to raise up, turn 
over, overthrow. 

hankaka, pi. hankaki, hankakv, 
(corvus scapulatus ?), a crow 
about the size of a raven, its 




body is black, its breast and 
a rim round the necli white. 

hankali, pi. hankulla^ sense, 
prudence, forethought, fore- 
sight, care ; da hankali sen- 
sibly, prudently ; hankali ya 
tashi his heart is disturbed, 
tashin hankali despair, shiga 
hankali to be prudent; cf. 
M. H. p. 202, hankalina bai 
kwanta da kowa sai ke I rely 
upon you (f.) alone for advice ; 
hankullansu duka sun tashi 
they lost heart, shiga hanka- 
linka be reasonable, maida 
hankali take,yin hankali 
to recover, e.g. from a swoon, 
also to take notice of, to be- 
ware of, maihankali prudent. 

hankalta, to be prudent, to 

hankaltilo (Kanuri id.), a 
small spear for throwing. 

hankamia, a disease which 
affects the breathing. 

hankufa, a common weed 
(Waltheria Americana, Bu- 

liankula, attention ; see han- 

hankura, to be patient ; see seq. 

hankiiri, hakuri, hankura or 
hakurchi, 1. patience, meek- 
ness, resignation, forbear- 
ance ; ina hankuri or ina 
yin hankuri I show patience 

or resignation, ku hankuri or 
ku yi hankuri be patient ; 
2. comfort, consolation, ya 
hada masu hankuri he com- 
forted them ; ya ki hankura 
he refused to be comforted ; 
cf. prov. mahakurchi mawa- 
dachi the patient man is the 
rich man, enda maiguda ya 
je anhankura maitafia ya je 
the traveller with patience 
will arrive at the place 
whither the man who runs 
is going ; hankori Tnaganin 
dunia patience is the remedy 
for everything; cf. hakure, 

hano, a species of acacia tree. 

hansa (Zanf.), see /ansa. 

hansari, to snore; cf. minshari. 

hanshi, nostrils ; see hanchi. 

hanta, anta, liver; F 198 umta 
ta chisu har ta chinyi hanta 
the fire shall consume them 
till it eats up their liver; 
cf. malakan kdre da hantan 
kura the property of a dog a 
hyena's liver, i.e. a thing he 
is not likely to get. 

hantsa, udder. 

hantsaki, hansaki, ansaki, 
tongs, pincers ; cf. hantsakin 
darma ka kai ha kawo ha O 
pincers of lead you bring iron 
(to the fire) but you do not 
bring it away.. 




hantsi, two hours after sunrise, 
about 8 a.m. 

hantukuria (K.), an abscess 
or tumour. 

h^nu, pi. hdnua or hdndye^ 
hand, A \7 ka tara hdnu 
you put forth both hands; 
hdnun giwa elephant's trunk 
(cf. use of Lat. manus) ; hd- 
nun rua a kind of nut, like 
a kola, brought from Yoruba; 
wuka hdnu lit. sleeve knife, 
a kind of short sword at- 
tached by a leathern ring 
round the sleeve, used by the 
Tuaregs; cf. M. H. p. 216, 
shina da yaki ahdnu he has 
a war in hand ; hdnu or hd- 
nun riga sleeve, M. H. p. 206, 
ya zama hdnun yaki he be- 
came a guide in the war; 
hdnu da hdnu hand and hand, 
i.e. cash down, ready money; 
ban hdnu shaking hands = 
masafiha', hdnun rafi a tribu- 
tary stream ; hdnun giwa 
(elephant's trunk) also de- 
notes a plant with a thick 
stalk and white flower. 

hanunrua, an edible nut in S. 
Nigeria ; cf. gazari, sandalu. 

hanwawa, chameleon = hawa- 

hanya, way ; see hainya. 

hanzari, hanzarta, to hasten; 
see hamzari. 

hanzir*, pi. hanzirai (Ar. 
jij-^^), wild swine; cf. al- 

hapshi, barking ; see hafshi. 

har, hal, till, until, as far as ; 
used 1. with nouns, G 1 har 
mangi as far as Mangi ; in a 
list har = nnt\\ hence it=:as 
well as, including, cf. har 
zuhairu and Zubair ; 2. with 
adverbs or prepositions, har 
yanzu till now, up to the 
present time, G 1 har ya zua 
zamanin othmanu until the 
time of Othman ; 3. in intro- 
ducing clauses and sentences, 
D 73 hal allah shi wanya 
hukumchi nai ga hayi until 
God hath finished His judg- 
ment on His servants ; har 
is often followed by the par- 
ticle dai ; har-da, hadda '■ in 
order that ' ; it is sometimes 
equivalent to ' even ' ; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 34, har saraki sun 
yi kumya even kings felt 
ashamed, har is sometimes 
apparently used for as soon 
as, cf. M. H. p. 222, har 
uhansa ya mutu as soon as 
his father was dead, har is 
sometimes used contemptu- 
ously in expression har gir- 
hara, to depart, set out. 




harafi, pi. haruffa (Ar. 

a letter of the alphabet, a 
dictionary ; see harifi. 

haraji (Ar. J^tJ^), a tax, also 

applied to lands attached to 
certain offices of State tax 

haram (Ar. j^^j^), what is un- 
lawful or cannot be done 
lawfully, anything ceremoni- 
ally unclean, unbecoming, 
unjust; used in sense oppo- 
site to halal ; abin haram 
= haram. hardmia unlawful 
gain or profit, e.g. from the 
sale of pigs ; chi haramia to 
make unlawful gain, hardmu 
anything which is unlawful, 
E 1 7 suna dubi haramu they 
behold what is unlawful, 
F9 id. 

harama, hazaina(Ar.), firm- 
ness, resolution, zeal, yin 
haraman tafia to travel hard. 

harara* (Ar. jt/»-), 1 passion- 
ateness, F 8 A;a her harara 
duka give up all proud looks ; 
2. staring at, frowning, look- 
ing proudly on. 

harasa, reproof. 

harasa*, a white turban. 

harawa, a name given to leaves 
or stalks of beans and ground 
nuts, e.g. haraivan wake, ha^ 
rawan gujia. These are used 

as food for horses ; cf. prov. 
allah ski kai dumu ga harawa 
ko ha shi chi shi hirgima God 
may bring a lizard to the 
dried leaves, if he does not 
eat he lies on the top of it. 
The dumu is specially fond 
of harawa leaves, even when 
he cannot eat he likes to be 
near them. 

harbi, 1. to kick, of a horse, 
cf. habri ; 2. to shoot, cf. 

harbia, a bird ; see hashia. 

harda, used with sam,u to learn 
by heart, D 33 yin harda 
to know by heart. 

hardache, to know by heart. 

hardai, until, in order that; 
see har. 

harerewa*, joyous laughter. 

hargagi*, to address angrily. 

hargi, pi. harugya, a small 
spear tied to the wrist, which 
is thrown and pulled back. 

hargowa, noise made by talk- 
ing loudly or angrily; yin 
hargowa to howl. 

hS,ri, a surprise slave-raid by 
horsemen ; mahdri a raider. 

harifi, hurufi, pi. harufai^ a 
letter of the alphabet; see 

hario, haryo = har + yo (cf. 
encore = banc horam), again, 
also; in negative sentence, 




yet, ban samu hario I have 
not found it yet. 

harkia, harikia, a grass eaten 
by cattle and horses (Eleu- 
sine Indical). 

harsa, hirsa, hassa, a turban 
usually made of white muslin 
with pictures worked on it, 
worn by princes only. 

harsa (S.), a cartridge. 

harshi*, talk ; see halski. 

harya, a small fish. 

harzuka ga, to defy, be angry 
with ; cf. hasala ga. 

h§.sa, h^za, S,za, to light, hdsa 
wuta to light a fire, or to 
rake together expiring em- 

hS,sada (Ar. ju«».), envy, jeal- 

h^sada, to trouble, torment ; 
cf. prec. 

hasali, esteem, respect. 

hasala ga, to provoke ; cf . 
harzuka ga. 

hasali (S.), kindness, goodness. 

hasara, asara (Ar. j-«».), 1. 

to suffer loss, A 33 sun hasara 
alahira they shall suffer loss 
in the next world; 2. n. loss, 
waste, ruin ; yin ha^dra to 
hasashi, hasashe (cf . Ar.j^;*.^., 
to listen, perceive), to con- 
sider carefully, to be in doubt. 

hasbia, hazbia, harbia*, 1. 

a bird rather larger than a 
pigeon with red rim round 
the eyes ; 2. a sty in the 

hashia, silk border at the bot- 
tom of a woman's dress. 

hashsha, an exclamation of 
pity or disgust. 

haskaka, 1. to shine, give light ; 
2. to lighten, illuminate. 

haske, pi. haskoki^ haskaikai, 
light ; F 229 fuskokinsu sun 
fi wuta da haske their faces 
shall be brighter than fire ; 
maihaske full of light, B 167 
hirni madina maihaske tutut 
the town of Medina is ever 
full of light. 

hasuma, quarrelling ; masutsa- 
kaida hasuma peace-makers. 

hasumia (S.), a minaret. 

hatara, hutara, be careful ! a 
complimentary salutation es- 
pecially addressed to a man 
on horseback and to a man 
of importance ; ya sha hdtari 
dayawa he ran a great risk. 

hatseri (Ar. jLUi-), danger, 
peril; cf. hattara. 

hatsi, corn ; see hachi. 

hatumi (cf. Ar. rt^».), 1. a 
seal ; 2. a charm written on 
a board (alio) divided by lines 
into squares ; the ink is then 
washed off and the water 




drunk as a medicine, or to 
secure anything desired. 

hau, to ascend, a shortened 
form of hawa, q.v. 

hauda, to lift up. 

hauia, hoe ; see hauya. 

hauia, twenty, a score, used 
esp. in counting cowries with 
sums divisible by twenty, 
thus hauia biu forty, hauia 
hdkoi one hundred and forty. 
Cf. A 39 shi ne ya dauki wuri 
ya her hauia dari he seizes 
one cowry but loses two 
thousand cowries. 

hauka, 1. a fool ; B 13 jahili 
shika yi kama hauka the ig- 
norant man would act like a 
fool, F 32 ; 2. folly, madness; 
3. to be mad ; maihauka, 
maihaukache a madman, hau- 
ka^he to be fierce or mad, to 
rage, to be ecstatic, hau- 
kata, causat. to madden. 

jhaukat yaro, a bush with 
white flowers, i.q. zakami q.v. 

hauni, left, hanu na hauni 
= hagu left hand. 

hauni (K.), an executioner. 

haura, to jump over. 

hauri, tooth, tusk ; probably a 
corruption of hakori ; haurin 
giwa ivory, haura is more 
commonly used in Sokoto, 
hakori in Kano. 

hausa, pi. harata, 1. tongue, 

language, speech ; hausar as- 
banchi the Asben language. 
2. prop. n. Hausa, the Hausa 
language. 3. the Hausa coun- 
try (kasan hausawa or kasan 
hausa, id.); hahaushe, ^\. hau- 
sawa, a Hausa, a man of the 
Hausa nation. A remotely 
concei\able explanation of 
the word hausa is that it is 
derived from Housal, a king 
of Egypt who promoted the 
worship of Astarte in Egypt. 
The Bornuese people have a 
tradition that they and the 
Hausas are descended from 
a son of this Housal who 
was of Phoenician origin and 
made a great expedition into 
the country of the blacks. 
A worship resembling that 
of Astarte apparently existed 
in very early times at Kano. 

hausa, to lift up, M. H. p. 230; 
see haushe. 

hausanfchi, that which relates 
to the Hausas, jin hausanchi 
to understand the Hausa lan- 

haushi, anger, dislike, vexa- 
tion envy; yana jin haushi '. 
he feels angry, yana jin hau- 
shina he is vexed with me, 
suna jin haushinsa they dis- 
like him. 

haushi, to bark ; see hafshi. 




haushi, haushe or hausa, to 
lift up, e.g. on horseback, 
M. H. pp. 229 sq. ; a causa- 
tive form of hawa. 

hautsina, to mix up together, 
to intermingle. 

hauya, pi. hauyu, hauyuna, 
hauyoyi, hoe. 

hawa, hau, to mount, to ascend ; 
ya hawa doki or ya hawa hisa 
doki the regular expression 
for mounting on horseback ; 
cf. M. H. p. 216, maihawan 
dokinsa ya yi kaman mutane 
dubu goma his cavalry num- 
bered abou 1 1 0, 000 ; of a spirit, 
to be possessed by ; mahayi* 
ladder; F 143 ankafa sirati 
atashi ahau the bridge shall 
be set up, men shall ascend 
upon it; hawo to mount and 
ride towards. 

hawa, 1 height, F 145 hawa 
nasa har tsawo nasa hahu wa- 
wa its height and its length 
are the same, without doubt ; 
2. the firmament, lit. the 

hawainya (K.), hawoinya, 
hanwawa (S.), chameleon. 

hawS,la, trouble, used for wo- 
hdla by metathesis. 

hawartaki, tongs ; cf . hansaki. 

hawaye, sing, and collective, 
tear, tears ; hawayen zaki (lit. 
lion's tears), marks cut on a 

woman's face ; hawayen zaki 
is also used for a species of 
ground nut ; yin hawaye to 
shed tears. 

hay a*, road, A 20 for hainya, 

haya haya, loud talking, alter- 
cation ; cf. hayania. 

hS.yaki, smoke ; jirigin hayaki 
and jirigin wuta are expres- 
sions used on the R. Niger 
for steamboat ; yi^i hayaki to 
pour forth smoke, to smoke ;' 
for to smoke used of tobacco, 
cf. sha. 

hayania, hania, noise as of 
many men talking, conten- 

haye, to provoke, fall upon, e.g. 
ya haye masu he fell upon 

haye, self-instruction, unau- 
thorised attempt to learn 
anything ; ha haye ne gddo 
ne used of a man learning 
his father's trade. 

hayi (S.), the binding of arrow- 
heads to the shaft ; yin hayi 
is also used of laying grass 
on a roof. 

hayi, to ford ; mahaiyi a ford. 

hayinchi, deceit; see haiin- 

hazakumchi*, cf. yaron narv 
da ban hazakumchi yi ke thf 
boy is quick-witted. 




hazama (Ar.), zeal; see ha- 

hazbia, a pigeon ; see haahia. 

hazi, corn ; see hachi. 

hS^O, mist, fog, da hdzo misty; 
duhan hdzo a false impres- 

hekia, disease of the eyes ; see 

hijra* (Ar. S^j^Jk), the Hejira 

(a.d. 622), F 255. 
bika, small ; ahu hika a little 

hikima* (Ar. 4.oiC».), wisdom. 

hila, fila ( Ar. 4JL».), stratagem. 

hilafa* (Ar. JiS^, wanting), 
difference, inconsistency : an 
expression used of cowries 
short in number. 

hilata, to be crafty. 

5 5 

hima, hiimna (Ar. 5^), zeal, 

diligence ; da hlma diligenj:, 
maidahima to show diligence, 
a 1^ ku yi berchi ku falaka 
ka maida livma sleep and 
awake, rise up and show dili- 
gence, i.e. in worship. 

hini (S.), conceit; cf. homa (K.). 

hira*, conversation ; seefira. 

hirsa, a white turban; see 

hisabi (S.) (Ar. w>U.».), .judg- 
ment, reckoning, arithmetic. 


F 139 akare kua hisabi judg- 
ment is completed. 

hiska, wind ; see iska. 

holoko, dust storm ; see hulu- 

homa, boasting ; see/oma. 

hom.a (S.), a fishing net; for 
koma, q.v. 

horo*j correction; seeforo. 

hiiba, an exclamation of aston- 
ishment ; see hdba. 

huda, i.q.fuda q.v., 1. to bore 
a hole in a tree, etc.; 2. to 
hoe the ground with a fator- 
inya, to dig in a farm ; B 86 
tiiaikokari na noma ko huda 
he who gives his time to 
farming and tilling; freq. 
form huhuda to make many 
holes in, nd huhudashi I will 
make him as full of holes as 
a sieve. 
huda, ridge between furrows ; 

ci. fuda. 
hudu*, four ; see fudu. 
huhu, covering of kola nuts; 

huja (Ar. k r^ rw), 1. aifair, 
reason, excuse ; Abi ya riha 
taimama karti babu huja he 
performed his ablutions with 
sand, though there was no 
reason for his doing so, B 10, 
140 ; 2. neglect of work, use- 



hujanta, to be in the right in 

a dispute. 
huji, to pierce, 
huji, to shirk or refuse work; 

yin huji to cease work, kur- 

din huji a soldier's deferred 

hukumchi, order, etc. ; see ha- 

hukumshi, a Sokoto form of 

huluku, holoko, a dust storm, 

or violent wind. 
hume, to prevent a person's 

leaving ; na humeshi I pre- 
vented his leaving. 
humushi, the iialf share of 

slaves or spoils paid to the 
• leader of an expedition after 

a raid; cf. M. H. p. 196. 

humusi (Ar. j.;-.«.si-), one-fifth. 

huntu or funtu, naked. 

hura, to blow, hura majina to 
blow the nose ; see/ura. 

hurde*, bay horse; see fur de. 

hurtiuni, ox; see/urtumi. 

hurua, to put earth on the 
head as a sign of submis- 

huruchi, confession; ci. furu- 

hurufi, a letter of alphabet ; 
see harafi. 

huriuni (Ar. ^j^*.), any land 
with a prohibition attached 
to it, e.g. the land round the 

wall of a city where farming 
is forbidden ; also applied to 
official farms which cannot 
be privately transferred. 

husanche*, irritated. 

huska*, face, iorfuska; B 171 
en rara/e ina aza huskata let 
me crawl, let me place my 
face on the ground. 

husuma, fusuina( Ar. 4-©3-tfi».), 
a quarrel. 

hutara*, be careful ! see Iid- 

hutawa*, rest =futawa, B 62. 

hutsu, huzu, fuzu, quarrel- 
some, unmanageable ; cf. do- 
kin nan huzu ne ba shi foro 

hutsuba (Ar. iJai.), the read- 
ing or preaching after prayer. 

huware, a Fulani word de- 
noting the reed shelters used 
by Fulani herdsmen; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 37, yan huware. 

i (Ar. 4jt), yes. It denotes 

that the speaker hears, but 
does not necessarily imply 
acquiescence, ii is sometimes 
used in Sokto for 'no.' 

i, sometimes used for shi ; cf . yi. 

i, to conquer, overcome, su i 
masu they overcame them ; 
cf. ima. 



i, a colloquial abbreviation of 

yi to do. 
iaka, limit ; see iyaka. 

ibada (Ar. S^Uft), service of 

God, B 47, D 51 ; kuna koka- 
ri kuna ihdda take pains, 
serve God ; also used of ser- 
vice to men. 

ibi, a variety of the kola nut 
brought from Yoruba. 

ibiro, a small species of millet. * 

iblis, eblis (Ar.), the evil 

iblu, ibru, a small grain used, 
when ground up, for gruel, 
soup, cakes, etc. 

iche, a tree ; see itache. 

Ida, to finish, complete ; only 
used with special words, e.g. 
ha ya ida warikewa ba he is 
not quite recovered, bay a ida 
inutua he is not quite dead : 
when used with labdri to com- 
plete the telling of news ; of 
a woman, to complete the 
necessary time before marry- 
ing again. 

idan (Ar. 1^1), 1. if. In Kano 
en is employed in conversa- 
tion rather than idan, though 
idan is equally used in writ- 
ing ; 2. when. 

idania*, eye ; see ido. 

Idi (Ar. jujfr), 1. religious feast; 

2. the procession outside a 
town towards Mecca, once a 
year, ending with the killing 
of a goat. 
ido, pi. idanUy idanduna, idan- 
danu, l.eye; idon ma^« squint, 
idon kishimi blind ; it is em- 
ployed, like the Ar., in various 
figurative and tropical uses, 
e.g. 2. sight, view; idon dunia 
in the sight of men; 3. chief ; 
B 76 duba ga bello idon malki 
nai behold Bello, the ruler 
over his kingdom ; 4. joint ; 
idon sau (pi. ijian sau) ankle, 
idon kafa id., idon Aani* wrist- 
bone, knuckle ; 5. idon rua 
spring of water ; 6. idon 
zaura, {a) a variegated cloth 
of native manufacture, (6) a 
white stone, pearl ; tsaurin 
ido saucy ; idon-yaki a strata- 
gem in war ; zan wanka ma- 
shi ido I am going to strike 
him (lit. wash his eye) ; mai- 
ido fruitful, an epithet ap- 
plied to corn ; cf. M. H. p. 

idubar, a reddish-brown ass. 

igia, igiya, pi. igiyoyi, 1. rope, 
cable, string; 2. fig. igianrua 
current of a stream ; igiah 
kasa a snake ; masuigia, i.e. 
the wearers of stripes, ap- 
plied to non-commissioned 
officers in English employ; 




maiigia guda a lance-corpo- 
ral, maiigia hiu a corporal. 

ihu, uhu, ufu, ho ! a cry or 
shout to attract attention. 

ijara, rent, wage ; dan ijdra a 

ijarchi, n. hiring. 

ijarta, to hire. 

ije, to push away, drive away. 

ijia, 1. pupil; ijian ido pupil 
of the eye, maijiat yaki one 
who is eager- for a fight (lit. 
one-eyed), maiijiat karatu a 
man who is always reading, 
maiijia na guda a one-eyed 
man, M.H. p. 224 ; ijian sau 
pi. ankles, cf. idon sau ; 2. one 
cowry, for the plural kurdi, 
q.v., is employed ; cf. wuri. 

ika*, to be able, 
i/yjllko, pi. ikoki, power, authority, 
right, used frequently in the 
expression ikon allah the 
power of God, visitation of 
God ; F 1 1 ha ka ikon jir- 
kitawa thou wilt have no 
power to turn, maiiko power- 
ful, E 12 maiiko da kowa 
almighty ; ikontaka power, 
authority ; ma-ikochi posses- 
sor of power, M. H. p. 228. 

ima, to conquer, drive away, to 
finish otF, do for, dejl ya kusa 
imata the poison nearly killed 
her; cf. i. 

imai, yin imai to be able. 

imanchi, an act of faith ; see 

imani, creed, belief. 

ina, pron. 1st pers. sing. com. 
gender ; iiia, (also kana skina, 
etc.) is used with secondary, 
nominal or participial forms 
of verbs, to express the pre- 
sent tense, thus, ina tafia I 
am going ; ina fitowa, etc. 
Where these nominal or par- 
ticipial forms are not in use 
ina is used with the primary 
form of the verb, e.g. ina so 
I wish. 

ina for yina or yana, cf. the 
expression ina da shi there 
is, or there are, lit. he has it. 

ina, to stammer ; see inina. 

ina, n. paralysis ; see inna. 

ina, inna, for enna^ where? 
M. H. p. 204, etc. 

ina (S.), inna, mother (a bor- 
rowed Fulah word). 

inda, enda, where 1 

indainda, refusal, delay, e.g., 
to do work. 

indororo (S.), waterspout. 

inganchi, right, perfection, re- 

inganta, ingata, to be right, 
just, exact. 

ingarma, f. ingarmia, angar- 
mia, q.v., pi. ingaramu, a war 

ingata*, v. to trust in, rely on. 




ingatachi, adj. sound, perfect, 
solid, trustworthy ; G7 wa- 
nan labdri ingatachi this ac- 
count is trustworthy. 
ingirichi, ingirochi, hay, dried 
grass chopped up for feeding 
horses ; see ungwaiya. 
ingweya*, a salutation ad- 
dressed to an important per- 
inina, ina, to stammer, stutter; 
ininan halshi impediment or 
hesitation in speech. 
inji, equivalent to, it is said to 
be ; possibly this is for anji 
one hears say. 
injihau, a deadly yellow viper 

with fiat \iQn,d — tsada raki. 
injla (Ar.), Gospel, commonly 
used by the Hausas for the 
whole Bible. 
inna, paralysis, palsy. 
intaya, a species of grass. 
iri, pi. irare, iri ir% seed of 
plants, of men and creatures, 
offspring, kind, stock, tribe. 
When iri means kind the 
pronoun used with it agrees 
in number and gender with 
the substantive which follows 
iri^ e.g. wane irin imitura 
what kind of man? wa^he irin 
mache what kind of woman? 
wadane irin mutane what 
kind of men? 
^ isa (Ar. ^^l^e^), Jesus, F127. 

This is the Mohammedan 
form of the name, cf. Koran 
iii. 40, while yasuu and ya- 
shuu are those which were 
employed by the Christian 
Arabs at the time of and 
prior to Mohammed, 
isa, 1. to reach, arrive at; 2. to 
be equal to, to be sufficient; 
da ya isa enough, ha su chi ya 
isa they did not eat enough; 
M. H. p, 224, sun gaza isa 
they failed to overcome; ya 
isam ma it reaches to, affects ; 
isashe strong, see ishe ; iso to 
arrive at the place at which 
the speaker is. 
isga, izga, esga, a cow's or 
horse's tail used as a switch 
for driving aw^ay flies. 
isgili*, n. mockery; see iz- 

ishe, impersonal, they arrived 

at, for aishe, see seq. 
ishe, 1. to reach, meet, over- 
take; F76 mutua ta ishema 
death is coming upon thee; 
2. to suffice, be sufficient for; 
F 42 ta ishemu it is sufficient 
for us. isashe^ isheshe, fern. 
isashia, ishashia, pi. ishasu^ 
1. strong, powerful ; 2. suf- 
ficient; impers. aWie, i.e. they 
arrived at. 
ishi, a kind of fish, 
ishia, a cowry shell; see ijia. 




ishirin, asherin (Ar. ^j^^^^), 
card, numeral, twenty. 

iska, hiska, pi. iskoki^ hiskoki, 
wind ; F 154; shan hiska (lit. 
to drink the wind), used with 
taji, to go for a walk, iska 
or hiska is also used to de- 
note an evil spirit. 

iske, to meet. 

iso, 1. to arrive at, 2. come to- 
wards ; cf. isa. 

ita, pers. pron. 3rd pers. fern, 
sing, nominative, she, it ; ob- 
jective, her, it. 

itache or iche, pi. itatua, when 
masc. = tree, when fem. = a 
stick cut from a tree, though 
this distinction is not always 
observe(^; ifache7i wuta fire- 
wood, dan itache a little piece 
of wood, F 94 ; a fem. form 
itachia denotes parent tree. 

iwa, a shrub, from the twigs of 
which is made the arsaberi, 
the mat used to cover a door- 
way ; cf. (?) diwa. 

iwo, to swim, M. H. p. 209 ; see 

iwo, to make ; see yiwa. 

iya, mother, the plural iya^ 
ye is used in the sense of 
* parents ' ; cf . the like use of 

uwaye, and Ar. xj^^,\. 

iya, to be able, to be equal to, 
can ; ha ya iya shi gani ha \ 

or ha shi iya gani ha he could 
not see ; it appears to be used 
as though it were a transitive 
verb, meaning to be equal to, 
attain to, compass, and can 
directly precede a substantive 
or a verbal substantive in 
sentences where the infinitive 
is used in English, e.g. ka iya 
ruhutu or ka iya yin ruhutu 
are you able to write? cf. 
M. H. p. 205, ha su iye wa- 
rinsa ha they could not en- 
dure the stench, iyan gari 
a state official (Z.) ; a passive 
form aia is occasionally used, 
cf. iyawa. 
iyaka, iyakachi, 1. limit, 
boundary, end, of a country, 
a room, etc. ; kain iyaka a 
frontier town; the utmost 
possible ; cf. hani iyakan al- 
hakina give me all that is 
due to me; 2. as the con- 
cluding word of a letter = 
iyali (Ar. Jl^), family, mem- 
bers of a family. 
iyanta, to set free ; see diyan- 

iyas, iyasda, iyarda, forms 
related to iya, to succeed in 
a thing, to accomplish some- 
thing, deliver a message. 
iyata, yata, elder sister ; cf . ya. 


iyawa, ability, power, common- 
ly found in comp. maiiyawa 
almighty; cf. iya. 

iyaye, pi. of iya mother, q.v. ; 
parents; iyaye or iyayi is 
sometimes used of fruit as 
a plural of da; cf. yaya. 

iye, to be equal to ; see iya. 

iyo, swimming; yin iyo to 

iyo*, verily; cf. yau. 

iza, to push, drive away ; iza 
gdba to drive ahead; to poke, 
e.g. a fire ; cf. ka iza mani 
wuta kdda ta mutu poke the 
fire lest it go out : to push a 
stick into the fire to burn. 
izawa driving away. 

izan, if, when ; see idari. 

izga, cow's tail ; see isga. 

izgili, isgili (cf. Ar. J^j, 
nimble), 1. mockery, inter- 
ference with another's busi- 
ness; 2. a game played by 
boys, pulling at each other's 
arms, etc., to find something 
hidden in the hand of one of 

izni (Ar. (Jij), permission, con- 

izufi (Ar. J>*), one of the 
sixty equal paragraphs into 
which the Koran is divided : 
a paragraph, section. For a 
similar phonetic change cf. 
R. H. D. 

145 ja 

Ar. >*g^h, Hausa zunufi 

The letter -». is used by the 

Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English /. In several 
words it is interchanged with 
that of s/i, z, y or s, e.g. ja^ 
rili = yarili, jarimi = zarumi, 
juni = shuni, jurare — saurara. 

ja, to draw, drag, pull; D 14 
ajashi anadaka he shall be 
dragged and beaten, jan jiki 
crawling, F 155 ; it is used 
intransitively, cf. ka ja da 
hay a get thee behind ! ya ja 
bakinsa he kept silence, ja 
chiki, cf. D 9 secret thieving, 
lit. to drag the belly, an ex- 
pression suggested by the 
crawling of a snake, applied 
to the secret approach of a 
thief; jawa drawing; jayi to 
draw off or draw back, ja- 
yaiya dragging about, dis- 
pute, ja^/^^o^ a little distance, 
dajayawa a little further on. 
majayin hainya a guide ; cf . 
jawo, jajaya, ja-ddga, 

ja, pi. jajaye, jujaye (cf. Ar. 
rt ^Ufc.), red ; ja wur very 
red ; jan karifi brass, copper, 
jaja kddan a little red, red- 
dish, jan 7mji* or jan na- 





Tniji* with reckless courage ; 
ja-ja reddish, haukaja stark 
madness, jan itache or jan 
yaro a tree (Hymenocardia 
acid a) ; jan sayi a tree (Tri- 
chilia emetica). 

jaba, 1. rat, stinking-rat; 2. 
black ass ; 3. jdha dutsi the 
wild dove. 

jS,ba, humped cattle. 

jabaya, crupper of a saddle, 
generally made of strips of 
white or blue cloth ; cf . jaku- 

jabbaru* (Ar. jU».), mighty, 
an epithet applied to God. 

jache, reddish. 

ja-daga, to draw up in line of 
battle; cf. ddga. 

jafache, to wink. 

jafi (S.), n. shaking the spear 
or hand in salutation. 

jagSiba, the leader or headman 
whogoes in frontof a caravan, 
whilst the madugu, q.v., goes 
behind ; cf. shugdba id. 

j agora, stick, e.g. one used by 
blind men to lind the way, 
also a boy who leads about 
a blind man. 

jahadi, jihadi (Ar. ^ly^)' w^^> 

especially a holy war. 
jahalichi, jahilchi(Ar. Jv*-), 

ignorance, da jahalichi in | 

ignorantly ; cf . 




jahanama (Ar. 
cf . jahiina. 

jahili (Ar. JaU.), 

i.e. with respect to religion, 
B 1 2, C 3 ; cf . jahalichi. 

jahima* (Ar. ^^o^^), burning 

hell, D 23, the highest and 
best division in hell ; cf. ja- 

jaijaito, condolence on any mis- 
fortune other than a death ; 
ya yi mana jaijaito he con- 
doled with us, e.g. on a theft; 

jainye* to twist, e.g. a piece 
of cloth, draw, drag, probably 
formed iYOva.ja. 

jaiya, quarrel, fight, yin jaiya 
to quarrel, to fight ; see jay ay a. 

ja-ja, reddish; seeja. 

jajamaza*, a species of creep- 
ing grass. 

jajaya, to drag; seeja. 

jaje, compassion; ct jaijaito. 

jaje, staining red, used of cloth, 
thread, etc. 

jajebera, preparation, ranan 
jajebe7-a the day before any 

jaji (Kanuri id.), title of the 
chief leader of a caravan. 

jajirma*, warrior; see jarimi. 

jaka, to draw after one, to pull; 




jaka ta kuda a nickname for 

a donkey, i.e. one who attracts 

jakada, a messenger; see je- 

jakara, the name of a large 

pool at the side of the Kano 

jaki, fern, jakainya, pi. jdkai, 

jakuna, donkey ; for various 

kinds of donkeys see under 

bi'iigi, jimrau, aura, idubar, 

araki,jaba, mugo. 
jaki, in phr. jaki bisa tudu 

plaiting of hair in two lines, 

one in the middle of the head 

and one behind. 
jakuturi, crupper of a saddle ; 

cf. jabaya ; see kuturi. 

jalala* (Ar. JLli-), great, 
mighty, used of God, F 135 ; 
cf . jalla. 

j&li, 3 alii, property, power; 
abin jali something with 
which to trade ; karamin jali 

: a small capital. 

jalili, a small water duck, with 
slight red tint on neck, black 
velvety head and brown 
body : the whistling teal. 
S ^ 

jalla* (Ar. Jih.), great, glorious, 

used of God ; cf . jalala. 

jama'a (Ar. i^Uete.), collecting 

together; cf. sdbero su kan 

. jama^a akain daki the mos- 

quitoes collect in the roof of 
a house. 

jami (Ar. «.^».), a grammatical 
term denoting the plural ; cf . 
mufuradi singular. 

janaba (Ar. wU».), pollution; 
cf . jaraba. 

janai (S.), gullet, oesophagus; 
cf . janyaro. 

janbade, an abscess; cf. han- 

janbaki, a small bird with red 

janbarde, the ruddy-throated 

jangali, a tax on cows. 

jangwada, the male of the 
common lizsirdkadangare, q.v. 

janjanchi, interference, inso- 

janjare (a Fulani word), the red 
or grey guinea-corn with close 
growing head which ripens in 
Sokoto next after the gero, 
i.e. about the middle of Sep- 

jankarago (red beggar), a late 
crop of kola nuts, see under 

jan-sayi, a common tree (Tri- 
chilia emetica, Meliaceae). 

janyaro (K.), 1 . gullet, ci. janai ; 
2. also called jan-itache (Hy- 
menocardia acida) a large tree, 
with reddish bark, its wood 
used in supporting sheds, etc. 




janye, jaye, to drag away; 

cf . ja. 
janziri, janzari, an evil spirit, 

said to be the patron of the 

masuhori, to make men mad, 

and to eat dung. 

jara (cf. (?) Ar. j^*.)), discount, 

etc.; i.q. Idda, q.v. 
jS<raba, jayra (Ar. w»j^), filthi- 

ness, uncleanness ; cf . janaba. 

jaraba, jarabi (Ar. wj>^)j 
trial, test, misfortune, doom, 
penalty ; yin jar aha to make 
trial of, A 65 allah ya kan 
gama arzikinka da jaraba 
God may give thee prosperity 
to try thee. 

jare*, a cricket (?). 

jarili, seejariri. 

jarimi, warrior ; cf. zarumi. 

jariri, jarili, yarili, tjariria, 
pi. jarirai, a baby up to one 
year old ; cf. jivjiri. 

jaru, jarum, guard-room (a 
corruption of Eng. word). 

jato, a vegetable poison used 
for smearing arrows. 

jatoma or giyatuma, gene- 
rally used by the Fulanis for 

jauje, a drum shaped like an 
hour-glass, held under the 
armpit, larger than kalango. 

jaura* to listen, M. H. p. 190 ; 
cf. saurara. 

jaura, a widow. 
jaura, trade. 

jauri, a widower, a man of im- 
portance or respect, 
jauwi* spice, 
jawa, drawing; seeja 

jawabi (Ar. w>t^».), speech, 
answer, message. 

jawagi, 1. to walk backwards 
and forwards; 2. to fly like 
a bird. 

jawal, a species of myrrh. 

jawayi, jiwoyi, to visit, to go 
to salute. 

jawo, to draw out, to bring to- 
gether, to draw towards one- 
self, e.g. straying sheep ; a 
form oija, q.v. 

ja-wur, very red. 

jayaki, the fishing vulture. 

jayawa, ci. ja. 

jay ay a, disagreement; su7ia. 
jayaya they are wrangling ; 
cf . ja. 

jaye, to drag; seeja. 

jayi or jauye, to draw back ; 
see ja. 

je (Ar. gU-), to go, to depart; 
mu je da ni or mu je tare 
let us go together ; maje one 
who goes. 

9 Ci J 

jebba* (Ar. a.**.), a red tobe. 
jebda*, jefda, a form of jefa 

to throw, 
jefa, jefi, jefo, jefe (bef. pron. 




obj.), to throw, to cast ; jefa 
da duatsu to pelt with stones ; 
when je/a is used with a 
missile as its direct object 
it usually means to hit, not 
to throw at ; ya jefa masa 
mashij ya jefi masa da ma- 
shi, or ya je/eshi he speared 
him ; jejeji da to pelt ; jefo 
implies motion towards or 
towards the ground ; jifa, 
verbal n. throwing; sarikin 
jifa. a champion thrower; jifa 
or jefa the throwing of the 
shuttle in weaving. Derived 
forms arejefas to throw out, 
jefasda (K.), jefada (S.), je- 
fasJie (Zanf.), to throw out, 
overthrow; /e/sa* and jef she* 
to cast out. 

jegawa, sandy hill ; see jigowa. 

jego, accouchement, giving 
birth ; yin jego to give birth. 

jehunna (S.), an eagle. 

jeijeito, condolence; see jai- 

jeje, thinly wooded or unin- 
habited country ; cf , daji. 

jeka, fem. jeki^ get out ! only 
in sing., pi. = ku je. 

jeka, sack ; see jika. 

jekada, jakada, fem. jekddia, 
1. a messenger, sent by any- 
one ; cf. manzo a king's mes- 
senger ; 2. a tax-collector. 

jelala (Ar. J^l^), the cloth 
placed on a saddle. 

jello (K.), gourd for holding 

jema, a scented grass which 
grows to a height of four feet. 

jemage, pi. jemagu, a large 
sized bat. 

jemi, jlma, 1. to rub the hair 
off a skin ; 2. to tan; majemi 
or inaijiTna a leather dresser. 

jemo, a small dish. 

jenfi*, back; hadajenfi to put 
to flight. 

jeni (cf. Ar. rt j^^^ viii), 1. 
together, ku tafi jeni keep 
together ! 2. corn placed in 
bundles, yin jeni to place in 
jera, jere, jire*, to arrange in 
line or procession ; ajere in a 
line, or abreast, suna jeruwa 
they are forming line; ya 
jeru it is arranged in line, 
jeraya, a running camel, 
jerfa, tribal marks on the skin, 
jeri, ^\. jerori, line, rank. 

jeri, jiri (cf. Ar. j\^ v), head- 
ache, sunstroke, giddiness. 

jetaka*, a measure of distance, 
as far as can be seen with 
the eye. 

jeto, to agree with, i.q. jUo, q.v. 

jewa, used of the circling of a 
bird over its prey. 




jewayi (before n.), jewaye 
(before pron.), verb, n.jewaya 
to spy, spy out, cf . sun jewayi 
gari, sun jewayesu, sun yi 
jewaya : majewayi, pi. maje- 
waya spy, scout, cf. gewaya, 

ji, 1. to hear, perceive, feel, e.g. 
jin tsoro to feel fear, to fear; 
jin wuta to become warm, or 
to warm oneself; 2. to under- 
stand, na ji magananka I 
understand thy speech, han 
ji ha I don't understand ; 3. 
to obey ; cf . ya die da ni ka 
ji ka ji he said to me * listen 
to my gossip.' kuna jin chi 
do you feel hungry ? for use 
of jiwo cf. ya jiwo. kishi 
he had a thirst which he 
had brought from a distance. 
jiyeya understanding, good 
understanding, friendly rela- 
tions, majiakira an orderly. 
sun jia they heard, M. H. 
p. 223. 

jia, yesterday; shekaranjia the 
day before yesterday; watan 
jia last month, jia da dere 
last night. 

jiba, a small ant-hill ; cf. suri. 

jibche, to collect; seejibta. 

jibda (cf. (?) Ar. Sjuj, butter), 

ointment, scent ; jibdan kass 
a kind of creeper. 

jibda, civet cat. 

jibe, 1. to put anything out 

to dry after washing; 2. to 

place a load down on the 

jibga, to store up goods; cf. seq. 
jibgi, a large quantity of any- 
thing, esp. of food. 
jibi, sweat, perspiration ; yin 

jibi to sweat, perspire, 
jlbi, 1. a food made of flour 

and mia mixed; 2. used as a 

general word for food, 
jibi, the day after to-morrow ; 

watan jibi the month after 

next; cf. gata, chUa. 
jibji, dung-hill ; cf. jujai. 
jibta, jibche, to collect, bring 

jiche {^.)^k%fa (K.), to cover 

up, conceal, entangle. 
jiche, jichi, to turn upside 

down, to tilt anything up ; 

facli jiche to fall on the 

face ; see jlta. 
jTda, to descend, dismount, 

lodge at ; jldo come down ; 

jlde to put down (a load). 

jiddda to take away, bring 

. down. 
Jidda* (Ar. id.), really. 
jlde, to pick up. 
jlfa, n. throwing; seeje/a. 
jifjif, B 56 twilight, i.q. jijijl, 

jigeribti, to canter, used of 




an onomatopoeic 

a horse 
jigida, a woman's girdle, often 
made from the nuts of the 
kivakwa palm strung to- 
jigo, pi. jiguna, 1. a tree on 
which meat is hung up to 
dry ; 2. a post for supporting 
roof ; 3. a beam for drawing 
water from a well. 
jigowa, jegawa, jigawa, sand, 

hill covered with sand. 
jihirma, eagle; seejehurma. 
jihadi, holy war ; see jahdcii. 
jiji, a plant, from the root 
of which a sweet scent is 
jijia, pi. jiwoji, jijioyi, vein, 
sinew, gut; C 19 dunia tso- 
fua sai jiwoji the world is 
old and has nothing but veins 
left. It is sometimes used of 
the roots of a tree, also of 
the gut from which bow- 
strings are made, or which is 
used to fix the arrow-head to 
the shaft. 
jijifi, jiQif, jibjib, the first 
glimmer of light just before 
the dawn ; see Gr. p. 86 ; 
muyi jijifi let us start before 
dawn; cf. alfijir. 
jijiga, to shake violently, to 
feel a load in order to test 
its weight ; cf. jinjini. 

jika, jeka, zika*, pi. jikuna 

(Ar. ^j), a bag, esp. one 

made of skin, used for cow- 
ries, not for holding water, 
jlka, fem, jikanya, pi. jlkoki, 
jika7iu, grand-child. 

jlka, cf. colloquial idiom, ka yi 
da jlka hurry up ! be limp ! 
' look slippery ' ; cf. seq. 

jika, jike, to moisten; to be- 
come wet; particip. iorxajike- 
iva; F 78 akawo niagani ajika 
medicine is brought and is 
put in water, da rua ajika 
while it is raining. 

jlkai, to have pity; allah shi 
jikansa God have mercy on 
his soul ; see jinkai. 

jiki, pi. jikuna, body ; angai- 
sheka dajiki your health was 
enquired after ; jlka used of 
the trunk of a tree ; cf . M. H. 
p. 49, jikin itache shina yin 
mutane talatin the trunk was 
as thick as 30 men. maso 
jiki the man who loves bodily 
ease, i.e. the lazy man. ajikin 
is used as a prep. =on; tsokan 
nania ajikin makodi a scrap 
of meat on a round stone. 

jiko, a medicine to cure hori 

jiljilmako, a parrot. 

jima, to wait a little while ; 
pass, in phr. sai anjima after 




a little while, or good-bye 
for the present, jlma kddan 
or jimkadan, wait a little, or 
a little while ; cf. jinjima. 

jima, to tan ; see jemi. 

jimawa, for a time. 

jimero, a species of dark 
coloured rice. 

jimila, the parts which make 
up a whole, the divisions 
which make up a district. 

jimila, v. to add. 

jimina, pi. jimuna, ostrich. 

jim.ka,, to grasp with 
the hand, to take a hand- 

jim-kS,dan, a little while ; see 
jima., a handful. 

jim.olo, wild cat. 

jimrache, to bear with anyone; 
ka jimrache be patient. 

jimrau, an ass with reddish 

jimri, jimre, to be patient, to 
bear, to endure, B 36 ku jimri 
jihadi endure strife; mala- 
fanga ta fi jimrin rua this 
hat keeps the rain off better; 
da jimri patiently. 

jimri, n. patience ; yana da 
jimri he is doing his best. 

jimua for aljimua, Friday. 

jinako, zinako, a black sting- 
ing wasp ; see zurnako. 

jinbiri (S.), unripe fruit. 

jinfi, a grass used for making 

jinga, wages or taxes, yin jinga 
to pay wages, etc. ; maijinga 
a man who pays wages ; dan 
jinga a man who receives 
wages, a workman. 

jinganta, to hire. 

jingina, jinjina, 1. n. a pledge 
or security for money owing ; 
2. V. to leave anything as a 
pledge; cf. M. H. p. 197, wo- 
dansu su kan jingine kansu 
su karbi kurdi some would 
pawn themselves (as slaves) 
in order to obtain money. 
The form jinjina is probably 
a local corruption. 

jingina, jingine, to recline, to 
lean against something. 

jini, blood. 

jini, found in comip. jinin kajiri 
red beads worn by heathen 
women round the neck. 

jinia, the circular band of grass 
rope which encloses the tii- 
kurua rafters in thatching. 

jinia, jinya, sickness, attend- 
ance in sickness ; yin jinia 
to attend upon a sick person; 
jinia is also used for blood- 
letting, cupping. 

jinini*, to recall a wrong re- 
ceived, to bear a grudge. 

jinjima, apparently a strength- 
ened form of jima, q.v., to 




wait a short time ; partic. 
form F62 ka san dunia ka- 
dan tnuka jinjimawa thou 
k no west that in the world 
we stay but a short time. 

jinjimaka, a bird, w^ith black 
and white plumage. 

jinjimi, pelican, bastard mara- 

jinjina, n. the salutation of 
mounted men, made by the 
raised and shaken arm, and 
usually accompanied by a 

jinjina, jinjini, to hold up the 
right hand as a salute. 

jinjini, to feel a thing in order 
to ascertain its weight. 

jinjiri, fem. jinjinia, pi. jira- 
jirai, child, infant, esp. ap- 
plied to a child between the 
ages of one month and one 
year ; cf . jinjiri ha ya san 
habu ha a little child will 
not take No for an answer; 
jinjirin ivata (S.) the new 
moon; cf. jariri. 

jinjiria, a prickly tree with 
scarlet blossoms (Erythrina 
senegalensis, Leguminosae). 

jinka, thatched roof; yinjinka 
to thatch (- haihaiya) ; for 
details of its construction 
cf. tanka. 

jinkai, shinkai*, 1. mercy, 
grace; ya ke jinkaina he is 

showing compassion on me; 
2. used of good or bad action, 
jinkai alheri or jinkai mu- 
gunta ; cf. jikai. 

jinkiri, n. waiting ; ka yi mana 
jinkiri you have made us 
wait ; ^ 16Q ku yi mani jin- 
kiri wait a little while for me. 

jinkiri, destiny, fate, death. 

jinkirta, to postpone, await, 

come late. 
jinnu (Ar. j>^), demons, genii, 

evil spirits ; D69 da malaiku 
da aljinnu su tare and the 
angels and genii shall be 
gathered together ; cf. al- 

jinsi (S.), colour. 

jinya, sickness; seejinia. 

jir, naked, e.g. ya sa riga tasa, 
don jir shi ke he put on his 
garments, because he was 
naked ; cf . (?) tsirara. 

jira, to wait for one; F 237 ana 
fa jiran Jitowa nasa atashi 
after waiting for his coming 
out, they rise up ; maijiran 
gari the official left in charge 
of a town in the absence of 
a king ; maijiran gawa the 
person left to watch a corpse ; 
ruan jira water which wells 
up slowly and has to be 
waited for ; cf . jirache, jirata. 

jira, the yellow weaver bird. 




jirache, 1. to wait for one; 
2. to bear with one ; cf . jira. 

jirai, gum. 

jirata, jiraya (S.), to wait 
for ; cf . ji7'a. 

jiraya, a running canal ; cf. 

jire, rank; see j era. 

jire*, probably a form of tsire, 
cf . ya jire (of the hair of a 
skin) it comes off; cf. M. H. 
p. 57. 

jirfa, letting of blood ; yin jir/a 
to let blood. 

jirga, to bend, move to one 
side to give room to ; cf . jirgo 
to come close to. 

jirge, to bend, intr. hainya 
tana jirgewa the road bends. 

jirgo, to come close to ; see 

jiri, jeri, dizziness. 

jiri, a tree with pink flowers 
and smooth bark (Stereo- 
spermum kunthianum, Big- 
noniaceae), also called san- 
sami and hachin-tumkia. 

jirigi, jirgi, pi. jirage, 1. canoe, 
boat ; jirigin wuta or jirigin 
hayaki is used for steamboat, 
jirigi7i kasa a locomotive or 
train, maijh'gi boatman ; 2. 
trough, water-trough for cows, 
etc. ; 3. manger ; 4. a blue 

jirke*, to cease; e.g. of a dance; 

suna jirkewa they are finish- 

jirkiche, to upset, turn upside 
down, overthrow ; cf. seq. 

jirkita, to overthrow, upset, it 
is used of bringing a baby 
round froiu the neck to the 
breast ; used with fuska to 
frown, to show signs of dis- 
pleasure; participial iormjir- 
kitawa, cf. F 108 ka zamna 
nan tutur ha jirkitawa thou 
wilt remain there for ever 
without turning over. 

jirkita, n. change ; ku luroj da 
zamanu dajirkitansa consid er 
the times and their changes. 

jirwaye, splashing over. 

jisasa (K.), an eagle. 

jishe*, to cause to feel ; cf. ji. 

jishe, to take away, take off. 

jita, to tilt anything up against 
something ; cf. jiclie. 

jitau, a rain cloud. 

jito or jeto, to agree with, e.g. 
with an enemy. 

jitsa, pain. 

jiwaya, to spy; ^eejewaye and 

jiwoji, veins ; seejijia. 

jiwoyi, to visit; see j away i. 

jiwuya, to turn round ; cf. 

jiyeya, mutual understanding; 
see ji. 

jiza, a distant noise, muttering. 





jiziya (S.), tribute. 

juba, ant-hill; seejiha. 

judu*, always. 

juga, to give lavishly, anjuga 
mini aiki I have been given 
too big a job ; cf. seq. 

juga, jubga, n. an unfair divi- 

jujai, 1. dung-hill, of . j%i ; 2. 
a woman of bad character. 

jujaye, a pi. form of ja red ; 
cf. M. H. p. 227. 

juje, a small drum ; cf. jauje. 

jujuyawa, turning over, trad- 
ing, M. H. p. 202 ; cf. juya. 

jula jula, of cloth, thread-bare. 

juna, recipr. pronoun, common- 
ly prefixed to the plurals of 
the pers. pronouns, thus J^^n- 
ansu one another ; juna and 
da juna are also used abso- 
lutely, E 37 muna murna 
da juna we rejoice one with 
another; the expression J^tna 
hiu is used in polite circles 
for enceinte ; cf . ta yi juna 
biu she was three or four 
months gone with child. 

juna, a friend. 

juni*, blue colour, indigo, 
= shuni. 

jurara, n. listening ; cf. M. H. 
p. 230, kit yi jurara listen. 

jurare*, to listen; seesaurara. 

jure, to kick ; see shure. jure- 
jure^ an intensified form of 

jiire or shure to kick, used of 

fowls, etc. 
juri, to be patient ; cf. jimri. 
jurum, silent, oppressed ; cf. 

juya, used of an animal that 
is sterile ; cf . juya che ha ta 

juya, juye, to turn over, to 
turn back, to turn or whirl 
round in a dance, yana juye 
it is inside out ; juya da mor- 
gana or juya magana to in- 
terpret, juya da to overturn, 
juya ma to turn away from ; 
juyawa turning, returning. 

juyi, n. whirling. Also a trad- 
ing term, selling an article 
and with the proceeds and 
added money buying some- 
thing else. 

k o and k ^ are used by 
the Hausas to represent 
the sound of the English k. 
There is a distinction of sound 
between the two, though in 
writing they are frequently 
interchanged, t^ (which in 
this dictionary is written k) 
is a sub-palatal guttural. The 
Hausa name for it is kam 
mairua, i.e. the watery k; 
it is so called because the 
person pronouncing it puts 
his mouth into such a position 




that he appears to be shooting 
out water from the throat. 
The other k is called kamn 
lasan the licking k. The dis- 
tinction between the two k 
sounds is specially marked 
where k is an initial letter. 
The sound k is sometimes 
interchanged with that of «, 
J] and ^, e.g. kunche, sunche; 
kufu, fu/u ; kurji, gurje. 

ka, second personal pronoun 
mase. sing., 1. as subject it 
is prefixed to the verb in 
the perfect tense and in the 
imperative mood ; it is also 
suffixed to the auxiliary verb 
za which denotes the future 
tense, also to the passive, e.g. 
zaka fito you will come out, 
afitasdaka you are brought 
forth ; 2. as object it follows 
verbs and preps., e.g. sun ka- 
inaka they have seized you, 
tnaka or gareka to you ; 3. 
-nka is used as an inseparable 
possessive pronoun when the 
object possessed is masculine 
and -rka or -Ika when the 
object possessed is feminine ; 
see Gr. p. 24, e.g. ubanka thy 
father, uwarka thy mother. 

ka, a concessive particle ; B 28 
kowojche ka ka zaha which 
thou mayest choose^kan, q.v. 

ka, a shortened form of kaa the 

future prefix for the 2nd 
personal pronoun masc. sing. ; 
cf. Gr. p. 40. 

ka, head, a shortened form of 
ka% q.v. 

kaba, pi. kabobi, 1. a large 
species of palm with edible 
fruit ; it is specially used of 
the young dum palm before 
the stem has grown up; 2. 
its leaves and fibre from 
which baskets, ropes, hats, 
etc. are made. 

kaba, to swell, used of swelling 
caused by sickness. 

kaba, kabuwa, a swelling, 
syphilis ; kaba na kashi rheu- 
matism ; cf . dumar-kada. 

kabaki, pi. kaboka, 1. a large 
quantity of food in a calabash, 
abundance, B 30 ; 2. a large 

kabania,kanibama, kabuma, 
a brood mare. 

kaban kura, a vegetable poison 
used for smearing arrows. 

kabare, a bird, the appearance 
of which is a sign of bad luck. 

0^ I 

kS,bari (Ar. j^), grave; B 169, 
F 101 kana kabarinka kai 
dai thou art in thy grave 

kabbar* (Ar. jl^), A 72 to 
say 'allah akbar,' i.e. 'God 
is great.' 




kabe, to brush ; kakahe to brush 
thoroughly, also used as intr. 
V. sai rdba ta kakahe wait 
till the dew has risen (i.e. is 
brushed away) 

kabeke*, one possessed of food; 
cf. kahaki. 

kabewa (K.), kubewa (S.) 
(cucurbita pepo), a kind of 
pumpkin or gourd, which 
grows in gardens and on 
houses ; cf. goji (Z.). 

kabia, 1. conduct, habit; 2. a 
thing abhorred. 

kabido, kabudo, a cape made 
of palm fibre with hole for 
head, used as a protection 
against rain. 

kabila* (Ar. J-j^i), kindred, 

all the people belonging to 
one house ; maikahila one 
who has a large following. 

kS,bra, to knock against. 

kabrara, to be large or corpu- 

kabri, thick ; see kauri. 

kabtu, first hoeing of land be- 
fore sowing ; cf . kufurtu. 

kabua, syphilis ; see kaha. 

kabuma, see kabama. 

kabura, a whistle made of an 
antelope's horn. 

kabus, kabushi, pi. kabussai, 
an edible gourd. 

kabushi, softness, ya yi ka- 
bushi it is soft to eat. 

kacha kacha, scattering, dis- 
persal of property or people. 

kachala, a chief slave of a 
king (a Bornuese word). 

kache, to scratch up with the 

kachia, circumcision ; yin or 
yenke kachia to circumcise. 

kachibiss (S.), an unexpected 

kachichia, a wood-boring in- 

kachokacho, a pod like a pea 
with small seeds inside, used 
as a plaything for children 
to shake. 

kSida, karka*, conjunction, 1. 
that not, lest ; J) b^ ku do 
ania kada yan uwanku su 
berku hainya take care lest 
your relations leave you out- 
side (heaven) ; 2. preceded 
by domin = in order that not; 
3. in imperative sentences 
it denotes prohibition, B 41 
kada ka lura da aiki nai 
look not closely at his work ; 
B 141 kada ka hita follow it 

k§,da, to shake, specially used 
in the phrase kada kai to 
beckon with the head, assent, 
say yes ; see geda kai, cf. 
kauda kai to dissent. 

kada, to strike, e.g. a drum. 

kada, kashe, to conquer, over* 




throw (not connected with 
kashe to kill) ; kdda itatua to 
clear the bush ; kdda or ky- 
arda is used before a n., kdshe 
before a pron. 

kada, cotton, for the cleaning 
of cotton before spinning see 
under abduga. 

kada, to stir into, mix in (e.g. 
of soup). 

kada [Ar. ^^^-cii, the Ar. ^ is 
here pronounced d, but in 

alkali ^^oJUt , judge, it is pro- 
nounced as l\ to judge, con- 
demn, chastise ; kdda magana 
to contemn. 

kada kada, a shrub with pink 
flowers which appear from 
the ground before the leaves 
(Cienfuegosia heteroclada, 

k^da, k^do, pi. kddodi, ka- 
ditna, kadunduna, crocodile. 

kadabkara, also kadafkara, 
a bird which is said to carry 
its eggs in its mouth; the 
lesser bustard. 

kadada, 1. a cross ridge in a 
tilled field joining the longi- 
tudinal ridges; 2. a well- 
tilled field ; cf. kwiya. 

kadai, exceedingly, used in 
salutations after sanu, harka, 

kadai, only, alone, ni kadai I 

only, I alone, ka kadai, ski 
kadai, etc. 
kadaichi, the state of being 
one or alone, found in the 
phr. shi kadaichi he by him- 
self ; cf. makadaichi unique, 
kadaita, 1. desolation ; yin ka- 
daita, to lay waste ; 2. v. to 
be alone ; shina kadaita daki 
he is alone in the room, 
kadami, used in the expression 
kadamin abduga a spindle 
with cotton on it used in 
kadamiski or karamuski, 
q.v., an imported velvet or 
plush cloth esp. used by wo- 
kadan, if, when, 
kadan, little, few ; kddankddan 

very little, very few. 
kadan-dunia, kadandonia, a 
harmless centipede,= rfaiofe^/a ; 
cf . shanshani a poisonous cen- 
kadangari, kadangare, f. ka- 
dangarua, pi. kadangaru, the 
common house lizard. When 
the male puts on its mating 
colours it is called kutu (in 
Kano), kiski (in Sokoto) and 
jangwada (in Zaria). 
kadango, tattoo marks behind 

the eyes. 
kadanya (Bassia Parkii), shea- 
butter tree ; the oil obtained 




from its seeds (main kadanya) 
is of the consistency of butter; 
it is largely used as an article 
of food and is exported to 
England for use in the manu- 
facture of soap, candles, etc.; 
ci.kade. kadanya rajl aipoison 
used for smearing arrows. 

kadara, kudira (Ar. jjj), 1. to 
will or decree; 2. to liken, 
hold equal to. 

kadarko, bridge : see kaderko. 

kadaura, a large tree with 
fragrant resin, the copaiba 
tree (Daniellia thurifera, Le- 
guminosae)., the fruit of the shea- 
butter (kadanya) tree ; nami- 
jin kacle a tree with white 
blossoms: its foliage resembles 
that of the kadanya tree (Lo- 
phira alata). 

kade, to cut down, e.g. a tree, 
to overturn. 

kaderi, the cotton obtained 
from the silk-cotton tree. 

kaderko, kadarko, bridge, 
- stilts. 

kaderta, Ar. jj^i, to appoint, 
to order (used of God), to 

kadi, n. spinning, yin kadi to 
spin ; cf. kada cotton. 

kadi, a blow. 

kado pi. hahe (Fulani words). 

indigenous tribes, used gener- 
ally by the Fulanis for 

k^do (K.), a crocodile ; see 

kadondunia, centipede ; see 

kafa, a leak in roof, pot or 
canoe; a little hole; ya yi 
kafa it leaks ; cf . prov. ahin 
hanza hanchi babu kafa a 
worthless thing is a nose with- 
out nostrils ; kdfal alura a 
needle's eye. 

k&fa, 1. to build, esp. to put 
wooden beams on a house ; 

2. to nail, fasten with nails ; 

3. to set up, to place, pitch, 
kafa lema to pitch a tent ; 
A 13 mu ga ankafa ragaya 
we see ropes set up (for weav- 
ing) ; 4. ya kafa goshinsa he 
prostrated himself; 5. to 
ground ; cf . M. H. jirigi ya 
kafa chikin duchi the boat 
grounded on the rocks ; kdfa- 

fe, fem. kdfafia, kdfafa, pi. 
kdfafuj finished, established, 
founded ; kdfawa founding ; 
akafe stuck in. 
k§>fa, kafTa, pi. kafdfu, kafofi, 

s - 
kafafe (cf. Ar. sa£», 1. palm 

of hand, sole of foot), foot, 

leg ; tafin kafa the sole of the 

foot ; akafa on foot, F 95 

kafafe duk adufitse ma kushe- 



kafon batsi 

wa by the feet of all is (thy) 
grave pressed down; kdfat 
yaki a portion of an army 
separated from main body; 
kdfat fatake a collection of 
caravans; cf. prov. zumunta 
akdfa ta ke relationship is a 
matter of the feet, i.e. if a 
person does not take the 
trouble to walk to see his 
relation the relationship be- 
comes of no account; cf. 
kamun kdfa; 2. spur of a 
cock, fin of a fish. 

kafada, shoulder. 

kafan* (Ar.), shroud ; cf. lika- 

kafarji, a small tortoise. 

kSifau, mud ; see kdfo. 

kafche, to plough or prepare 
ground for sowing, makafche 
one who ploughs ; cf. kaftu. 

kS.fe (cf . Ar. rt U=3 , to recede), 
to subside, sink and so, of a 
well, to dry up, rijia ta kdfe j 
also tr. to dry, e.g. meat. 

k^fi, kaffi, 1. gate, stockade, 
barrier ; 2. establishment, cf . 

kafi, kafin, prep, before (used 
of time) ; cf. kami. 

kafia, to slip, e.g. as in soft 
mud, B 142 ka kafia damai 
maiafkawa thou slippest con- 
fusedly and art about to fall. 

kafiboka, a convolvulus with 

white flowers and silvery 
hairy leaves from which scent 
is made, =fariti-gamu, q.v. 

kafirchi, heathenism; see kd- 

kafirfita, sand-fly. 

kafiri, pi. kafirai, kafirawa (Ar. 

j-?l-£»), unbeliever, infidel, 

kafirta, to become an unbeliever, 
kafito (come out), a bird or 

animal snare made with cane 

and slip-knots. 
kS,fo, kS,ho, pi. kafoni, kafuna, 

1. horn, da kdfo horned; 

2. horn-trumpet ; A 78 rana 
da maibusa ya busa kafo on 
the day when the sounder 
of the trumpet shall sound ; 
maikafo trumpeter ; kdfon 
mariri the horn of the oryx. 

k2,fo, mire, a swamp with soft 

kafo, pi. kafij blind, blind man; 
cf. makafo, id., makopchi, 
makamta, and makamchi., 

k^fo, ya kdfo baki he stuck out i 
his lips to drink ; see kdfa, 

kafofun-guga (S.), an arch! 
used in building, in Gandoi 
masharua is used. i 

kafon batsi, a wdld plant some- j 
times eaten in times of scar-^ 
city at beginning of rains. 




kafora (S.), the iron blade of 
.1 lioe. 

kafra, tr. to knock against. 

kaftu, hoeing, esp. the first 
hoeing of the ground before 
sowing ; yin kaftu to hoe ; 
cf. kafche. 

kafu, a cloth put on a horse 
under the saddle. 

kafur (Ar. j^lis), camphor. 

kafurchi, heathenism ; see kd- 

kafuri, heathen ; see kdfiri. 

kaga, to find out, discover, in- 

kagada, when ; used in Sokoto 
for saanda. 

kag3.ra, eager desire for; yin 
kagdra da to desire eagerly. 

kS.gara, kegania, pi. kagaru, 
fortification, barricade made 
of trees, entrenchment; also 
used for a stretcher of boughs 
on which a man whom it is 
desired to honour, is borne 
by his friends. 

kage (S.), invention, false accu- 

k3,ge, to stiffen, used of a limb 
stiffened by cold or disease; 
Jmgeiva stiffening ; see gage. 

kago, used of a house of which 
the roof has fallen in. 

kagua, pi. kagunai, an edible 
crab which lives in the water. 

kai, pron. 2nd pers. sing, em- 

R. H. D. 

phatic, thou, thou thyself; 
used with ka to form emphatic 
aor. 2nd pers. kai ka nema 
thou didst seek ; also with 
da, tare da kai with thee thy- 
self. Frequently used as an 
exclamation to call anyone 
or attract his attention ; kai 
yaro ho boy ! it is sometimes 
used as an exclamation ad- 
dressed to more than one 
person kai ku tafi ! 

kai, sometimes used in Sokoto 
for keau^ good ; cf . wanda ke 
da kai the popular course. 

kai, pi. kanuajkawana, kawuna, 
1. head of animated beings; 
chiwon-kai headache ; 2. tig. 
top or summit of anything ; 
kain tudu the summit of the 
hill, kandaki an upper storey 
in a house ; 3. sum, substance 
or chief point of a statement, 
chapter of a book, kai in 
conjunction with the personal 
pron. is used as a periphrasis 
for the reflexive and emphatic 
pron. {a) with da, e.g. ni da^ 
kaina I myself, shi dakansa 
he himself, etc., ita dakanta 
or itc(, takanta she herself; 
(i) without da as ni kaina I 
myself, C 4, kai nasa himself, 
C 5. The final i is dropped 
except in the first person, e.g. 
kanka, kansa, kansu. The 





forms kaina etc. are also used 
as reflexive pronouns in the 
objective case, e.g. ya hata 
kansa he destroyed himself : 
ya sha kansa it was too much 
for him, ta samu kanta she 
was punished ; cf . abin ya zo 
kanmu the thing has recoiled 
on us, gama kai da to in- 
trigue with, dakir ya sami kai 
he saved himself with diffi- 
culty, kan litafi the beginning 
of a book ; ta kai ta kai 
every one for himself; cf. 
aka^i above, a contraction of 
a kai na on the head of. 

kai, 1. to carry, to carry a load ; 
2. to take, take away, con- 
duct, guide ; 3. attain to, ar- 
rive at ; cf . kai da katvowa 
na karia false dealings ; kai 
da kawowa is also used for 
to go to and fro ; cf . labarin- 
sa ya kai koenna the report 
concerning him went every- 
where ; kdda ta kai don't let 
it escape. To this verb is 
probably to be referred tlie 
kai in the phrase ba shi kai 
hakanan ba it is too much, 
or it is not so ; cf. kawa to 
take away, kaiyo to bring, 
kaya a load, kaiwa a present. 

kaia, burden ; see kaya, 

kaia, a thorn ; see kaya. 

kaicho, alas! i.q. kaito^ q.v. 

kaida, rule, law, boundary, rate 

of tax assessment, 
kaifafa, to sharpen, to be 


kain (cf. Ar. aa^), edge, e.g. 
of a knife, of the bridge al- 
sirat, F 144 ; da kaiji edged, 

kaikai, kaikaiyi, itching pain : 
the itch, crowcrow, a disease 
very common on the W. coast 
of Africa. 

kaikai, the chaff obtained when 
any grain is beaten out. 

kaikainya, side-plaits. 

kaikara, lit. bringing of accu- 
sation, 1. accusation ; 2. to 
accuse; cf. kcira. 

kaikaya, a leguminous shrub. 

kailula (Ar. iijJLi), to doze. 

kaimi, pi. kayami^ spur, also 
used of the spurs of a cock ; 
kaimin kadangare (lizard's 
spur) a plant with prickly 
seed capsules about 1 in. 

kainijia (compound of kai and 
ijia), eyelashes. 

kainnain or kai nai, plenti- 
fully, in great numbers. 

kainua, water lettuce (Pistia 
stratiotes, Pistiaceae). 

kainya, kanwa, the 'ebony 
tree ' (Diospyros mespilifor- 
mis, Ebenaceae). 




kainya, kanwa (kwoi), to lay 

kaitara, plural kaitarori, the 
leather thong attached to the 
saddle and passed through 
the ring of the girth (baicji or 
majayi) to fasten the latter. 

kaitaro, see seq. 

kaito (S.), kaicho (K.) or kai- 
taro, alas ! found in con- 
struction with suff. pron. CI 3 
kaitunka wawa alas for thee, 
O fool ; kaichoni woe is me. 

kaiwa, a present, especially one 
given to a king ; cf . kai. 

kaiwa, a large leather sack. 

kaiya, an exclamation of nega- 
tion, Why ! What an idea ! 

kaje, reed buck, cervicapra re- 

kajerini, the name of a bird. 

kajiji, kazizi, a tuber from 
which a cough-medicine, also 
frankincense for use at bu- 
rials, is made. 

kaka, how; used interroga- 
tively; cf. kaka sunanka what 
is your name? kaka ne ka 

. sani how dost thou know"? 
kaka zaka yi how are you 
going to manage? In Sokoto 
yaya is often used for kaka ; 

. kokaka however. 

k&ka, the harvest season, which 
lasts about one month and 
comes at the end of the wet 

season (damana) before the 
rain has quite ceased. In the 
greater part of Hausaland 
kaka would approximately 
correspond to November. 

kaka, pi. kakani^ 1 . grandfather ; 
2. ancestor; D 58 akantarshi- 
mu dukamu hal kakanmu a- 
damu we shall all be gathered 
together even to our ancestor 

kS,kabe, intens. form of kabe, 
q.v., to brush off, to be 
brushed off, to let fall, of 
a tree, to shed leaves. 

kakabi, to marvel as at a thing 
never before seen. 

kakabra, fat ; see kabri. 

kakS,fe, to stick to ; see kafa. 

kaka-gida*, a nickname ap- 
plied to the children in a 
home for freed slaves. 

kakakat or kakat, a word im- 
plying likeness, only used in 
proverbs : kakakat ku7tnen 
doki, like a horse's car. 

kakaki, trumpet, trombone. 

kakanya, grandmother ; cf. ka- 

kS,kara, a small piece of ivory, 
a tooth. 

kakarai, without cause. 

kakarako, crowing; see kaka^ 

kakari, 1. vanity, vain, untrue; 
2. swelling on hand or foot. 




kakartsa, to bow ; cf . karkata. 

kakaruko, kakarako, kuka- 
ruku, n. crowing (probably 
onomatopoeic) ; cf . agwagwa 
and talatalu. 

kakarya, guinea-corn which 
has sprung up in an unsown 

kakat, see kakakat. 

kakau* = maikauda, one who 
drives away in war. 

kakezua hausa, a plant re- 
sembling ginger, which grows 
in damp woods (Costus afer, 

kaki, to spit. 

kaki, found in compound kakin 
zumua bees'-wax. 

ka-ki-ganin allah (thou re- 
fusest to look at God), the 
name of a species of horn- 
bill which appears to be 
always gazing down. 

kala, used in Gando for palm 
rib. 5 

kala (cf. (1) Ar. ^Js, herbage), 
gleaning of harvest, remainder 
of nuts, food, etc. ; yin kala 
to glean. 

kalabi, handkerchief on a wo- 
man's head. 
kalabta*, to sit down, used of 

camels, donkeys, etc. 
kalachi (cf. (?) Ar. jU, to 
drink at midday), breakfast, 
midday meal, any meal. 

kalai* (Ar. ^^), washing of 

clothes, for reduplicated form 
cf. B 136 hanza kalai kalai 
ha addini the washing of 
clothes is worthless apart from 
religion ; generally used with 
wanke to wash well and 

kalami* (Ar. jt>*:)^), words; 
cf. M. H. p. 220, kalaminsa. 
ke nan this is what he said. 

kalango, a drum, made with 
wood or out of a calabash ; 
it is shaj)ed like an hour- 
glass, and held undei* the 
arm ; pressure on the strings 
alters the sound of the drum. 
One such would be used by 
theking'sfool; ci. jaujewhich 
is a drum similar in shape to 
the kalango but of larger size. 

kalankua, 1. a string worn 
across the forehead as a cure 
for headache or as a charm; 
2. yin kalankua to look at 
anyone in order to encourage 
him ; 3. the top layers of 
brick on a wall, coping stones. 

kal^ta, to glean ; see kala. 

kale, to regard lightly, disre- 
gard ; see kicde. 

kalemu, kallemu (K.), 1. 
wing of an insect ; 2. the 
barbs on an arrow-head be- 
hind the actual point. 




kalgame (S.), to intertwine, 
hook on to. 

kalgo, kargo (Bauhinia reti- 
culata, Leguminosae), a small 
tree with slightly fragrant 
leaves, used for wrapping up 
food in ; its bark is used by 
women for darkening their 
lips ; from the bark of the 
kalgo tree are made the cords 
used to tie up the reeds in 
house building; cf. Gr. p. 138, 
1. 38, masuyin daki da kalgo. 

kali*, keli*, to shine as metal, 
a star, etc. 

kalia*, falsehood, for karia, q.v. 

' M. H. p. 227. 

kalikashin, below ; see kal- 

kalilan* (Ar. JjU), a little. 

kaliye, 1. to command; 2. a 
command, proclamation (Ar. 

kalkada, kalkade, kankade, 
karkade, to shake, shake oj0f; 
kalkada kura to shake off the 
dust ; D 5 6a wanan da kan 
jishi ha shi kalkade ha that 
which he hears let him cast 
not away., towel, napkin, small 
piece of cloth. 

kalkashi, n. the bottom or base 
of anything, probably formed 
from kasa ground. 

kalkashi, karkashi (Cerato- 
theca sesamoides, Pedalia- 
ceae), a prostrate herb, with 
flowers similar to those of 
lidi, q.v. The name is also 
applied to Sesamum radiatum 
an erect and larger plant with 
similar flowers. 
kalkashin (S.), kalikashin, 
karkashin(K.), under, under- 
neath, below. A shortened 
form kalkas is commonly used 
as a prep, or adv., underneath, 
kalkashin zomo (Indigofera 
sp., Leguminosae), a bush 
with small leaves and pink 
kalkeche, wild dog or jackal, 
kalle (K.), to break. 
kallemu, the barbs on an arrow 

head, see kalemu. 
kallo, n, gaze, stare ; yin kallo 
to look carefully at, gaze, 
stare ; ka faye kallona you 
continue staring at me, ma- 
kalachi one who stares, in a 
bad sense. 
kalma* ( Ar.), word ; see kaldmi. 
kalmasa, kalmashe, 1. to 
bend, roll up, make a collar, 
hem ; 2. to avoid ; in pass. 
B 37 akalmasheta let it be 
avoided ; 3. kalmashe with 
zuchia = to fail to get one's 
desire, to be disappointed ; 4. 
kalmasJien zuchia illiberality. 




kalme, an iron-pointed pick. 

kalmisa, n. used of rough des- 
habille coiffure of a woman 
pending the proper kitsu. 

kS-lo, used in expression kdlo 
halo very fine ; cf . kali. 

kalu, broth (a Kanuri word). 

kalu*, found in compound ka- 
lun itache a dried-up tree. 

kalua, seeds of the dorowa tree ; 
they are contained in a pod 
like that of a bean and are 
eaten in soup. 

kalulua, 1. a gland ; 2. a swell- 
ing of a gland. 

kam*, as to, e.g. ni kam for 
my part, in my opinion ; 
usually implying a negative 
statement, ni kam=I did not, 
it is not I. 

kama, to seize, to catch, lay 
hold on, to continue, go on 
with; then in various se- 
condary applications, e.g. ya 
kama hainya he took his 
road, pursued his journey; ya 
kama it succeeds {~ ya yi) ; ba 
7ti kar)ia I would not believe; 
suka kama tafia they pro- 
ceeded to march ; kowa ya 
kam,a gabansa every one took 
his own road ; wuta ta kama 
the fire blazed up ; suka kama 
haka they continued thus 
kama aiki to begin work 
kamia guda to take to flight 

^a7??(xA;r{/<x to supplicate; kame 
hakinka keep quiet ; ya kama 
rah it fits exactty; kamuwa, 
capable of being caught ; cf. 
prov. zom.0 ha shi kam,uwa 
dag a zamne a hare is not 
caught by sitting still ; ka- 
m,ame a prisoner; kankama 
. in tens, to catch all of ; kan- 
^ kamo to seize and bring ; ka- 
m,u is used in sense of to be 
catchable ; ta kamu it is likely 
to be caught ; makdma, q.v., 
that which lays hold or is 
laid hold of, handle ; makdm,i 
k^ma (Ar. id.), as, like, like as; 
kama wanan like this ; kam,a 
used with a word denoting 
measure = about ; with da 
affixed kamada and kamanda 
= like as, according as (cf. 
tam^karda), yin kdmada to be 
like to ; most commonl}- kdm,a 
assumes the constr. forms ka-, kamal, kamar, kaman 
ivanan like this, kamanda or 
kdm^a nadd or kama tadd as 
before, kamar yada even as, 
kaman kurege like a jerboa; 
maikama kaza such and such 
a description, cf. idiom dokin 
nan da keau kamar ahani 
this horse is good, you had 
better give it me, farin wata 
ya yi dadin tafia kam,ar aje 




the new moon is good for 
travelling, we had better go; 
mi ne kamarki what is your 
colour? i.e. what sort are you? 
i^hijia da halaman kamanshi 
it looks like him ; akahayana- 
shi da wata katna he appeared 
in another form. In A 33 
zasu tashi kaman kare they 
shall rise in the form of dogs, 
is seen its transition to a 
noun ; hence several following 
forms, nominal and verbal. 
kdma, ipl.kdmdnu, 1. likeness, 
image, picture, appearance, 
l/in kama to resemble ; 2. one's 
like, companion, associate, 
fellow, partner, friend (cf. 
Fulah kama friend); maikd- 
ma like to. ya yi kdma da 
wanan ya fi wanchan it is 
more like this than that. 
kama* to befit (=> kamata)^ 
found in D 4 abhida ha shi 
kama ha that which is un- 
fitting, kdmache to befit, to 
become, to behove. M. H. 
p. 206, cd)iri da shi hai 
kamacheka ha that which is 
not becoming to you. kdmd- 
ta to be becoming and so, to 
be necessary; ya kamata it 
is becoming, we ought, etc. 

kamache, to befit ; see kdma. 

kamal, kamar, like; see kdma. 

kamame, prisoner ; see kdm.a. 

kamare, reeds, pi. of kemru, q. v. 

kSmata, to befit ; see kdma. 

kamazoro, the strap, held in 
hand, tied to the bit lizami. 

kambama, brood mare ; see 

kam-barao (thief's head), a 
shrub about 7 ft. high with 
soft leaves from which a con- 
coction is made in which the 
face is steamed. 

kamberi, a man of Hausa pa- 
rentage born and brought up- 
in an alien state. He retains^ 
the religion, etc. of a Hausa; 
cf. ahakivariga. The Kam- 
beri country lies N.W. of 

kambi* (cf. (?) Ar. rt ^-i^, to 
become rich), 1. fine expen- 
sive clothes, stored up trea- 
sures, esp. those of a king ; 
2. strength ; shina da kambi 
he is strong. 

kambi (S.), a skin disease, esp. 
of horses, yaws. 

kambori, kambari, 1. finger- 
nail, also used collectively for 
all the finger-nails; 2. egg- 
shell ; 3. fish scales. 

kamtbori* (Ar. j^oi), fine white 
calico or brocade, such as 
is imported from England; 
cf. alkamura from the same 
Arabic root. 

kambu, a leather arm guard 




worn from wrist to elbow, 
worn by hunters. 

kamfa, the hole in which grain 
is planted ; kashe kamfa to 
go over the ground sowing in 
the places where the grain 
has not sprouted as a result 
of the first sowing. 

kami, till, until, when, by the 
time that, before ; cf. sai ka 
shiria kamin na zo you must 
get ready by the time I come; 
cf. kafi. D 21 kami mareche 
until evening ; A 1 2 kam,i ka 
zona when thou sittest down ; 
cf. M. H. p. 206, kam,in yi 
wonka until I have washed. 

kamk^ima, to utterly capture, 
in tens, form ; see kdma. 

kamna (Ar. ^J^), 1. love, de- 
sire, e.g. kamna ta tsaya love 
is aroused ; C ^ ya maida 
kamna tax ga hanza dunia he 
directs his desires towards 
this vain world, abin kamna 
a thing beloved, ina kamna- 
ka I love thee; B 165 muna 
kamna we desire, or with y\ 
e.g. na yi kamnansa (=ina 
sonsa) I love him ; yenke 
kam,na to lose heart; 2. v. 
kamna fuska to look pleased 
at seeing a friend; cf. kan- 
kam^na, kauna. 
kamro, a reed-grass ; heran 
kamro a water mouse. 

kamshi, kansi, kamsa, 1. an 
agreeable smell, ahin kainshi 
scent of any kind; 2. incense, 
B 169. 
kamsir, applied to the metal 
cartridge case used with the 
flint-lock gun ; cf. maikamsir. 
kamu, to catch ; see kdma. 
kamn, a measure of length 
from the elbow .to the tip of 
the middle finger, cubit; a 
common measure used in sell- 
ing cloth. 
kamua*, a pledge held for 

money owing. 
kamunk^fa, the two pieces of 
cloth sewn on at the bottom 
of native trousers ; they are 
about six inches wide and 
brightly coloured ; cf. wando 
maikaynu trousers embroid- 
ered up to the top. 
kamzo, ^anzo, food burnt on 
the fire, a dried crust; cf. 
M. H. pp. 169 sqq., refuse 
kan*, kana or kanda*, con- 
junctive particle, before that, 
until, then ; kan su gama 
before they have done, kare 
wanan kana ka yi wonchan 
finish this before you do that, 
B 57 kanda ta rabika before 
it part you. 
kan, if, when; cf. M. H. p. 228, 
allah kan ya so if God will ; 




it is probably an abbreviation 
of kadan, q.v. 

kan {kam before h) or ka, a 
defective auxiliary, used in 
order to give to verbs (1) a 
frequentative or habitual 
sense ; cf. A 54 wanan da 
kan rika taimama the man 
who always performed his 
ablutions with sand ; (2) a 
subjunctive or concessive 
sense, B 137 almajiri shi kam 
bida dengi nai the pupil 
would seek after his rela- 
tions ; (3) the sense of neces- 
sity or certainty, e.g. sai ya 
gamu da wata ya kan che 
kaitaro when he meets the 
fire he will say, Alas ! 

kan, on the basis of; see akan. 

kana, before ; see kan*. 

kana, personal pronoun, 2nd 
person masc. singular of the 
continuous present tense ; cf. 
Gr. p. 28. 

kanana, little, small, few; used 
as pi. of karami, q.v. 

kanda, how, the way in which, 
according to. na kasa ji 
kanda I am at a loss to 
understand ; cf . kan. 

kanda, koda, a dried-up nut. 

kandaki, pi. kandakuna, com- 
posed of kai and daki, lit. 
head of the house ; second 
storey, a room above, apex of 

roof; sabero su kan jamaa 
a kaindaki mosquitoes collect 
in the roof of a house. 

kandama, yin kandama to 
tie down thatch on to a 

kandami, pond ; see kun- 

kandare (K.), kangare (S.), to 
be stiff, used of skins. 

kande, a name given to a girl 
born after the birth of two 
or more boys. 

kandilu, dung of cows or 

kandiri, a long straight walk- 
ing-stick from Adamawa. 

kandu or kandun ido, 1. de- 
claring what is on the inside 
of anything by simply looking 
at it ; 2. a stone used as a 
charm tied to a woman's 
neck ; 3. evil eye. 

k^ne, pi. kdnena, kdnaij kanoni, 
younger brother; for fern, 
form cf. kanua. 

kS,ne, kanne, 1. winking; 2. to 
wink with one eye, yin kanne, 
id.; kanniawa winking, see 
kanenchi, brotherhood, 
kanfa*, remainder, used in 
Sokoto for saura ; cf. Gr. 
p. 137, 1. 11. 
kanfaie* (S.), shoulder, 
kanga, a knife ; see kangar. . 




kanga, konga, plain, flat place 
without trees, ravine ; cf. 
M. H. p. 197, dila tnalami 
na konga the jackal is the 
mallain of desolate places ; 
cf. kamjo. 

kangalai, a long piece of wood 
tied beside the ear, projecting 
for some distance before and 
behind, used as a punishment 
for thieving. 

kangar, kanga, 1. a rough 
knife, used esp. by pagans, 
with circular handle to fit 
on wrist and blade project- 
ing backwards ; 2*. cavalry- 
assembled for war. 

kangar a, rebellion, kangar ad- 
da to excite to mutiny ; cf. 
adv. phr. da kangara vigor- 
ously, B36; fiercely, strong- 

kangarua, a single one of a 
pair, of which one has been 

kangi, a leather thong, e.g. the 
rope by which slaves are 
fastened neck to neck, 

kango, pi. kangaye, kangogi, 
1. desolation; 2. a desolate 
and ruined house; 3. a house, 
built without a door, used 
as a prison ; cf. kanga. 

kani, before ; see ka^i. 

kania, anus. 

kS,niawa, winking with the 
eye ; cf. kdne. 

kankada, to drum, intens. 
form of kdda. 

kankale, to scale a fish. 

kankama, evil spirit. 

kankama, new sprouts growing 
up after trees or grass have 
been cut down. 

kankama, an intensive form 
of kdma to seize. 

kankamna, to dislike, ill-treat ; 
cf. kamna. 

kankamo, to seize and bring ; 
see kdma. 

kankana, little, fem. form of 
kankane, q.v. 

kankana, a species of cucum- 
ber or pumpkin. 

kankanchi (possibly this may 
be the French cancan Ara- 
bicised into ^Xi^, idle gos- 
sip), dishonour, humiliation, 
anger, quarrelling ; B 83 mu 
sa kankanchi let us put aside 
quarrelling, yin kankanchi 
da to quarrel with ; cf. prov. 
talauchi kankanchi poverty 
is degradation, i.e. there is 
nothing like poverty to hu- 
miliate a man ; cf. M. H. 
p. 200, ni ma yi kankanche' 
I too will do (him) a bad 
turn, kundumi ga niache 
kankanchi ne baldness is a: 
disgrace to a woman. 




kankanda kai, to bend the 
head ; see kdda. 

kankandi, kenkendi, a sack. 

kankani, to quarrel ; cf. kan- 

kankani, a strengthened form 
of kane^ found in expr. yin 
kankanin ido to look with 
the eyes nearly shut. 

kankane, fern, kmikanwa, pi. 
hankana, kanana^ small, little, 
few, A 22. 

kankanta, littleness, cf. Imlin 
kankanta childishness. 

kankanta, to humiliate, make 
small ; cf. Gr. 138, 1. 34, yun- 
t'a ya kankanta dunia Yunfa 
would humiliate the world. 
lankantawar kai bringing 
disgrace on oneself. 

kankara, 1. hail; 2. flint of a 

kankara, kankari, 1. to peel, 
scrape, rub out ; cf. makan- 
kara A 38 one to rub out ; 
2*. to hoe grass, A 24 mata 
kar ka sata akankari you may 
not put a wife to hoe grass. 

kankashe, to hatch ; see ken- 

kankashi*, haunch, used of 

i the cow. 

ikankaso, pi. kankesai, cock- 

; roach ; see kenkeso. 

kanki, hartebeeste (bubalis 
major) : for list of antelopes 

found in Hausaland, cf . under 

kankungaba, kunkungaba, 
part of the embroidery on 
the front of a tobe. 

kanne, winking ; see kdne. 

kano, pronounced kanno, Kano, 
the commercial metropolis 
of the W. Sudan, G 5; cf. 
'Hausaland,' pp. 100-123. 

kansa, himself ; see kai. 

kansakali, a sword. 

kanshi, a sweet smell; see 

kansua, keasua, a grass which 
makes horse-fodder. 

kanta, da kanta callous. 

kantalma, a large basket. 

kantara, to bend, tr., kantare 
to be bent : of a tree to 
grow crooked. 

kantara* (Ar.), a bridge. 

kantu, pyramidal load of salt 
such as could be carried on a 
man's head ; sugar is also 
made into the shape of a 
kantu about 2J ft. high for 
transport across the desert. 

kantukulo, a small mallet for 
beating leather. 

kantururua, black seeds worn 
by women as beads round the 
neck, probably from kain 
tururua head of the turuT^vcu 




kanua, kanwa, sister, fem. of 

kane, q.v. 
kanumfari or kanunfari (Ar. 

JuaJji), cloves, the Sokoto 
equivalent is hanchiii kade. 

kanwa, desire for food, greed. 

kanwa, natron, saltpetre; 1. 
farin kanwa used in making 
• tuo ; 2. jan kanwa used as a 
medicine ; 3. kanwa gwangwa- 
rasa = maganin haifua ; 4. 
kanwa ungurnu used for 
making armlets with. The 
natron imported into Hausa- 
land by native caravans is 
chiefly obtained from natron 
lakes in Bornu near L. Chad. 

kanwa, kyanwa, cat; see 

kanwuri, open space, glade in 
a wood. 

kanzo, burnt food ; see kamzo, 

kap, entirely ; ya chainye dawa 
kap he has eaten up all the 

kapara, perjury, chiefly used 
in the phrase yin kapara to 
swear falsely ; cf. (?) kafiri. 

kar, a form of the prohibitive 
particle kdda^ q-v. ; A 24 kar 
ka sata akankari you may not 
put her to hoe grass. 

kS,ra,, to come together 
violently as two rams, or as 
in the shock of battle ; kdro 

da duchi to stumble against 
a stone, kdro is also used as 
a noun ; wanan ya yi kdro da 
wonchan this meets that, or 
conflicts with that. 

kara, bleating : the noise of 
any animal ; karar bindiga 
report of a gun. 

kara, 1. cause of complaint ; 
kai kara to bring an accusa- 
tion ; maikawon kara com- 
plainant ; ta kaishi kara she 
made a complaint against him : 
with ga = to accuse ; 2. to 
call upon, refer dispute to a 
judge, accuse. 

kara, to add to, to increase, tc 
repeat an action ; when fol 
lowed by another verbal forii 
it qualifies it in the sense o: 
the adverbs 'more,' 'further, 
'again,' or with a negative 
'no more,' 'not again,' etc. 
e.g. ya kara kuka he con I 
tinned crying, ban kara tashi 
I did not rise again ; cf . kar ] 
increase. j 

k&ra, pi. kdrdre, m. reed, stall { 
or stem of plants ; e.g. kara', '>: 
hachi, karan shinkafa stal 
of corn or rice, karan masa^ 
achi the name of a water ree 
often planted near mosques 
karan jiki a straight well-kni 
body ; dan kara a piece c 
corn stalk. 




kara, a secret; cf. fatauchi 
kara caravan work is not a 
thing to be talked about; ya 
yi masa kara he kept the 
matter quiet for him, ite. he 
did not give him away ; ka- 
rata to keep quiet. 

k5,ra, da kara generous. 

kara*, a netting needle; cf. 

karabgari*, a forced entry into 
a town. 

karabka, karauka (S.), high 

karafa, ring of metal placed 
round hands or legs of women. 

karafafa, a plural form, strong j 
men ; cf. karfi. 

karafafa, karifafa, karfafa, to 
make strong ; ya karafafa 
mayana he emphasized what 
he said ; see karfi. 

karaga, couch of king or judge, 
judgment-seat, seat on which 
a king is carried about. 

karago, a beggar, a destitute 
person ; cf . jankarago. 

karaia, a two-stringed musical 
instrument ; see garaiya. 

karakashi, the name of a plant. 

karaki, a tree. 

karama, pi. karamomi (Ar. 
d^\jj^), wonder, prodigy. 

k aramami or kannanii,sprout 

or stalk of guinea-corn, etc. 
karam^ta, a species of hawk. 

karambani, meddlesomeness 
(= kazalaha) ; cf . prov. karam- 
bdnin akwia ta yaida kura it 
is no business of the goat to 
salute the hyena, i.e. if a man 
meddles with that which does 
not concern him he has him- 
self to thank for his mis- 

karambo, a form of smallpox. 

karami, fem. karama, karamiay 
pi. karamu, kanana, kankanay 
little, small. 

karamia, a species of gourd. 

karamta, smallness ; see ka^ 

karamuski, karamiski, ka- 
damiski, 1. a European cloth 
of soft texture ; 2. a small, 
red, velvety spider. 

karamuskin-giwa, a shrub 
with a red flower, the leaves 
turn from bright red to green. 

karan hanchi, bridge of the 
nose ; cf . hanchi. 

karana, kyarana, the giant 
cactus, the fruit of which is 
ground up and used as an 

karanchi, abstr. n. from ka- 
rami, a small quantity ; ka- 
ranchi ddga mutane few men. 
karandefi (S.), corn stalks used 

by tanners, 
karangama, ladder, steps ; see 




karangaza, lung sickness of 

karangia, karengia, karingia 
(pennisetum distichum), a 
grass, the prickles of which 
stick to the clothes; the seeds 
are used for food, especially 
in the northern part of Hausa 
land on the borders of the 

karangoda, a small male ante- 
lope ; cf . goda. 

karanna, giant cactus; see 

karanta (Ar. tji), to read. 

karantasda, karantasa, ka- 
rantashe, to teach ; ya ka- 
rantasdashi he taught him to 

karantseyi, the tearing of a 

karapata (S.), shoulder. 

karapta (cf. (?) Ar. wJji, to 
draw near), with da^ to meet 
a person coming from opposite 
direction, e. g. ya karapta dashi. 

k^r^r^, a tall leafy twiner 
covered with prickly tuberous 
hairs which cause severe itch- 
ing on the skin (Mucuna pru- 
riensis, Leguminosae). 

karara, a woman without child, 

karareyo, a brittle grass. 

karari, cleanness, piireness ; 
rua da karari pure water. 

karasa, to complete, succeed in 

doing something. 
karata, to keep a thing quiet ; 

see kara. 

karatu (Ar. I^lji), .reading, 
then story, language, words, 
education, A 9 wanan karatu 
hamza ne this is the story of 
Hamza ; yin karatu with ac- 
cusative, to read ; makaranta 

kS,rau, armlet ; see kdro. 

karauka, high road; see ka 

k&raurawa, bells attached to 
sheep and goats, etc. 

karS,ya, trembling, excitement, 
breaking. karayar zuchia 
trembling of the heart; M. H. 
p. 64. yin karaya to break; 
cf. proverb laudi ba karaya 
ba bending is not breaking ; 
cf. karya, id. 

karaya, a long fish like a dog- 
fish with large head. 

karba, karbi, 1. to take, to 
snatch ; 2. to accept, receive ; 
cf. ba7i karba ba I do not 
believe it; M. H. p. 221, 
ya karba he consented; 3. to 
suit, agree with, inga nan ba\ 
ta karbeni this dress does not I 
suit me ; 4. to relieve a man j 
of his load, en karbeka let me { 
give you a lift, karban rai\ 




the receiving of a man's spirit 
at death, karha rtiagana to 
answer, karho to take to 
oneself ; hence the imperative 
knrho recei\'e ! cf. karha take ! 

karbainya, a thorny shrub. 

karbawa, answer. 

karche (S.), to wipe ; see karta. 

kardaji, a thorny shrub over- 
hanging river banks (Mimosa 
pigra, Leguminosae). 

kardua, a goat in milk. 

k^re, fern, kdi'ia, pi. karnuka 
(Kanuri keri), clog; kdren 
(/Ida house-dog; cf. pro v. aje 
karenkadonkaren gidan woni 
keep a dog for yourself be- 
cause of the dog in another's 
house, i.e. be prepared with 
the same weapons as those 
with which you will be at- 
tacked, kdrem huki a nick- 
name for the jackal. 

kare (cf. (?) Ar. js, to stop, be 
done with), 1. end, e.g. D 85 
gidan kcvre an abode which 
comes to an end, lit. house of 
end ; 2. v. tr. to end, finish ; 
as V. intr. to come to an end, 
e.g. B 74 da kai da dunia ku 
kare duk thou and the world 
ye shall both come to an end. 
abinchi ya kare may either 
mean the cooking (ddfa) is 
ended or the food is at an 
end. ^aren kumolo breakfast. 

maikarar kwana one who is 
at the point of death, karshe 
end. makaren defi a healer 
of arrow wounds. Also used 
impersonally to qualify ad- 
verbially other verbs, ya yi 
magana ya kare he finished 
speaking ; ya kare is fre- 
quently used impersonally = 
it is enough, the matter is at 
an end. karewa ending, end, 
an intensive form karkare to 
come utterly to an end, is 
found, cf. B 141 dunia zata 
ta karkare this world shall 
come utterl}' to an end ; ma- 
kdra or makdre end. 

kare, to ward oJff, interpose 
obstacle between oneself and 
another ; sun kare da shi 
they shrank from him. ya 
kare gari ddga he defended 
the city against. 

kare-dengi, the helmet shrike 
(prionops plumata), so called 
because its blood is used in 
certain poisons. 

karembiki, a woman about to 
give birth to a child. 

karengia, a thorny grass ; see 

karentsaye, to tear. 

karera, the large intestine = 

karereya, an intensive form 
of karya to break. 




karewa, end ; see kdre. 

karfafa, to wax strong, strength- 
en ; see karji. 

karfashi, karfS,sa (K.), a 
species of fish somewhat re- 
sembling a perch, with a 
spiny back fin. 

karfata, karifata, the shoulder, 
only used of animals. 

karfi, karifi, pi. karafa, kar- 
faifai, karfuna, 1. iron; jan 
karfi brass ; 2. strength, 
power ; da karfi powerful ; 
maikarifi strong. F 84 su- 
na karfe hali they have a 
strong disposition, karfafa 
to strengthen, wax strong; 
karfafa mag ana to enjoin 
strictly; M. H. p. 197, a%o 
su karifafa let them come 
and use their strength; ka?'- 
karifa very strong, karfi or 
karipi is sometimes used for 
an iron cooking-pot ; it is 
also applied to the striking 
of a clock, cf. karifi nawa 
what o'clock is it? 

karfu*, pi. karfuna'*', a whip; 
cf. kurafu. 

kargo, the name of a tree ; see 

kargo, a red and white ram. 

k^ri, meaning ; karin magana 
a proverb ; see kere. 

kS,ri, longing, desire for ; dokin 
kdri the coveted horse; an- 

kawo mani shi okankdrithQve 
was brought me just what I 
was longing for. 

k^ri, young deleb palm before 
the main trunk has grown 

kari, abundance, increase ; see 
kdra to increase; ya ke ne- 
man kari he is asking for 

karia, bitch, fem. of kdre. 

karia, masc. or fem., 1. tale, 
story; 2. what is merely a 
story, falsehood, lie; B 107, 
D 7. Hence the expression 
gidan karia this present 
world, lit. house of falsehood, 
opposed to gldan gaskia the 
place to which all go when 
they die until ranan gohe. 
karia and gaskia are often 
used as masculine words, cf. 
karia ne it is false, yenke 
karia to lie, kariata to give 
the lie to ; cf . ankariatashi 
he was contradicted, kari- 
achi falsehood, makariachi a 

karia, a cactus-like shrub with 
red flowers (Pachy podium 
lealii, Apocynaceae). 

karia, defence, protection, a 

karia, karie, kariewa, toi 
break ; see karya, karye, ka- 




kariachi, see karia. 

kariba, to take ; see karha, 

kariegalma (hoe-breaker), a 
plant with hard woody stalk 
and small yellow flower from 
which an ointment for bruises 
is made. 

karifata, thigh ; see karfata. 

karikache, to bend, see kar- 

karikara or karkara, pi. kar- 
karori, kcurkaroni (cf. Ar. 

ji^), the cultivated land 
round a town or village ; cf. 
prov. komi nesan jeje da kar- 
kara agdba however long the 
journey through the forest 
there are homesteads ahead ; 
cf. M. H. p. 204, tajiri da 
shi ke karkara nan the mer- 
chant who is in this district. 
karikari, karkari, to draw, 

karlmu* (Ar.^^j^), gracious. 

karingia, a thorny grass; see 

kaririye, to break up, an in- 
tensive form of karya, q.v. 

kariya, kariye, see karya, 

karka, an abbreviation of kdda 
ka do not thou. 

karkache, karikache, to be 
bent, to totter, also to leave 
(a road) ; ya karkoAiheta he 

R. H. D. 

turned off from it (the road), 
of a canoe to swerve aside; 
cf. karkdta. mutum akar- 
kache a man of bad dispo- 
sition, kai karkache you have 
done wrong. 

karkachi, 1. a game played 
by children ; 2. a jest. 

karkachi, (eat not) a poisonous 
plant with narrow leaves and 
mauve bilabial flower, like a 

karkade, to shake off"; see 

karkanda, rhinoceros. 

karkara, cultivated land ; see 

karkara, kwarkwara, a tree 
with back-turned thorns, the 
bark of which is used as 
a medicine for sore throats, 
a gum is obtained from it. 

karkare, to come utterly to an 
end, intensive form of kare, 

karkari, to draw, scrape, 
scratch; see karikari. 

karkarifa, very strong, an in- 
tensive form karifi, q.v. 

karkaro, wrist bangles; see 

karkas, underneath ; see seq. 

karkashi, a synonym for tsalia 

karkashin, underneath ; see 





karkata, and by metathesis 
hakartsa^ 1. to bend, decline; 
cf. rana ta karkata it is past 
midday ; 2. to bow with head 
to one side so as to listen 
intently ; with kunua ear, 
D 32 ^it karkata kunua en 
gaia inaku gaskiana give at- 
tention, that I may explain 
to you the truth which I have, 
F 7 abokina ka kakartsa ku- 
nua naka ; 3. to make a mis- 
take ; cf . karkache. 

kark&ta, n. crookedness. 

karki, to finish. 

karkia, yoke, Y-shaped, put on 
necks of slaves, also a stick 
tied to a dog's neck to prevent 
it from biting the holder. 

karko, n. end, ending; cf. B 71, 
karkomu dunia duk karewa 
as for our continuance in 
this world it shall completely 
come to an end ; cf. karshe. 

karma, idleness, profligacy, mis- 
chief, used with dan or yan 
as prefix to denote idlers, 
loafers, profligate, also applied 
to women with whom such 
men consort. 

karmami, stalk of corn ; see 

karmatako, white clay. 

kami, kasni, kauri, smell of 
burning, a putrefying smell. 

k^ro, kdrau, pi. karaurawa, 

an armlet made of natron 
(kanwa), especially worn by 
Nupe women. 

karo, 1. partnership, clubbing 
goods together ; 2. a deposit. 

kS,ro, to meet ; see Mra. 

karo, 1. a kind of gum put in 
ink ; 2. kdron maje, a sort of 
gum drawn from a tree and 
used for perfumes. 

karo, the butting of rams and 
metaph. the ram itself : push- 
ing with the head. 

karofi (K.), dye-pits; kurdin 
karofi tax on dye-pits or on 
irrigated plantations. 

karoka, road, highway. 

karoki, boards, paddles. 

karoro, a bag of cowries ; cf. 

karpashe, a fish. 

karri, meaning ; see kdri. 

karsana, a heifer. 

karsani, vigorous, active. 

karshe, end, the last ; used ad- 
verbially B 94 domin abinda 
zashi gani karshe for that 
which he will see at the end ; 
makarshe the last; cf. hdrey 

karta (K.), karche (S.), to 
wipe, wipe off" ; karta da gudu 
to run very hard : to clean 
the land of grass. 

kartaje, a scraper used by j 




karu, to abound, to increase, 
used of the sun, to rise high, 
e.g. rana ta karu the sun rose 
high in the sky, opposed to 
rana ta ragu. yana karua 
it is being increased ; see 

\ karu, twigs of wood put at top 
of net (taru) and used as cork 

I karua, bad woman, prostitute ; 

cf . prov. da auren karua gara 

kiivon zakara better keep a 

. cock to lay eggs than marry 

a bad woman. 

! karuanchi, profligacy. 

j karufa, pi. karufai, high riding- 

i boots. 

I karuki, paddles ; see karoki. 

I karusa, a word used by the 

I Hausas in N. Africa for a 

I carriage. 

I karya, a plant from which a 

i poison is obtained, also a 

i lotion for the itch ; cf . karia. 

karya, karaiaya, n. a fracture. 

karya, karyi, karye, to break, 

to spend money ; karya azu^ni 

■ to breakfast ; ka karya mani 

zuchia you break my heart, 

you discourage or dishearten 

> me; karyewa breaking; ka- 

rarre broken; karaya, q.v., 

id. ; iia karye I have broken 

something, I have sustained 

a fracture ; reshe ya karye the 

branch broke; kakarya to 
break open, break to pieces; 
kaririye^ karereya to break 
up, to scatter. 

kas, an abbreviation of kdshe 
to kill. 

kas, underneath, an abbrevia- 
tion of kalkashin^ or akass. 

kasa, an exclamation of surprise. 

kasa, to win at dara ; cf . kdshe ; 
kasa kune to pay attention. 

k§.sa, pi. kdsashe, kdsaisai ; 1. 
earth, soil ; 2. the ground ; 
akasa on the ground, usually 
shortened to akass; hence 
used to express, down below 
(cf. abisa above); na kasa m., 
ta kasa fem., used as adj., the 
one beneath, the lower; ahin 
kasa = worms, etc. ; used as 
an adv. tafo kasa, shido kasa 
come down ! 3. land, country ; 
in a geographical sense kasan 
hausa — Hausaland. 

kasa, to put down, to lower to 
the ground; shortened to 
kass, used fig. ; A 29 anso ta 
kass rauria chikin magana 
nata let her be willing to 
lower her voice in speaking, 
to fall short of, to lack, 
hence to fail one, disappoint 
one, e.g. ha ya kasa mani 
komi ha he failed me in no- 
thing; cf. M. H. p. 219, SU71 
kasa zama they have been 





restless ; also to fail, to give 
in ; ya kasa sukansa his heart 
failed him when about to 
make a thrust; kasashe a man 
of no account, something 
which fails or falls short of 
a standard ; kasasda to de- 
cline ; ina kasasda karifi I am 
growing weak ; kasashe to 
lower, make less. 

kasa, to divide up into small 
' lots ' for the market ; cf. 
kashi portion. 

kasa, python. 

kS,sa, kisa, to kill ; see kdshe. 

kasada, 1 . to believe in, to rely 
on God ; 2. to enquire God's 
will from a mallam. 

kasaita, to be great, to be 
fully developed ; cf. zakaran 
nan ya kasaita that cock is 
magnificently developed. 

kasala (Ar. J>I^), found in 

compound maikasala, abeggar 

who refuses to work, 
kasanchi, to continue, remain; 

used like tabeta. 
kasanki, old thread-bare cloth, 
kasanta, 1. v. to defile; 2. n. 

uncleanness ; see kazamta. 
kasantada, to build, 
kasarantam, meddlesome. 
kS,sari, a mixture of bran and 

water ; see kaseri. 
kasasake*, plates; cf. M. H. 

p. 72. 

kasasda, to grow less ; cf. 

kasashe, a man of no account; 
see kasa. 

kasashi, a fog or haze. 

k^sau, nakedness ; na iskeshi 
kdsau I found him stark 

kS,sau*, kSiSO, killing, murder- 
ous ; cf. kasa. 

kasausawa, a kind of long 
spear, not used for throw- 

kasba or chasbi, beads (Ar.), 

kasegi, forked iron stick on 
neck of a horse. 

kaseri or kasari (used in Sokoto 
for tsari which is used in 
Kano), the water in which 
corn etc. has been washed, 
which is given to horses to 

kash, an exclamation of an- 

kashe, a portion ; see kashi. 

kashe (K.), to exist; see kc(r 

kashe, to overpower, bring to 
the ground, condemn, over- 
throw ; alkali ya kasheni the 
judge condemned me; to beat 
in a gambling game, cf. M. 
H. p. 172, daia ya kashe daia 
the one beat the other. 

kSiShe,, kisa, to kill; 
kdsau murderous ; of money, 




to spend, e.g. ya kashe kurdi ; 
na kdslie kurdi hanza I wast- 
ed my money ; kisa magdna 
to end conversation; kasso go 
and kill (someone) and come 
back ; intens. forms karkdshe, 
kdkkashe, to slaughter. 
kashe kamfa, to sow land a 

second time ; see kamfa. 
kashedi, kasheji (S.), pro- 
hibition, warning. 
kashegari (Kats.), next day = 

wanshekare (S.). 
kasheri, a kind of stork. 
kashi, a violent beating ; hada 
kashi to flog ; han kashi a 
kashi, n. rout ; ambasu kashi 

they were routed. 

kiashi, dung : idiom rike or 

hjxishe kashi ahanu to get 

into trouble, kashin awaki 

(goats' dung) a small shrub 

with a rough lanceolate leaf ; 

I kdshin-tdma the scum from 

molten iron. 

kashi, kashe, portion; na raba 

kashi kashi I divided it into 

heaps ; kashi fudu anraba 

dunia the world is divided 

into four parts; cf. kasa to 

divide into portions. 

kashi, kashe, 1. to be, to exist, 

D 39 ; 2. to continue ; B 54 

en ka shiru kashe if thou con- 

tinuest silent, kashi is fre- 

quently found in written but 
seldom occurs in colloquial 

k&shi, kisa, n. killing, e.g. su 
ka yita kashi, muna kisa ; 
makdsa a vital part. 

kashi, pi. kasusua, bone, F 175; 
kashin ido = long ridge over 
eyes, kashin kai skull, kashin 
tsotso backbone. 

kS,shinkai, kisankai, murder; 
cf. kashe. 

kaska, vermin infesting horses, 
goats, etc., a tick. 

kaskaifi (edge-destroyer), a 
plant with a long narrow and 
hairy raceme of small purple 
flowers : sometimes called 
vmchiar-hera (mouse's tail) 
(Uraria picta, Leguminosae). 

kaskasta, keskesta, to tattoo. 

kaskasta, kuskunta, to drive 
away in disgust, to despise, 
dishonour ; makaskachi, mai- 
kaskasta oppressed. 

kaskastache,pl.tete^it (from 
kasa earth), lowly, mean. 

kaskastu, keskestu, n. tribal 
marks on face. 

kaskawani, a small herb with 
white flowers, rubbed on the 
skin in order to cure crow- 
crow ; cf . kiskauami (?). 

kasko, pi. kasake, sl vessel made 
of clay, round, without top, 
of medium size ; i.e. larger 




than huta, smaller than tulu ; 
dainyen-kasko an unbaked 
pot, hence an unreliable per- 

kasni, kami, kauri, a smell 
of burning, smell of putre- 
fying flesh ; cf. kamshi. 

kass, a shortened form of the 
verb kdshe to kill. 

kasso, kill ! see kdshe. 

kastu, kestu, ketu, 1. a flint 
or match to strike fire with ; 
2. kestu wuta to strike fire 
with a flint. 

kasua, kyasuwa, a species of 

kasuwa, kasua, kausua 
(Zanf.), a market in which 
some special article is sold, 
e.g. meat, bread, grass for 
animals, any market or mar- 
ket-place, trade; cf. M. H. 
p. 203, 8uka chi kasua they 
carried on trade ; dan kasua 
a man brought up about mar- 
kets, or a small trader; allah 
shi bada kasua a salutation 
to a traveller. 

kaswa, kazua, 1. slight sw-ell- 
ing anywhere on the body ; 
2. itch. 

kata, a bowl in which (Fulani) 
women sell butter. 

katagi*, gida katagi a well- 
built house {% M. H. p. 70. 

katakara, lesser bustard. 

katalla, an emetic used as an 

antidote for poisons. 
katamba*, thin laths of wood 

such as are used in building 

a wall. 
katambiri, marks painted on 

faces of women ; the dye used 

is made of the fruit of the 

kiriya tree, 
katami, kwotami, a hole where 

dirt}?- water is thrown, 
katanga, 1. wall of a hut: 2. 

sherds of pots, etc. 
katantanwa, 1. untimely birth; 

2. snail shells, 
katar, good luck, 
katara* to wish. 
kS,tara, katarra, pi. kataterri, 

katarsa*, to gratify a wish, 

D 70. 
kateri, katteri, success, good 

katerta* (cf. (1) Ar. J£4, dig- 
nity), prosperity ; maikaterta 

prosperous, D 83. 
katifa, pi. katifu, mattress. 
kato, fem. katuwa, pi. kata^ 

strong male or female (slave); 

katon itache a strong tree, 

M. H. p. 228; katon kano 

(strong man of Kano) the 

name of a tree often planted 

in lines. 
kato*, pi. katoch% katuna, a 





katsa, n. wiping, e.g. of a 

katsa, katse, to tear, to come 

to an end ; katsewa tearing, 
katsari, a tree from which a 
• charm is made. 
katse, to wipe. 
katsi, to untie, unloose, break 

katsu* (Ar.), ever ; B 23 6a su 
gamu katsu they have never 
katumi, a charm ; cf . hatuin% 

katuwa, fem. form of kato, 


kau, 1. give place, go away; 

C 20 en ka ga tsofa nan ka 

che kau nana when thou per- 

. ceivest her age thou wouldest 

say to her. Depart from here; 

2. to spread out ; cf. kauche. 

kau, kawa, used in Sokoto 

etc. for kua also. 
kau or kawo (a Fulani word), 

kauchara, alkauchara, the 
river of paradise, F 214 ; cf. 
Koran cviii. 
kauche, cf. D 13, ta kan wanyi 
duka babu kauche it shall in- 
clude everything, there shall 
be no getting away from it ; 
kdda ku kauche kainku do 
not duck your heads; cf. 
kawa, kau. 

kauchi, a parasite which grows 
on various trees (Lo van thus 
globifera, Lovanthaceae). 
kauda, kaushe (before pron.), 
to take or put away, remove, 
withdraw ; see kawa. 
kauda, koda, a dried-up nut. 
kaule, a blue stone. 
kauna, liking, respect ; cf . bani 
kaunarka be friend s. yenkan 
kauna destroying good will. 
ka' yenke mani kau7ia you 
have forfeited my regard, mai- 
kaunarka your real friend. 
kaunato cupboard love, na 
kaunato sarki I want the 
king to do me a good turn, 
kaura*, to remove, e.g. a tent, 

to wander. 
kaura, a species of red guinea- 
corn given to horses. 
kaura, a title of respect usually 
given to a king's son; in 
Katsena = a general. 
kaura, n. removal, migration, 
makaurachi the place mi- 
grated to. 
kaura, an evil spirit which 

makes men fight. 
kaure, the covering of a door ; 

see kiaure. 
kauri, kabri (cf. Ar. jl^), 
corpulence, fat ; ba ta da 
kauri she is not gross, 
kauri, kasni, kami, the smell 




of burning, a putrefying 

kaushe, to take away; see 

kaushi, roughness, unevenness 
of surface. 

kausua (Zanf.), market; see 

kauwa, to remove ; see kawa. 

kauwe, kauwai, quiet, silent, 
it is also used in the sense of 
simply, only, alone; cf. kawoi. 

kauwera*, a flat place near a 

kauwi, tribe, people belonging 
to a particular town. 

kauye, pi. kauyuka (Ar. aj^), 
a small village; kauye, dan 
kauye a yokel ; kauyenchi a 
rustic dialect ; gidan kauye 
(scattered houses), an expres- 
sion used to describe appear- 
ance of a blighted maize cob 
where the grains are few and 
far between; the word is 
probably derived from the 

kauye, kowi, kowie, side of a 
body or edge of anything ; 
B 171 ha ni ragi kauye ha I 
will not decrease even the 
edge, koivien rua edge of a 
stream, outskirts of a town, 
akauye on one side ; cf. prec. 

kawa, 1. to take, bring for- 
ward ; D 46 si^ kan kawa da- 

lili they would give a reason ; 
2. intr. to change colour. The 
following are allied forms : 
kautva to remove, kawas, 
kawasda, kawarda to take a- 
way, put away, disperse, over- 
throw, kauda to put away, 
remove, withdraw ; used with 
kai, to turn the head away 
so as not to look at anjrthing, 
hence to move the head so as 
to express dissent, kauche 
kai to duck the head, kawo 
to bring, bring near, to bring 
to the place where the speaker 
is; intr. to arrive at, reach, 
mun kawo {= isso) gari ; ya 
kawo ga sariki he reached 
the king, akawoshi let it be 
brought here, kawawa, ka- 
wowa, particip. forms ; D 7 
ku her kai da kawawa na 
karia leave off false dealing, 
lit. give up taking away and 
bringing back falsely ; pass. 
kawu to be brought, kai to 
carry (q.v.) apparently be- 
longs to the same root. 

kawa, used in Sokoto for kua 
or kau also. 

kawa, longing, desire for, friend- 
ship, only used of women. 

kawa, a female friend, the 
friend of a bride who remains 
with the bride till the latter 
is married. 




kawaichi, to conceal ; seekawoi. 

kawainia, kowainia, bangle 
or finger ring. 

kawaita, to be still; see kawoi. 

kawalia, a procuress. 

kawalwalnia, vapour rising 
in hot sun, mirage. 

kawama, to distribute. 

kawamata* (An^^-i), to esti- 
mate, to fix a price for ; aka- 
wcmiata E 7, 

kawana, heads, pi. of kai, q.v. ; 

kawanya (K.), a round piece 
of anything, circle. 

kawara, a palisade. 
i kawara, alkawara, cowries; 
kaivara, specially used of the 
throw of the shells in gamb- 
ling (chacha) ; see kurdi. 

kawas, kawasda, to take a- 
way, disperse; see kawa. 
j kawashe, to purge. 

kawazuchi, grasping, covet - 

kawechi*, edge, end, D 13; see 
i kawia, a red earthen powder 
used to stain women's eye- 
V)rows and for making ink. 

kawo, to bring near, to bring; 
see kawa. 

kawo, a large shady tree, with 
thick woody pods (Afzelia 
wanzensis, Leguminosae) ; cf. 

kawo, a maternal uncle. 

k&woi, kSiWai, 1. silence; yin 
kaivoi to be silent, keep si- 
lence; 2. alone, only; ba komi 
achiki sai abinchi kawoi there 
is nothing inside but food 
only; iskan kawoi it is just 
wind, kauwe, kauwi quiet, 
silent, only, kawaita to be 
still; pass, akawaita be still! 
kawaichi silence, conceal- 
ment, e.g. of a crime. 

kawora, kawara, a species of 
fish with red tail. 

kawowa, participial form of 
kaivo, bringing ; cf. kawa. 

kawu (cf. Ar. rt t^^), to ab- 
dicate ; sariki ya kawu. 

kawu, uncle ; see kawo. 

kawuri, a species of ficus yield- 
ing a milky juice like rubber; 
see gamji. 

kawwa, a stone in the path. 

kaya, kaia, pi. kayayaki, masc, 
1. load, burden, goods; Cll 
ya kunchi kaya nai he unties 
his goods ; 2. instruments, 
tools, apparatus ; cf. kayan 
tuo dishes, eatables, ya yi ka- 
yan hawa he dressed himself 
as a slave, M. H. p. 223. ka- 
yan dag a battle-arms, shield, 
etc., kayan yaki id., kayan ado 
ornaments, trinkets, etc., ka- 
yan ddka a large pestle such 
as is used for beating up 




guinea-corn; 3. gift; C iS na 
shiria kayana I made ready 
my gift. 

kaya, pi. kayayua, kayoyi, fem 
thorn ; kayar kiji the small 
bones in a fish (the spine is 
kashi). kaya kaya rustling 
of wind in trees, kayeta a 
quantity of thorns, impossible 
to M^alk over ; tar a kaya a 
gum-bearing tree. 

kayar knsu (mouse's thorn), a 
prickly twining plant with 
tuberous root used in making 
medicine (Similax sp., Lilia- 
ceae) = marin kusu. 

kayar rakumi, a thorny shrub 
= zazari giwa. 

kayar-da, to throw down ; see 

kayataswa, excellence. 

kayaya (K.), pi. good. 

kaye, pi. kdyoyi^ n. overthrow, 

kayes, kayer; kayesda, ka- 
yerda, to throw, knock down, 

kayo, to bring to the place 
where the speaker is ; see kai. 

kaza, kasa*, pi. kaji, hen, fowl; 
kaza miaiyaya or kaza da ya- 
ya the constellation 'Hen 
and Chickens ' which appears 
when the rainy season is com- 
ing ; kazan duchi a species of 
quail (microperdix) ; kazan 

yariha, lit. fowl of Yoruba, 
common duck, sa kaza drake. 

ka,za (Ar. IJ^^), 1. so, thus; 
2. used to point out a certain 
person or thing which is to 
be nameless, so and so, such 
and such (cf. use of wane) ; 
na hashi ahu kaza I gave him 
such and such a thing ; ya 
fadi kaza da kaza he said so 
and so, ahu kaza such and 
such a thing. 

kazaf, kazap (Ar.), abuse, false 
accusation. , 

kazalaha, interference in the i 
affairs of another = karamha- I 

kazallatua, a nickname for 
one who interrupts a conver- 

kazami, fem. kazama, pi. ka- 

zdmai (Ar. juj-i), 1. dirt ; 2. 

dirty, unclean, vile, 
kazamta, kazanta, unclean- 

ness, refuse. 
kazan, kMan (S.), if. 
kaza-rua, a black water bird, 

kazata*(S.), to run away (?); 

cf. Gr. p. 137, 1.7. 

kazaza (cf. (?) Ar. J^), hump- 

kazgainya, a female animal 
(e. g. a sheep or goat) which 
has not yet had young. 




kazgama, scratched, grizzled, 
used of a warrior, a mascu- 
line woman. 

kazinzemi, kazunzmni, bug. 

kazizi, a tuber ; see kajiji. 

kazua, kazwa, itch ; cf. kas- 

kazum, deserter or lingerer at 
home in time of war. 

ke, 2nd pers. fem. sing, of the 
disjunctive personal pronoun, 
i.e. it would be used in an- 
swer to the question who, cf. 
Gr. p. 10. It is used with 
the preposition da, e.g. dake 
with you (f.), but maki to 

. you(f.). 

ke, the emphatic form of the 
2nd pers. pron. fem. ke ki 
kawoshi it is you (f.) who 
brought it ; cf. kai. 

ke, defective subst. verb, is, are, 
e.g. shi ke nan so it is. The 
subject is of common gender, 
while that of ne is masc. and 
of che fem. The verbal forms 
ending in ke are most com- 
monly used in asking ques- 
tions or in the answer to a 
question in which this form 
has been used. Ex. mi ku 
ke yi what are you doing? 
Ans. aiki mu ke yi we are 
working. Followed by da 
— to have, to possess ; m?6 ke 
da su we have them. 

keasua, grass fodder ; see kan- 

keau, usually pronounced kiyo, 

1. beauty (physical), da keau 
handsome, beautiful ; 2. also 
used of moral beauty, good, 
kind. Hence the phrase da 
keau well, it is well; this is 
used to express assent; B 135 
en ta yi keau if she act well ; 
maikeau beautiful, kekeawa, 
a redupl. form of keau, 
kekeawan hali a good dis- 
position, 1. great beauty; 

2. very good, very fine. A 
pi. form keawawa is found, 
cf. mata hiu keawawa two 
beautiful women ; cf. keke- 

keaun-kira (S.), of a horse, 
well built. 

keaure, door cover ; see haure. 

keauro, kyamro, see kemru. 

keauta, 1. an act of kindness, 
benevolence; yin keauta to 
show favour, do a kindness, 
e.g. ka yi masa keauta. thou 
didst a favour to him ; 2. a 
gift, a present. 

keautata, to make a thing 

keautaye, to bless ; aUah shi 
keautayenka God give you 

kebanche, kebanta, to sepa- 
rate, distinguish. 




k§be, to separate, mark off, 
except, akebe separate, apart ; 
cf. klha. 

kebe, iron stirrup. 

keche, kiche, to rend; see 

kedaya (cf. (?) Ar. j^, measure), 
account, reckoning; see ki- 

keffi, a town with a fence or 
stockade round it. 

kefifia, tortoise ; see kififia. 

kegarua, fortification ; see 

kegua (M. H. p. 128), echo; 
see kogua. 

keje, a reed buck. 

kekarai, a swelling in the 
hands., n. dryness. 

kekashe, kekassa, to air, to 
expose to the air, to dry, 
e.g. a tobe. kekasashe^ fern. 
kekasashia^ pi. kekasasu, dried, 
aired, dry. 

kekata, trouble brought on by 
one's own acts. 

keke, cloth, made of blue and 
white alternate strips. 

keke, kyekye (used on the 
coast, etc.), a cart or wheel, 
a wheel-barrow, carriage. The 
word is not Hausa. 

kekeawa, kakyawa, see under 
keau ; cf. M. H. p. 202, ke- 
keawa kama kekeawa arziki 

good appearance is good for- 
tune; kekeawa kdma out- 
ward show of prosperity ; cf . 
also kikiyawa. 

kekewa, the cry of the jackal. 

kekua, hard, open, flat ground. 

kele, a small length of cloth. 

kelkeche, kirkeshi, a wolf 
(Lycaon pictus). 

kembi, a disease of horses, 

kememe, refusal to share food 
with another ; cf . kurulla. 

kemi, kiauren kemi a door 
made of palm planks. 

kemru, kyemru (S.), kyauro 
(K.), pi. kamare, arrow-shaft. 

kenda, kendu, a spot. 

kenge, a plank made of giginia 

kenke, to worry, to cause 

kenkendi, a sack ; see kan- 

kenkeshe, kankashe, ken- 
kesa, to hatch ; cf. kenkesa 
or kenkasa to sit on eggs. 
ta kenkeshe ? aa tana kenkesa 
has she hatched her brood ? 
No, she is still sitting. 

kenkeso, cockroach. 

kenki, an antelope ; see kanki. 

kente, a hoe = kurugga. 

kenwa, kyanwa, f. keanwa, 
pi. kenwuna and kenwai^ cat, 
wild or tame cat ; it is used 




as the feminine of muzuru ; 
cf. mu!ia. 

kepta, kyapta, v. in phr. 
kepta ido to wink ; keptawa, 
kiptawa winking ; keptaivan 
ido a moment of time; kepta- 
fva da gani the twinkling of 
an eye. 

ker, na gudu ker I ran hard ; 
cf. dakir. 

kera, to forge ; nudcera an 
anvil ; see kira. 

keranna, a cactus-like eu- 

kerbubua, a short black and 
white viper (echis carinatus). 

k§r§ (S.), a hammer-shaped 
stick used by hunters for 
throwing at birds. 

kere, to hang up, e.g. meat, to 
erect the ears. 

kere, kari, understanding; ya 
yi keren magana he under- 
stands, he has his wits about 
him; an expression applied 
to a man who understands 
the drift of what another is 
saying from his opening 
words ; keren magana is also 
used to denote a proverb, 
an innuendo, or any hidden 
meaning ; anawaka kari kari 
they are singing songs of 
various meanings. 

k§ri, falsehood ; yin keri to lie. 

kerin, kirin, kirim, very; used 

with haki, haki kerin very 
black ; cf. A 67, rana ka 
shafa dufu kirim, hnska tasa 
when thou anointest his face 
with utter darkness ; cf. ki- 

kerkara, kerkera, kirkira, 
q.v. (Ar.), n., used of a hen, 
cackling. yin kirkira to 

kerkia, yoke ; see karkia. 

kerku, iron pole. 

keskestu, kaskastu, tribal 
marks cut on the face. 

keso, 1 . old mat made of grass ; 
2. old rags, old clothes, or 
old rug. 

kestu, ketu, a flint with which 
to strike fire ; see kastu. 

kesu, 20,000 cowries; cf. ko- 

keta, wrong, injury, evil; see 

keta (Ar. *Li), to cut, rip, 

tear, split ; cf . keche ; alfijir 
ya keto the first glimmer of 
light appeared ; ya keta hadi 
he broke the law; keta da 
daria to laugh heartily; ke- 
tua splitting. 

ketara, pi. ketare -ketare, n. 
ci'ossing ; yin ketara to cross. 

ketare, sometimes pronounced 

etare (cf. (?) Ar. jii, to tra- 
verse a country), to cross, 




pass over, pass by, trans- 
gress a law, skip in reading. 
ketaruwa capable of being 
crossed, ha shi ketaruwa it 
cannot be crossed, ketare da 
(S.) or ketarasda (K.), ketarshe 
(before pron.), to make to 
cross, to ferry over, ya ke- 
tarsasa he ferried him over. 
maketari a ferryman, keta- 
rewa crossing, ketaras, with- 
out object, to cross. 

ketare, used adverbially ; keta- 
ren gulhi on the other side of 
the river ; ketaren nan on 
this side. 

keto, to become visible, of a 
star to rise ; cf . keta. 

ketu, a flint ; see kastu. 

ketua, a splitting ; see keta. 

kewa, kiwa (cf. (?) Ar. «ty, a 

desert), forlornness ; sanu da 
kewa a salutation addressed 
to one who is lonely, his 
friend being dead; F 104 
loneliness, dehe ketva to take 
away mourning. 

kewanya, a square of men ; 
see kewaya. 

kewaya, kewaye, kewayi, 
kewayo, sometimes pro- 
nounced yewoye, 1. to go 
round, to make a circuit, 
to spin round ; e.g. ya ke- 
waye ya tafi gida he slipped 

oflf home ; shekara ya kewayo 
a year passed, the season 
came round again; 2. to go 
round something, to make 
the circuit of a place ; 3. to 
surround, F 77 ya7i uwaka 
su kewoiyeka thy brothers 
surround thee; 4*. to turn 
over, F 105 su kewoyeka chi- 
kin kushewa they turn thee 
over in the grave ; 5. to act 
deviously, to go behind one's 

kewaya, kewayo, n. encircling, 
the act of surrounding. 

keya, the back part of the head; 
maikeya a man whose head 
protrudes at the back. 

keyaya, kiyaya, lice. 

ki, second pers. pron. fern, sing., 

1. for its use as subject of a 
verb, cf. Gr. p. 34. For use of 
ki7L^ kia, kina and kike, cf. Gr. 
p. 27 sq. ; 2. as object it fol- 
lows verbs and preps, as zasu 
kasheki they will kill you (f.); 
gareki to you (f.); 3. for use 
of -nki, -7'ki, -Iki see Gr. p. 24. 

ki, kia, 1. to hate, to dislike; 

2. to reject, to refuse, to say 
no; 22, 7 har shi ya kia 
till indeed he would refuse 
altogether ; cf . reduplicated 
form kinkinta to refuse ; kije* 
to hate ; allied forms are ki- 
yaya* refusing ; 'E2i ku tuba 




ku her kiyaya repent, give up 
refusing ; kiwui/a, kiuya dis- 
obedience, refusal, objection; 
yin kiwuya to refuse exertion, 
to object to labour; maiki- 
ivuya or makiyachi one who 
dislikes labour ; makiyi, ma- 
kiya adversary. Possibly kita 
cruelty, envy, may be formed 
from ki ; cf . kinji. 

kia, a future prefix for the 2nd 
pers. fern, sing., cf. Gr. p. 33; 
cf. M. H. p. 226 tafi kia samu 
go, you (f.) will find. 

kiafa, to dry meat ; see kyafa. 

kiale, kiyale (Ar. Ji), to neg- 
lect, despise, let alone, refuse 
to listen to, to leave a man 
in peace. 

kiama, kiyama (Ar. l«Li), 
resurrection, also used of grave 
and death ; the expression 
itiaikiamal dunia is used of 
a recluse or of one who has 
renounced this world. 

kiashi, small red ants ; see 

kiaswa, a grass with a soft 
flower head which turns pink. 

kiauri, kaure, the mat used as 
the covering of a doorway. 

kiauta, goodness ; see keauta. 

kiba, pi. kibobi, fat ; yin kiba to 
grow fat. 

kiba, to mark off, to except; 

• cf. kehe. 

kibanta*, connections, rela- 

kibata, to be fat, to fatten ; 
cf. kiba, 

kibe, to kill. 

kibia, pi. kibo, arrow ; akahal- 
beshi da kibia he was shot 
with an arrow ; makibia por- 

kibrit* (Ar. Ooj^), sulphur, 

brimstone; the native Hausa 

is far a wuta. 
kibta, to wink ; see kepta. 
kibu (S.), reason, 
kiche, to rip up, tear; see keche. 
kichichia, death watch. 
kida, kada, v. to drum, 
kida, to reckon ; see kidaya. 
kida, kididiga, kidaya (cf. 

Ar. jci, measure), reckoning, 
account, sum ; su Ji kidaya 
innumerable ; cf. didiya ; ki- 
dawa counting. 

kida, kidi, 1. a drum or any 
musical instrument; ^\Qku 
ber kida molo leave off drum- 
ming ; 2. playing, drumming ; 
yin kidi to play, to drum; 
kidin dambe a peculiar kind 
of drum-beating for dancing; 
makidi, makadi a drum stick ; 
intQWB.iovmkankadato drum. 

kidaya, kedaya, v. to count, 
reckon ; kidawa counting. 

kide, to push aside. 

kidi, pi. kide-kide^ drum-beating. 




kidibi, liver ; see gidihi. 

kididiga, reckoning ; see kida. 

kidio, kudio, quickly. 

kifa, kife, to turn over, to tilt; 
kikkiffa to lay out upside 
down ; kikkiffar to upset. 

kifakondo, one who has been 
sold into slavery on account 
of some fault committed by 
self or relatives. 

klfi, pi. kifaye, kifoji, fish ; kama 
kifi to fish ; kifin rijia (lit. a 
fish of the well) a stay-at-home. 

kifiiia, a large water tortoise 
with flat shell ; cf. kunkuru 
land tortoise with convex 

kifil kifilj blinking of the eyes. 

kije*, to hate ; see ki. 

kijigi, a kind of knife. 

kijinjiri, a species of palm from 
the leaves of which hats and 
mats are made. 

kikinia, stammering. 

kikiyawan hali, good dispo- 
sition; cf. Gr. p. 165, 1. 1; 
see keau. 

kila, perhaps, for ivotakila, q.v. 

kilabtu, name of a bird. 

kilago, kilabo, pi. kildgiai, 1. 
cow-hide, skin, carpet or cover 
made of skin; D 15 azdba 
anadandakasa kamal kilago 
his pain is as though he were 
a skin that is beaten; 2. a 
tent made of skin. 

kileri, arrow-shaft. 

kilga, kirga, to count, to num- 

kili, fem. kilia, a white horse. 

kill, rust, mould. 

kilikamya (S.), a black and 
white horse. 

kilikili, kellikelli or kilkili, 
a butterfly, lit. glitter; other 
names for butterflies are c?oAjm 
allah God's horse, rtialani bude 
litafinka Mallam, open your 
book (the flapping of his 
wings on a tree suggests open- 
ing and shutting of a book). 

kilili, 1. pollen used in fertilis- 
ing palms ; 2. a young palm 

kililu or kilulu, prison. 

kilin kilin, kiri kiri, an imita- 
tion of the sound of falling 
glass ; cf. girin girin, etc. 

killsa, 1. to take exercise on 
horseback ; 2. of a horse, to 

kilishi, a kind of rug or mat 
made of wool, etc., for sleep- 
ing on. 

kilishi, kills, thin strips of 
meat cooked with oil and 
pepper or dried in the sun, 

kiliya, hedge. 

kilkal, the cry of the guinea^ 
fowl; cf. M.H. p, 106. 

kima (Ar. i^) 1. little, or few 
in number, anything small; 




kinia kima very little ; htku- 
nial kinia a small pot ; 2. 
kimanta, to assess, divide, 
kimba, fruit of a large tree 
(Xylopia Aethiopica), ground 
and used as a purgative medi- 
cine, hot like pepper, brought 
from Nupe, etc., M.H. p. 123. 
kimbar mahalba, a shrub 
with fragrant white blos- 
soms (Brysocar pus coccineus). 
! kimpsa, kintsa ; ku kimpsa 
manikaya get ready the loads, 
kimsa, to load a gun. 
I kimshe, to press down into a 
I receptacle. 

I kimshi, n. ; yin kimshi to load 
j a gun ; cf. kimsa. 
I kin, 2nd pers. pronoun fem. 
sing, used with perfect tense; 
cf. Gr. p. 27. 
' kina, a bull. 

! kinami, the leather cords to 
which the stirrups hang. 
(A Fulani word.) 
kinS,ra, a tree from which an 

arrow poison is obtained, 
kinchia, a bulbous plant, 
kindi, pi. kindodi, a basket 
woven of fibre from the young 
dum palm, used as a strainer 
in making soup, 
kindigaye, gathering of many 
people before a king for dis- 

R. H. D. 

kingi, rest, remainder, what is 

kini, small sticks placed in roof 
to prevent the grass from 
slipping down. 

kinji, refusal to hear, a com- 
pound of ki and ji, hence, 
obstinacy ; maikinji enemy. 

kinke, trouble. 

kinkinta, to refuse ; see ki. 

kintata, to conjecture, to sup- 

kintsa, to gather together ; see 

kiptawa, winking ; see kepjta. 

kira, to forge metal, to mend ; 
m,aker% maiA;ira a blacksmith ; 
maker a anvil. 

kira, kiraya, kiraye, 1. v. to 
call, to summon ; kira suiia 
to name ; makiran salla one 
who calls to prayer; 2. n, 
calling out, F 142 su dor a 
kira they keep on crying ; 
kirawo to summon to where 
the speaker is, to call ; cf. 
kiraya., a species of cactus. 

kirari, 1. praise, laudation, 
F 240 suna kunia yin kirari 
they praise; 2. self -laudation ; 
3. flattery; 4. a call passed 
from village to village; cf. 
(?) kurari. 

kirari, kirare, firewood, small 





kirawo, to call ; see kira. 

kiraya, to call ; see Mra. 

kirbi, mashing or pounding of 
yams orfura. kirha to pound, 
to beat anything mixed with 
water, kirhe is used without 
obj., e.g. ta kirhe ta kawo masa. 

kirchi, a scab ; see kurji. 

kire, to be mutilated, to muti- 

kirewa, n. mutilating. 

kirfa, to falsify. 

kirfawa, cutting folds of cloth. 

kirga, to count ; see kilga. 

kiri, pi. kirra, a twisted cow- 
hide rope, a noose. 

kiri kiri, the sound of falling 
glass ; see kilin kilin. 

kiria, name of a tree ; see 

kiribi, a girdle or apron of 
cowries worn by pagans. 

kirigi, skin, hide after it has 
been tanned, the skin before 
it is tanned is called fata ; 
kirigin kdda the scales of the 
(dead) alligator ; cf. kilago. 

kiriki, of great worth ; ya yi 
kiriki he acts well ; mutum 
kiriki a reliable man; abin 
kiriki something good; ma- 
ganan kiriki correct language. 

kirikinju, a kind of wolf ; cf. 

kirikiri, open, unabashed, di- 
rect ; idonsa kirikiri ne he 

looks one straight in the face ; 
kirikii'i na aikeshi ya ki I 
told him plainly to go and he 

kirikiri, manis (genus Pholi- 

kirikiri, a short green grass, 
also called karie-galma. 

kirin, ver37^ ; see kerin. 

kirinia, 1. the plaited mat- 
work which acts as the key- 
stone of a conical thatch, 
binding the reed rafters to- 
gether at the apex of the roof; 
2. playful gambling, light- 
hearted demeanour ; 3. a 
noisy or restless person. 

kirinjijia, the green teal. 

kirinkore, a small mouse. 

kiriya, a small tree which often 
grows on roofs from which 
blacksmiths obtain charcoal, 
i.e. garwashin kiriya, from it 
is also obtained a vegetable 
poison used for smearing 
arrows ; cf . katambiri. 

kirji, pi. kiraza, kirijai, breast, 

kirkeshi, kelkeji, wolf; see 

kirki, worthy ; see kiriki. 

kirkira, kerkara, probably an 
intens. form of kira (cf. Ar. 

^' ' * ' 

dj£sj^, the cackling of a 

hen), to cackle, found in A 29 

kadadai ajita yi sagara mai- 




kirkira let her not be heard 
calling fowls, with wide-open 
mouth ; cf. kurkurkur. 

kirma, soldiers on foot; sarikin 
kirma a leader of infantry. 

kirme (K.), to knock down. 

kirmiche (S.), confusion, e.g. 
of a confused crowd or illegible 
1 land writing. 

kirni, a tree which provides an 
antidote to arrow poison (Bri- 
edelia ferruginea, Euphor- 

kirsa, a bribe given to a judge; 
chitvon kirsa a pretended ill- 

ikirta 0;3, Uj^, 1. to dig up 

land = noma ; 2. to draw a 

line or furrow. 
ikirtani, -strong white string 

made of flax, 
kisa, to kill ; cf. kdshe. 

kisa, kissa (Ar. Uai), news. 

kisaka, a hairy caterpillar ; see 

kisakisa for kusakusa, near, 
M. H. p. 225. 

kisankai, murder ; see kdshin- 

kisanta, to be jealous. 

kishi, thirst ; see kishirua. 

klshi, kishia, pi. kishiyoyi, 1. 
emulation, j ealousy ; yin kishi 
to refuse ; 2. jealousy, hence 
3. the name given to either 

of the two wives of the poly- 
gamist ; if he takes a third 
wife he has kishiyoyi ; 4. used 
metaphorically for the corol- 
lary or complement ; cf. rana 
kishiar dere. 

kishimi, an old solitary male 
antelope of any species which 
has left the herd ; maikishi- 
min ido a man with one eye. 

kishingida, to recline or sit on 
the ground with legs crossed 
and elbows on knees, the 
attitude for eating or con- 

kishirua, kishirwa, kishi, 
thirst; jin kishirua to feel 

kisi, fat ; see kitse. 

kisim-bijimi, a grass*; see 

kiskansa (S.), suicide. 

kiskauami, kaskauami, a 
shrub with red berries, and 
dotted leaves (Psorospermum 
Senegalense, Hypericineae) ; 
cf. kaskawani (?). 

kiski, the mate of the common 
lizard ; see kadangare. 

kiso, 1. to twist; 2. twisted; 
3. hair worn by women in 
curls down their cheeks ; mai- 
kiso hair-dresser. 

klta, cf. yafadi kita he fell flat, 

kita or keta, q.v., mischief, 





cruelty, evil of any kind, 
envy ; cf. prov. kowa yi keta 
kansa the evil that a man 
does(recoils on) himself; mai- 
ketachi* worker of evil. 

kitaba* (Ar. J^li^), book. 

kitikwa (S.), a bundle of millet 
with the stalks plaited to- 

kitila, a heap of anything. 

kitse, to plait ; cf. kiso. 

kitse, kisi, kichi (S.), pi. kit- 
saisai, fat. 

kitsim-bijimi (bull's fat), a 
grass used in thatching. 

kitso, kiso, a helmet, shaped 
coiffure worn by Hausa wo- 

kiwa, loneliness ; see kewa. 

kiwata, to keep or feed (ani- 

kiwo, hatred, refusal, a form of 
ki, q.v. • yin kiwo to hate, 

kiwo, 1. to tend, watch cattle, 
to defend, protect; 2. used 
intransitively of the cattle, 
to feed, to graze. 

kiwuya, kiuya, refusal to work, 
laziness ; cf. M. H. p. 147, mai- 
kiwuya a man who refuses to 
work ; see ki. 

kiya, to refuse ; see ki. 

kiyada (S.), kiyasda (K.), or 
before n. obj. kiyashe^ to pre- 
serve, defend, protect, allah 

shi kiyashemu may God pro- 
tect us ; cf. kiyaye. 

kiyale, to neglect ; see kiale. 

kiyama, resurrection ; see ki- 

kiyashi, kyashi, a very small 
fly, sand-fly, to be distinguish- 
ed from kiash% ant. 

kiyasi* (Ar. ^li), to measure 
by a rule or comparison, D 94. 

kiyau, well ; see keau. 

kiyauri, covering of a door; 
see kaure. 

kiyauta, goodness ; see keauta. 

kiyaya, keyaya, lice. 

kiy ay a, kiy awa, refusing; cf . ki. 

kiyaye, 1. to keep carefully, 
to preserve, to remember : 
cf. prov. idan ka ruhihta ya 
tahata idan ka kiyaye ya 
gudu litera scripta manet : 
other forms of kiyaye are 
kiyada, kiyasda and kiyashe) 
kiyaye kanka spare thyself, 
i.e. don't trouble ; 2. used to 
denote ready obedience; ki- 
yaye magana to obey a com- 
mand ; kiira ha ta kiyayuwa 
the hyena cannot be tamed. 
kiyayeni suffer me; mnki- 
yaye a shepherd. 

kiyeya, kyeya, envy, hatretl, 
dislike, abokin kiyeye a thing 
to be avoided ; cf . maganin 
kiyeya rahuwa the cure for 
hatred is separation, abokin 




kiyeya a repulsive person; 
see ki. 

kiyo, well ; see keau. 

kizauro, see under ahduga. 

ko, 1. either, or, and in nega- 
tive sentences, neither, nor ; 
hence its use 2. as an inter- 
rogative, e.g. mutum ya tafi 
ko did the man go 1 here ko 
is elliptic for ko ha hdka ha 
or is it not so ? ko may also 
precede the sentence or both 
precede and follow it for the 
sake of emphasis ; 3. even, 
although; A 66 hakana kishi- 
rua ko ya sha kogi hiar so 
too he shall be thirsty though 
he drink of five streams ; cf. 
koda although, ko is also 
used in sentences where a 
negative meaning is implied 
though not expressed, e.g. ko 
d((ia not even one. ko is 
sometimes equivalent to *I 
think,' e.g. ka nuna mashi 
nama show him the meat, ya 
gani ko 1 think he has seen 
it. It is sometimes equiva- 
lent to really ! indeed ! 

ko, indef. pronominal prefix by 
which most of the indefinite 
pronouns and abverbs are 
formed from the interroga- 
tive, e.g. wa who? kowa 
anyone ; mi what ^ komi any- 
thing, etc. ; kaka how, kokaka 

however; yaushe when, ko- 
yaushe at any time ; yanzu 
now, koyanzu immediately. 

kobdodo or gobdodo, a thorny 

kobdua, gobdua, the yolk of 
an e^g. 

kobri, kwobri, kwauri (K.), 
kubri, pi. kwahruka, kwohru- 
ka^ shin-bone, kohrin kafa leg- 
bone, kohrin kofa door-post, 
kohrin itache a dried-up tree. 

kobro (K.), incompleteness ; 
yin kohro to be incomplete 
or insufficient. 

kobsa, kopsa, kobso, pod of 
nuts, beans, etc. 

koda, though, although; cf. ko. 

koda, kanda, a dried-up nut. 

koda, to furbish or sharpen a 

koda, kwoda, kidney. 

koda*, the threshing of corn 
for payment; cf. maikoda. 

kodago, kurdugo, fruit of the 
fan or deleb palm ; see kwo- 

kodai, kwadai, 1 . desire, long- 
ing, eagerness for, appetite; 
cf. prov. kwodai raahudin 
wohala vain desire opens the 
door to trouble ; cf. kwadxzye 
to long after; 2. membra 
privata. makwadaita, q.v., 
covetous ; makwadaichi co- 




kodi, a top or anything spin- 
ning round ; makodi a stone 
used for smoothing a grind- 
stone ; dan kodi a small ball. 

koenna, anywhere, wherever, 

kofa, pi. kofofi, hole for en- 
trance, a hole, e.g. in a strap, 
door, gate ; E 1 9 masuzua ga 
kofqfin hirane those who fre- 
quent the gates of the cities. 

kofai, ruin ; see kufai. 

kofato, pi. kofatai, hoof. 

kofsa, pi. kofsoshi, kofsuna, a 
kind of guitar. 

kogawa, a rope for tying a 
thief carried by a dogari. 

kogi, buzzing of bees ; see kugi. 

^kogi, pi. koguna, kogina and 
kogai, any large collection of 
water, lake, large river, a 
ravine through which any 
water flows. 

kogia, hook ; see kugiya. 

kogo, hollow ; kogon itache 
hollow of a tree ; den, etc. ; 
kogon duchi chasm. 

kogua*, echo. 

koi, egg ; see kwoi. 

koikoiya, to imitate another's 
pronunciation or actions. 

koikoiyo, n. imitation. 

koinya, kwanya, skull ; koin- 
yan kai, id. ; see kwanya. 

koiya, to learn ; koiya ma to 
teach, e.g. ya koiya mani 

he taught me; maikoiya a 
teacher, makoiyi, makoyi a 
scholar ; intens. form koi- 
koiya, q.v. 

koiya, n. teaching; koiya na 
shaitan the teaching of Satan, 
D 19; koiyawa teaching ; 
cf. koiyo. 

koiya, koya, a red clay used 
for staining women's faces or 
eyelids ; when mixed with 
natron it is used in snuff. 

koiyo, koyo, n. learning : yin 
koiyo to learn, ha (or hada) 
koiyo to teach. 

koka*, used in Sokoto as 
equivalent to kaman like ; cf . 
Gr. p. 129, 1. 20. 

kokanto, doubt ; see kokonto. 

kokara (S.), a tree from which 
walking-sticks are made. 

kokari, 1. to tr}'^, attempt, en- 
deavour, A 2, 3, 26; 2. to 
work diligently, cf . inaikokarl 
one who endeavours, kokaru 
diligence, B 16 ^w hada ko- 
karunku give diligence, yin 
kokarinsa to do one's best. 

koki, a small red insect, in 
stories = the spider's wife. 

kokia, a tree with yellow hard- 
shelled edible fruit, its leaves 
are eaten by cattle (Strych- 
nos spinosa, Loganiaceae); na- 
mijin kokia another species of 
Strychnos with smaller fruit. 




kokiar-biri, a tree with paired 
capsular fruit which grows 
in damp ravines (Voacanga 
obtusa, Apocynaceae). 

koko, a drink made from the 
flour of gero beaten up in a 
furumi and drunk hot, honey 
being sometimes added. 

koko, or also, an abbreviation for 
ko kua, frequently used for ko. 

koko, pi. kokuna or dmi-koko, 
a small calabash used as a 

kokofa, kokwafa, kwakkafa, 
to canter. 

kokonto, kokanto, 1. reason- 
ing, questioning, disputing, 
continued asking; 2. doubt, 

kokore, intens. form of kore 
to drive away. 

kokoro, a life-time. 

kokua, kokowa, kokawa, 
fighting, wrestling, exertion; 
yin kokua to wrestle, tight. 

kokua, ridge, pinnacle; see 

kokulwa, kokolwa, brains, 
skull ; cf. kolua. 

kokwafa, to canter ; see kokofa. 

kola (S.), water-lily. 

kolama (K.), eager desire. 

kole, a small red pepper, the 
plant grows to the height of 
about two feet. 

kolemi *, a wide tract ; cf . 

kolemin dawa maganin mai- 

kishi the expanse of the 

desert is the cure for a jealous 

kolfa, kwalfa, n. skimming of 

milk, etc. 
kolfe, kwalfe, to skim. 
koli, n. exhibiting goods for 

sale; dan koli a vendor of 

small wares. 
koli, kuli, kwalli or kwoUi 


(Ar. ^J^^), antimony or 
stibnite = the o-n/x/xt or sti- 
bium of the ancients ; it is 
found in the eastern parts 
of Hausaland. Antimony 
powder, or a sulphide of 
lead, is much used by Hausa 
women for painting their 
eyebrows and the edge of 
their eyelids. It has been so 
used from very early times, 
cf. 2 Kings ix. 30 Jezebel... 
'oculos ejus posuit stibio.' 
It is also used for staining 
the teeth and lips. 

kolkole, konkole, to pick out, 
to pick the teeth, peel fruit. 

kolkoli, kwolkoli, a metal 

kolkota, lice ; see kwalkwata, 

kollo, skull ; see kolua. 

kolo, carrion kite. 

koloko, a material for making 
a black dye, obtained from 
the fruit of the hagarua tree. 




kolua, koUo, kwalua, ko- 
kulwa, skull, brains. 

koma, flea ; see kuma. 

koma, to go back, return; B 
143 tun ha akoma ha while 
as yet there has not been a 
returning, komawa return- 
ing, komo to return to where 
the speaker is, to return here, 
to come back, ya komo kasua 
he came back from the mar- 
ket, komowa coming back. 

koma, homa, foma, hand-net 
with a handle like a shrimp- 

komarchi, a large snake ; see 

komaro, a leather bag ; see 

komaro, utterly destitute. 

komiawa, returning ; see koma. 

komayya, a grass given to 
horses ; cf . hurhurwa. 

kome, n. pi. kome-kome, re- 

komi* (S.), a canoe. 

kom.i, kome, anything, every- 
thing, A 48 ; hahu komi noth- 
ing, so also ha komi or ha 
komi ha. kominene — what- 
soever it be, whatsoever ; see 
Gr. p. 18. 

komi, kwomi, a drinking 
trough for animals made out 
of a hollowed log. 

komiO, to return here; cf. koma. 

kom.tsa or kwamsa, mucus 
from the eyes. 

kona, chaff. 

kona, kone, 1. to burn, to 
destroy by fire ; intens. form 
konkone to burn up com- 
pletely, kuna and kone are 
generally used as intransitive 
forms, ya kone it is burnt, 
but kasa tana ^^onrt the ground 
is scorched with heat ; 2. to 
burn with desire, etc. ; zucfiia 

ta ku7ia the heart burned 

konane, fem. konana, pi. ko- 
nanu, burnt : konewa burn- 

konama, scorpion; see kunci- 

kondariya, a bent tree, etc. ; 
see kwondariya. 

kondo, centre of thatched roof ; 
see kwando. 

kondua, yolk of an 

kone, to burn ; see kona. 

konga, a plain ; see kanga. 

konga, a knife ; see kangar. 

kongi, beams made from the 
fan palm. 

konlka, a condition of preg- 

konko, a drinking-cup. 

konkole, to clean teeth, M. H. 
p. 61, to peel ; see kolkole. 

konkonche, kwankwanche, 
to loose or set free (slaves) ; 
see kunche. 




konkone, to fire, clear by fire; 
see kone. 

konkoni, stropanthus used for 
poisoning arrows, etc. 

konkosa, to strike (e.g. a pot) 
so as to produce a sound. 

konkua, kokua, highest part 
of the inside of the roof. 

kono* (K.), alms. 

kopsa, pod of ground nut ; see 

kora ( Ar. APji), baldness, either 
that produced naturally or 
by shaving ; maikora bald. 

kora, also kori, before a n. 
used of swishing the scum off 
water before filling a cala- 
bash, intens. form kokore. 

kora, pi. kare kore, driving 

kora; kore or koro, to drive, 
to hurry, to drive away; D 
'21 ya kora kansa chikin azdba 
he hurries himself to (the 
place of) pain ; korowa driv- 
I ing away ; koro sauki to send 
I help. 

" korS,ka, eagerness ; da koraka 
I eager. 

korama, apparently a pi. form 
oikwori; 1. a nullah which 
dries up in the dry season ; 
2. a fast-flowing stream, a 

korami, trade. 

koranga (K.), leader, guide. 

korare, to hasten. 

korare, pi. kof'am, a fugitive ; 
cf. kora. 

kore, a furrow. 

kore, to drive ; see kora. 

kore, a long tobe of black or 
dark shiny blue cloth. M. H. 
p. 203. 

kore, f. koria, pi. kworre, dark 
green, kore kore light green ; 
cf. shudi shudi light blue, 
shudi dark blue. 

kori, stump of tree ; see kobri. 

kori, kwori, q.v., pi. korurua, 

koria, a gourd ; see kworia. 

korino, komo, 1. green dyed 
leather ; the dye is produced 
by a mixture of copper filings 
(sinadari) and lime juice or 
tsamia; 2. medicine for the 
eyes made from powdered 
goat's skin. A variant form 
kwarno is used for green 

korjini, ugliness; da korjini 

korkora, concubine; see kwo- 

korkosa, n. shamelessness ; da 

korkosa unabashed, 
korkwasa, driver ant; cf. 

kormoto, karmS,to, 1. to carry 
false news, to tell tales 
against another secretly ; 2. 




to interfere in a matter which 
does not concern one ; cf. 
karambani ; 3. to betray. 

kormoto, kannS,to, n. gossip, 
mischief-making, yin kormoto 
to carry secret news ; cf. M. 
H. p. 196. 

komo, husk of guinea-corn; 
see kworno. 

koro, to drive, etc. ; cf. kora. 

korofi, dye-pit ; see karofi. 

kororo or kwororo, a bag 
containing 20,000 cowries, 
usually made of the leaves of 
the tukurua palm (possibly 

from Ar. j^, Heb. cor, Gr. 
Kopog = a large dry measure). 

kororua, top, summit. 

korto, kworto, fern, kortua, 
adulterer, paramour. 

kortonchi, lasciviousness. 

kortu, a small gourd ; see kurtu. 

korya, a gourd ; see kworia. 

kosa, corpulence. 

kosa, to be over ripe, so meta- 
phorically to be tired of 
waiting, na kosa I am in a 
hurry, ha shi kosawa da mu- 
tane he is patient to everyone. 

kosa, kiisa, an iron nail. 

kosa-kosa, a short-legged peli- 

kosabro, a sack made of grass 
for holding cowries. 

kosada, to get enough to eat, 
satisfy ; see koshi. 

kosai, a cake cooked in oil. 

kosandi, inner wall of a house. 

kosashe, see koshi. 

kosfa, kwosfa, pi. kosfofi^ 
kwosfofi^ 1. egg-shell, peel of 
fruits ; kosfar arsashe a cart- 
ridge case ; 2. in pi., branch- 
ing off of roads. 

koshi, 1. to he satisfied, to 
have enough ; 2. used as n., 
a being satisfied, satisfaction 
(esp. of appetite) ; cf. prov. 
ba dadi tana gidan na koshi 
' not nice ' keeps house with 
'I am satisfied,'. i.e. only a 
man who lives in luxury can 
afford to be discontented. 
kosashe, pi. kosasu, one who 
has eaten enough, one who is 
satisfied, koshada* a causa- 
tive form of koshi to feed to 
satisfaction, to satisfy ; sun 
chi SU71 sha sun koshi, they 
ate and drank till they were 

koshia, 1. a wooden spoon ; 2. 
a shuttle. 

koso, a small drum, open at 
one end, slung from the 
shoulder ; see kotso. 

kota, handle, e.g. of an axe; in 
Katsena bota is used. 

kotafani, shield ; see kiitu- 

kotakwana, n., 1. postpone- 
ment, neglect ; 2. defiance. 




kotamta, to speak in parables ; 
see kotanchi. 

kotana*, cousin, relation. 

kotanchi, kwatanchi, 1. to 
compare, to liken to, to place 
together; pass, akotanchi is 
made like unto ; 2. kotanchin 
kdza about so much, kotan- 
chin hifka like this, ka yi 
mini kotanchi ydda zan yishi 
give me an idea how to do 
this ; cf. kutumshi likeness, 
F 145. kotanta, kotamta, 
kicatanta to speak in parables. 

kotami, kotamia, kotumi, 
a large earthen pot with wide 

kotashi, a small basket used 
by women ; see kwotashi, 

koto, of a bird, to peck ; also 
used of the grazing of cattle 
or sheep ; rtiaikoto beak. 

kotontawa, 1. to pay a second 
time, to pay over again ; 2. 
to spin round. 

kotso, koso, kotso, kozo (of. 
Ar. j^3^, a kettle-drum), 
a drum shaped like an hour- 
glass, held under the arm, 
one end open, it is covered 
with skin in front, but is 
open behind ; cf. kalango, 

kotutura, stump of wood ; see 

kowa, everyone, anyone, any; 

babu kowa or ha kowa no 
one ; the pronominal forms 
are kowa, kowanene, fem. 
kowa, kowacheche ; the ad- 
jectival forms are kowane, f. 
kowache, pi. kowddane ; see 
Gr. p. 18. bcc ta kowa ha 
die it is not the property of 
anyone ; combined with the 
pi. pers. pron. it denotes each ; 
kowanenmu each of us, kowa- 
nenku each of you, kowanensu 
each of them. 

kowainia, a finger-ring, the 
ring of a bit, etc. 

kowane, any, every, each ; 
see koiva. 

kowar-wake, the husk on 
pods of beans. 

kowie, side ; see kauye. 

koya, to learn ; see koiya. 

koya, red clay ; see koiya. 

koyanzu, even now, now, im- 
mediately ; see ko. 

koyaushe, at any time, always ; 
see ko. 

koyi, an example. 

koyo, n. learning ; see koiyo. 

kozo, a kind of drum ; see kotso. 

kozozobe, kwazazzabo, 1. 
course or hollow of a stream ; 
2. a deep ravine without 
water ; 3. holes in the road 
made by running water. 

ku, 2nd pers. pron. pi. you. 
-nku, your, is used when the 




object possessed is masculine, 
and -rku or -Iku when the 
object possessed is feminine ; 
cf. Gr. p. 25. 

kua, a verbal prefix to denote 
the second person plural of 
the future tense; cf. Gr. 
p. 33. 

kua, kwa, too, also, likewise; 
it follows as an enclitic the 
word to which it more par- 
ticularly refers, e.g. ni kua ni 
shiga I too shall enter, E 37. 

kuba, a cross beam. 

kubaka, 1. the fold in waist of 
trousers through which the 
cord (zaria) runs; 2. the cord 
round waist of trousers. 

kubche, kubuche, to slip or 
drop out of one's hands, also 
to escape from prison, cf. 
kuto. kubche kubche to try 
to slip out, used of an animal 
caught in a trap ; cf . gubchi. 

kube, a sheath for knife or 
sword; cf. M. H. p. 206, 
talauchi yi kan wa halinka 
kube poverty acts as a sheath 
to your character, i.e. makes 
you act hypocritically. 

kube, to mix, intens. form ku- 
kuhe ; see kivabe. 

kube* (K), little, small. 

kube, an ear of corn. 

kubewa (a Yoruba word), the 
'okra' plant, the ripe capsules 

of which are used as a vege- 
table (Hibiscus esculentus, 
Malvaceae). It is a climb- 
ing gourd and grows esp. on 
house tops, in Kano it is 
pronounced kabewa. 
kuble, kulle, kulli (cf. Ar. 

Ja5, bolt), to lock, lock up : 

cf. shina kulle it is locked, 

na kulli akwati I locked the 

box; makubli or mahulli key, 

kubli, kulli, a lock. 
kubri, shin-bone ; see kdbri. 
kububua, a poisonous snake, 

with large brown spots in a 

single line down its back and 

a white belly. 
kubuta, to be innocent, to be 

unharmed, to be acquitted, 
kubuta, n. ankle boots used 

for riding. 
kucha, kuza, to rush or fall 

kuchi, pi. kuche-kuche^ talking, 

kuda, throbbing pain, e.g. of 

kuda, kuje, pi. kudaje, masc. 

kudaidai (cf. Ar. pi. ^tj>i, 

stinging insects), fly; kuda7i 
kisan doki, i.e. the fly that 
kills horses, i.e. the tsetse 
fly. makafon kuda a large 
horse-fly which is so easy to 




catch that it appears to be 

kudafi, a small ant ; see kui'- 

kudaku, a species of sweet 
potato (dankali). 

kudanchi, southwards. 

kudandemi, kudandan, a 
hut ; see kwadandemi. 

kude (S.), intr. to withdraw. 

kudi, a black and red cloth. 

kudi, a bug. 

kudi, money ; see kurdi. 

kudigi, a weed ; see kuduji. 

kudira, destiny ; see kadara. 

kudis, kidis, quickly. 

kudu, an apron made of skin. 

kudu, kudus, south ; also used 
adverbially, e.g. ya taji kudu 
he went south. 

kududifi, kudundifi, pond, 
cistern, a pit from which 
clay has been dug. 

kududura, a small knife used 
by women. 

kuduji, kudugi, a plant about 
two feet high, with a flower 
like tobacco, it grows amongst 
dctwa, a medicine is made 
from it ; it is apparently the 
same as wuta-wuta, q.v. 

kudukuki, cheek, cheeks. 

kudumbia, the cracking of 
skin in the under-joints of 
toes, caused by a small in- 
sect ; cf. hambudiga. 

kudundune, to make a ball 
of anything. 

kudunia, range of hills, hill. 

kudure, to lop, or break off. 

kuduru, 1. a man with his 
fingers, toes, or ears cut off; 
2. maiming. 

kudus, sc^uth ; see kiidu. 

kudus or bimin kudus, Jeru- 

kuduss, used of popping into 
a hole, ya yl kuduss = ya 
shiga rami, 

kufa, a stain, the scar left by 
a wound : the trace of any- 
thing, e.g. ku/an wuta, a mark 
made by a burn, ku/an mai 
an oil stain. 

kufai, kofai, pi. ku/ai/ai, ruins 
of a place, a desolated or 
dilapidated town. 

kufita, kufuta, pi. kufitai, ku- 
futaij 1*. sandal ; 2. long 
riding-boot with spur. 

kufu, lungs ; see/u/u. 

kufuli*, to extinguish a fire or 

kufurtu, the first hoeing of 
the land before sowing ; cf. 

kuge, a kind of cymbal. 

kugi, the roar of wild animals, 
the noise of an ostrich or the 
cooing of doves, or buzzing of 

kugiya, kogia, kogua, pi. 




kugiyoyi, hook, clasp, ku- 

gian fdtsa a fish-hook, 
kugu, pi. kugogi, loin. 
kuibi, side of the body; see 

kuikui, kukui, a disease in 

women somewhat similar to 

kuikuyo, young of an animal; 

see kwikuyo. 
kuiwa, a kind of grass. 
kuje, fly; see huda. kuje is 

generally used of the larger 

biting flies, kuda of smaller 


2t oj 
kujera, kushera (Ar. ^^j^), 

chair, stool, esp. the wooden 
stool on which women sit. 

kuka, pi. kukoki, fem. Kanuri 
id. (Adansonia digitata), the 
baobab or monkey-bread tree. 
The Hausas eat its fruit and 
use its leaves for making soup. 
It does not grow to any great 
height, but has often a girth 
of 60 to 70 ft. 

kuka, pi. koke-koke, masc, cry, 
lamentation; yin kuka to 
cry, raise a cry, howl, low, 
etc., of men and animals, e.g. 
sania tana kuka the cow lows 
(ruri is used of the bull). 

kuka, pers. pron. 2nd pers. pi. 
used to denote the narrative 
or historic past; cf. Gr. p. 28. 

kuka, to make complaint; cf. 
kada kowa ya kuka da woni 
ya kuka da kansa let not 
any one complain of another 
(in doing so) he complains of 

kukaruku, crowing ; see kaka- 

kuku, an edible fish, six inches 
long, with sharp scales on its 

kukube, an intens. form of 
kuhe to mix, 

kukui*, a swelling ; see kuikui. 

kukui kukui, the sound made 
by a guinea-fowl ; cf . M. H. 
p. 197. 

kukuki, a tree, the bark of 
which contains an almost 
tasteless watery juice : it is 
sucked by thirsty travellers 
(Sterculia tomentosa, Ster- 

kukuma, a musical instrument 
which is played by rubbing. 

kukumche, pi. kukumtatu, one 
who has his hands tied to his 
neck ; cf . seq. 

kukumi, kunkumi, the tying 
of a man's hands ; cf. prov, 
karamin sani kukumi ne a 
little knowledge is as the 
tying of a man's hands to his 
neck, i.e. 'a little knowledge 
is a dangerous thing.' 

kul*, if, when ; cf . kur. 




kula, a shrub from the roots of 
which a hot spice is prepared. 

kula, 1. to care for, heed, be 
concerned about, used abso 
lutely (B 90) or with direct 
aec, or with da, or, less fre- 
quently, with ga ; 2. to care 
for in the sense of to covet, 
e.g. C 52 bai kula ha ga dunia 
he cared not for the mer- 
chandise of the earth, kuli* 
intention, e.g. ina da kulin 
tafia or na kula tafia I think 
of going. 

kulba, the common reddish 
smooth-skinned lizard (ma- 
buia Perroteti) ; cf . sharindo. 

kulde, to strip off*; see kwalde. 

kulere, a wooden-tipped arrow. 

kuli, intention; see kula. 

kulikasa, shamelessness. 

kulki, kuruki, pi. kulake, a 
short stick, club, a govern- 
ment messenger's staff". 

kulkusa, very near ; see kusa. 

kulla, to tie two pieces of string 
together ; idiom kulla gdha to 
enter on a quarrel, to join 
issue ; kullu to be joined to- 

kulla, n. twisting cotton round 
a pin before spinning. 

kulle, to lock up. 

kuUi, kwoUi, antimony; see 

kulli, pi. kulli-kuUij a knot. 

also used of a ball of pounded 
ground nuts ; cf. kubli. 

kulo, kuUo, to watch, look on. 

kulu, pi. kulayi, wale made by 
a whip. 

kulu, 1. froth skimmed from 
the top in the making of bread 
or masa cakes ; 2. leaven. 

kulubutu, a creeper with edible 

kulufita (ever-coming-forth), a 
synonym for the gauta (to- 
mato), so called because it is 
ever bearing. 

kulum [originally borrowed 
from the Ar.>^ J.^= every 
day], 1. always, constantly; 
hence 2. used with other ex- 
pressions of time, every, e.g. 
kulum safe every morning, 
kulum dere every night, B 88 ; 
cf. kulyaushe. 

kulume, an edible fish with red 
tail, about fifteen inches long. 

kulutu, protuberance, swelling. 

kulyaushe*, always ; see ku- 

kuma, again. 

kuma, a flat fish with reddish 

kuma, koma, flea, louse. 

kuma,, a stick. 

kumachi, kum.urchi, kwo- 
miachi, a black cobra, hooded 
but without spectacles, 14 ins. 
to 6 ft. long (naia nigricoUis). 




kumakumi, a horseman's arm- 
our made of iron. 

kum.allo, faintness ; see ku- 
rtiolo., weak, infirm, feeble, 

kumam.anchi, 1. weakness, 
infirmity, feebleness; 2. what 
is trying or troublesome. 

kumaro, kom.aro, a small 
leather bag. 

kiunatu, cheeks, pi. of kumchi, 
q.v., pi. kumhuna^ kumbabo- 
bi,kumbai, 1. finger-nail, scales 
of a fish ; ta hude kumhabi she 
spread open her fingers; 2. 
an edible shell-fish sold in the 

kumbe or kwumbe, the fashion 
of shaving the front part of 
the head only ; the heathen 
custom of leaving a tuft on 
top of head., a colour made from 
bones and used for marking 
camels, M. H. p. 186. 

kumibu, 1. a small calabash 
with a cover; 2. a round 
object ; cf. shankumhu. 

kumbu, ktoibua, 1. a long- 
handled hoe with triangular 
blade ; 2. a leather ring worn 
as a charm round the wrist. 

kum.buche, to tie up in a knot. 

kumbuchi, esp. used of rough 

or hasty plaiting or doing up 
of a woman's hair. 

kumbura, kum.bure, to swell, 
to be enceinte ; kmnihuraivn, 
swelling with pride; F 30 
kana kurnhurawa thou art 
proud ; kumhurata swollen, 
e.g. with pride. 

kum.burata*, see kumhure. 

kumburi, kum.buria, n. swell 

kum.chi, pi. kumatu^ cheek ; 
dan kiunatu a man with fat 

kum.chi, kunchi, narrow, con- 
fined, difficult of passage, it 
is often applied to the thorn 
fence surrounding a town ; 
cf. Gr. p. 130, 1. 29; kumchin 
zuchia hot temper; makun- 
kuchi or makunkunchi a man 
full of anger, lit. a heart in 
which there is no room ; 
kumchin sarkakia an im- 
penetrable thorn hedge or 
brake ; yahho wanda ya yi 
kunchi domin girnia na^sa 
praise which was unworthy 
of his greatness. 

kumia, shame ; see kumya. 

kum.kum.ia, a poisonous species 
of euphorbia tree about two 
feet high. 

kum.O, a yellowish red biting 

kumolo, kumallo, qualm or 




faintness arising from lack 
of food. 

kumpa, froth ; see kunfa. 

kumpsa, to bud, used of young 
grain ; cf. kohsa. 

kumsa, kumshe, to tie up, 
e.g. in a bag; kumshashe, 
f. kumshashia, pi. kumshashu, 
tied up ; cf . (?) kimsa. 

kumshi, n. tying. 

kumshin-lalle, the binding of 
the hands or of the feet in 
henna bandages ; see Icdle. 

kumso*, to hide anything. 

kumtata, to makenarrow, A 67; 
see kimncfii. 

kumurchi, kumuchi, kwo- 
machi, komarchi, a cobra; 
cf. kumachi. 

kumuria, a fire-swallower. 

kiimiis (S.), the sound of a 

kumya, kunya, kumia, shame, 
bashfulness, good manners ; 
rashin kumya want of good 
manners or of sense of pro- 
priety. sa,ba3indbada kumya 
to put to shame ; jin kumya 
to feel shame, to be ashamed ; 
ba shi da kumya ba he has no 
sense of shame. F 11 5 masu- 
zina su ka kumya those who 
sin will be put to shame; sun 
yi kumya they felt ashamed, 
sun chi kumia ke nan they 
were ashamed, M. H. p. 196. 

R. H. D. 

kumyata, kunyata, kumya- 
che, to shame, to be ashamed. 

kun, pronoun, 2nd pers. pi. 
used with perfect tense ; cf. 
Gr. p. 27. 

kuna, intr. to burn ; see kona. 

kuna, to burn ; see kona. 

kuna, pure, unmixed ; kUna 
rua pure water, nothing but 

kuna, anger, disgust. 

kuna, kunna, to light, set 
light to ; kunna fitila light 
the lamp ; kunna wuta adaki 
set fire to a house. 

kunama, konama, pi. kuna- 
momi, kunamai, 1. scorpion; 
2. hammer of a gun or rifle ; 
kunaman rua electric cat-fish. 

kunba, finger-nail ; see kumba. 

kunche, kwanche (K.), to 
loose, untie, to get loose ; 
andaureshi ya kwanche he 
was tied up and got loose; 
kuncha^he, fem. kunchachia^ 
pi. kunchachu, untied, loosen- 
ed ; maikunche a wrestler ; 
intens. forms kwankwanche 
and konkonche to set free. 

kunchi, bush ; see kumchi. 

kunda, a charm placed in a 
field ; see kwanda. 

kundege, kwondege, armlets, 

' F225. 

kundi, pi. kundaye^ a book ; 
dan kundi a small book. 





kundu, used with yi, of an 
arrow, to miss. 

kundu, a bird's gizzard. 

kunduda, a headman. 

kundudufi, a pond ; see kudu- 

kunduma, n. 1. toppling over, 
B 150 5a ni yi kunduma en 
fada ha I will not topple over 
so as to fall ; 2. to dip the 
head in water. 

kundumi, kandami, a pond. 

kundumi, n. baldness caused 
by shaving off the hair. 

kune, kunne, pi. kunuwa, 1. 
ear, sa kunne to give atten- 
tion to ; 2. kunnen itache 

kunfa, kiunfa, kumpa, foam ; 
yin kunfa to foam. 

kunfu, used of the meat sur- 
rounding the heart of an 

kunkeli, a small shield. 

kun-ki-chi, a small weevil 
which eats corn, its name is 
derived from the saying, if 
you will not eat, we will eat 
it for you. 

kunku, pi. kunkaye (S.), a sun- 
dried brick, i.e. ball of earth 
mixed with straw. 

kunkumi, a celebrated or im- 
portant person, kunkumin 
tajiri a rich merchant; cf. 
M. H. p. 205. kunkumi is 

usually applied to one who 
has become rich by dishonest 

kunkumi, a man with his 
hands tied to his neck ; see 

kunkumia (S.), soot ; see kun- 

kunkunia, blight, soot, used 
in making ink. 

kunkunta, narrow, used of a 
doorway; cf. kumtata. 

kunkuru, 1. small land tor- 
toise, cf . kijifia water tortoise ; 
2. curved wooden board to 
which the unwoven thread 
of the warp is fastened, it 
is thought to resemble the 
curved shell of the tortoise. 

kunkurus, kurunkus, decapi- 
tation, the finishing of any- 
thing; cf. the phrase ku7i- 
kurus kan kusu the cutting 
off the head of a rat, an idiom 
denoting that a thing is done 
and finished with ; so kun- 
kurus kan damharia, M. H. 
p. 166. 

kunkuwa, an ant-heap. 

kunna, to light ; see kuna. 

kunsa, to fold up; cf. kumtata. 

kunshe, to wrap into a bundle. 

kunshia*, sleep, F 75 ; see 

kunta, to untie ; see kwanta. 

kunta, n. loosening. 




kuntawa, sleeping ; see kwan- 

kuntu, blanket (a Nupe word). 

kuntukuro, a small drum. 

kuntumi, a merchant. 

kuntunkuru*, applied by the 
Hausas to the brown army- 

kunu, gruel made of guinea- 
corn, rice, etc. 

kunun - dorowa (dorowa 
broth), a species of bird. 

kunya, pi. kunyoyi^ a ridge of 
soil in farming in which seed 
is planted ; cf. kwiya (S.). 

kupturu, kuturu, blighted 
(corn) as contrasted with 
maiido; M. H. p. 199. 

kur*, kul*, if, when, e.g. kur 
ankache masa if it be said 
to him, C 7. kur dai or kul 
dai even if. 

kura, pi. kuraye, hyena, fem. ; 
B 149 ina gani sarai kura 

■ gata I see distinctly, there 
is the hyena, kure, a male 
hyena, is also used ; wasan 
kura an unappreciated joke ; 
dan kura the name of a par- 
ticular kind of turban ; cf , 

- M. H. p. 203. goshin kure 

;. the doka or woman's head 

kura, dust. 

kura, gain, profit, esp. unlawful 
ij;ain, overcharging, cheating, 

chin kura to make unlawful 
gain; F201 dilalai imasuriha 
da kura the brokers who 
make unjust profits, i.e. who 
keep back money for things 

kura (?), cf. yana kura he fears. 

kurS-da, kuradda, pi. kurddai, 
a small round hatchet used 
for cutting grass. 

kuran (Ar. O^js), the Koran. 

kuranga, 1. trailing rope plant; 
2. a ladder ; see karangama. 

kurari, threatening, boasting ; 
yin kurari to brag; cf. kirari. 

kurar-shanu (cattle dust), a 
weed with yellow flowers and 
white leaves (Conyza spinosa, 

kurS,sa (S.), a bunch of corn. 

kurba, to sip. 

kurba, a small lizard. 

kurbi, n. sipping. 

kurche, to escape ; see kuhche. 

kurchi, to escape. 

kurchia, kurichia, pi. ku- 
rdche, kurchiyoyi, dove. 

kurchia*, kurichia, kuru- 
chia, 1. childhood, mutuar 
kurichia death during child- 
hood ; 2. childishness. 

kurda, to press through a nar- 
row place, creep in ; kur- 
danan kurdanan wandering 
this way and that, zigzag- 





Aurdafi, kudafi, small black 

kurdi, kndi, used as a pi. of 
ijia and nmri, 1. cowries 
(kawara and alkawara are 
also used in the same sense); 
2. used generally for money 
of any kind ; 3. price, e.g. 
hurdinsa nawa what is the 
price of it? kurdinsa ya isa 
it is enough for it. kurdin 
kasa tribute, taxes ; a plural 
form is found, kurdede much 
money ; kurdin fUa a tax 
paid by caravans, kurdin 
boda a tax paid to the Eng- 
lish, i.e. 15 p.c. on value of 

kurdi*, a small biting insect 
found in mats, etc. 

kurdudufi, often pronounced 
kududdufi or kududdiffi, 
pond ; see kududufi. 

kurdugi*, a great man, warrior ; 
cf. M. H. p. 189. 

kurdugo, kodago, the fruit of 
the gigi^iia palm ; ci.kwodago. 

kure, mistake ; see kurre. 

kure, pi. kuraye, a male hyena ; 
see kura. 

kure, 1. to probe, to go to the 
end of, dan kure little finger; 
2. to push another; 3. in 
Sokoto to miss, used as an 
equivalent for kuskure. ku- 
rewa is used of a place from 

which there is no outlet, the 
interior of a house furthest 
from the door; hainya tana 
kurewa the road ends here ; 
cf. prov. ramin karia ha shi 
wiyar kurewa the hole of a 
lie it is not difficult to probe 
to the end, i.e. it is easy to 
detect a liar in his lies. 

kure, en wuri ya kure when 
the time comes, used when 
the sun comes out after dull 

kurege, pi. kuregai, kuregogi, 
jerboa (dipus), the length of 
its body is about eight inches, 
of its tail ten inches ; it pro- 
gresses by a series of jumps : 
it burrows in the ground 
and feeds chiefly on grain ; 
cf. Browning, 'Saul,' vi, 5, 
" half-bird half-mouse." For 
a story concerning a jerboa, 
cf. M. H. p. 106. 

kurenga, a trailing rope-plant; 
see kuranga. 

kurfa, kurufa, pi. kurfai, long 

kurfi, pi. kurfofi, kurfu, hole, 
cave, empty cartridge-case. 

kurfu, pi. kurdfu (Kanuri kor 
rafi hide), 1. a whip made of 
skin ; 2. flogging, yin kurju 
to flog, su yi masa kurfu 
they flogged him ; 3. a horse- 




kurga (S.), conversation. 

kurga (K.), piles. 

kurginguma, a beetle = gur- 
gunguma, q.v. 

kuri, empty threat (Sokoto), 
in Kano imha is used. The 
word is probably a variant 
of kuria a war drum, cf. 
Hausa riddle ahu na kara a 
fiawa ha hanji a thing that 
cries in the bush with no 
bowels 1 Ans. A drum ; cf. 

kuria, kurya, kwuriya (Ar. 

cji, to beat a dinim), a sort 

of stringed drum, open at 
one end, used in war. 
kuria, a red vegetable stain 
for the teeth. 

kuria (Ar. iftji), dice, lots; 
yin kuria to draw lots ; je/a 
kuria to throw with dice or 
with cowrie shells used as 

kurichia, dove ; see kurchia. 

kurikia, kurkia, pi. kurikoki, 
kurkiyoyi, virgin. 

kurimi, dense forest ; see kurmi. 

kurji, breast ; see kirji. 

kurji, kureji, kirchi, gurje, 
pi. kurdje, kurareji, scab, boil, 
esp. on dogs and horses, itch ; 
maikurji onewhoha.s the itch. 

kurki, hen-coop. 

kurki, a bird like a crane. 

kurkia, virgin ; see kurikia. 

kurkono, kurukunu, guinea- 

kurkuku, dungeon, prison. 

kurkura*, to scrape ; see kar- 

kurkura*, to err, to fail; cf. 

kurkura, n. gargling. 

kurkure, to gargle, to throw 
water out of the mouth, rinse 
the mouth, v. n. kurkurewa. 

kurkurkur, wide - opened 

mouth ; see kirkira. 

kurkusa - kusa kusa very near. 

kurkushe, a swelling on the 

kurkutu (S.), a small drum. 

kurkwiyo, youngling ; seektm- 

kurma, deaf ; see kuruma. 

kurmajo, a (Zanfara) tribal 
mark on the temple. 

kurme, swimming, bathing. 

kurmi, dense forest. 

kurmus, the ashes of a burnt 
stick, cf. F 207 ; umta ta kone 
kurmus the fire burnt it up 

kurmusu, pi. kurmusoshi, kur- 
mushe-kurmushe, eating in 
secret; maikurmusu one who 
hides himself to eat ; cf. 

kurmuwa, sprinkling ; cp. 




kurna (Kanuri kurna, Fulah 
kurnahi), zizyphus jujuba, a 
large tree of bushy appear- 
ance with small leaves and 
red edible berries. 

kuman nasara (or kurna 
na sara), a tree with lilac 
flowers, ' the pride of India ' 
(Melia Azedarach, Melia- 

kurre, pi. kurakuri, accident, 
mistake, error. Also as v. 
na kurre I made a mistake. 

kursa, kursan goro a large kola 

kurtu, kortu, pi. kurtuna, a 
calabash used as water-bottle. 

kuni, f. kurua, dwarf, pony; 
doki kuru, id. 

kuru, in silence ; cf. kurum. 

kuru, a small hand-drum open 
at one end ; see kuria. 

kurua, kurwa, 1. soul, spirit, 
shadow; 2. echo; cl.kururua. 

kuruchia, childhood ; see kur- 

kurufa, long riding-boots ; see 

kurufi*, an iron chisel ; pro- 
bably a corruption of karifiy 

kurugga, a hoe =:^ kente. 

kurugunguma, pi. kurugun- 
gumai, a winged beetle which 
lives amongst the guinea- 
corn; see gurgungvmia. 

kuruki, a short stick ; see 

kurukunu, guinea-worm : see 

kurukure, to throw out water 
from the mouth ; see kurkure. 

kurulla, refusal to share food 
with another (used in Sokoto); 
cf. kememe, kurinusu. 

kurum, silence, e.g. D 94 muna 
kurum we keep silence ; yin 
kurum, id. da kurum, in si- 
lence ; D 29 abersu ku7-u let 
them be left alone, i.e. let no 
one speak to them ; kurum- 
haka silence. 

kuruma, still water. 

kuruma, kurma, pi. kurumai, 
1. one who is deaf; 2. to 
be deaf; cf. prov. kuruma 
tnagana che 'silence gives 
consent ' ; kuruman wui'i a 
cowry without a hole in it 
(i.e. like a deaf or stopped-up 
ear). kurum,chi and kurumta 
deafness ; shina da kururnchi 
he is deaf. 

kurumi, to embrace, grasp. 
kurumta, kurumche, to be 

kurumta, kurumchi, n. si- 
lence ; yin kurumta to be 
kurungu, a species of cat-fish 
(Siluridae) about 3 feet in 




kurunkus, see Jmnkurus. 

kurunkushewa, a plant with 
delicate white flowers = lut- 
niijin tsada, q.v. 

kururu, crop of a fowl. 

kururua, 1. a cry, scream ; 
ifin kururua to cry ; 2. com- 
plaint, grievance ; 3. echo ; 
cf. kurua^ id. 

kururuta, to complain about, 

kuruskurus, edible root of 
small plant used in making 

kurwa, a spirit ; see kurua. 

kurya, a drum ; see kuria. 

kurzunu, roughness; da hir- 
zunu rough, uneven. 

kusa, mouse ; see, 

kusa, n. nearness, proximity, 
near, nearly; da kusa near 
at hand ; kusa da or ktisa ga 
near to, yin kusa to be or 
draw near, ya yi kiisan (or 
ya kusa) karewa it is nearly 
hnished. ya kusa he ap- 
proaches, ya kusa ya gaya 
inani he was near to telling 
me ; ya kusa ya (or ya kusa) 
mantashi he nearly forgot 
it ; ktirkusa, kulkusa or kitsa 
kusa very near, kusawa draw- 
ing near, kusata, kusache or 
kusanta to be or to draw near 
to. kusata is also used as a 
n. consanguinity, kusatowa 

kusa, tin ore ; see kuza. 

kusa, nail ; see kosa. 

kusache, to draw near to ; see 

kusanchi, to condemn; see 

kusata, to draw near ; see 

kusato, to draw near to the 

kusatowa, coming near; see 

kusawa, see kitsa. 

kusfa, or (in Sokoto) kusua, 
a hole, e.g. at the bottom of 
a wall, larger than raria. 

kushe*, to despise, to attri- 
bute evil to one who is doing 
good : ci.kusanchito condemn. 

kushe kushe, kushekusheya, 
an itching sore on hand or 
foot; F 106 suna dirkanka 
har kushekusheya they beat 
thee till thou art sore ; spe- 
cially used of sores on the 
feet which are prevalent 
during the rainy season. 

kushera, stool; see kujera. 

kushe wa, kusheya* pi. ku- 
shewoyi, kusheyi, the mound 
over the grave, tomb ; wurin 
kushewa or wurin kusheyi 

kuskunta,, to drive away ; see 

kuskure, kurkura, 1. to miss, 




of an arrow to miss or fail 
to hit the mark ; na kus- 
kureta I missed it ; 2. to fail 
to keep a promise, then to 
fail in dut}'^, to err; D 4 
kada mu kurkura let us not 
fail, i.e. in our duty. 

9 J « J 

kuskus* (Ar. t^,...C.,fr>), cuscus 
(a North African native dish 
made of macaroni, etc., used 
by Hausas in N. Africa, not 
known in Hausaland). 

kHsu, mouse, kusun-tanka a 
small white-bellied mouse 
which nests in roofs ; kusun 
kyauro (K.), kusun kyemru 
(S,), water-mouse; kusun- 
hanu forearm ; kusumhisa 

kusua, see kusfa. 

kusufi (Ar.), eclipse of the sun. 

kusugu*, anything small or 
insignificant, also applied to 

.V anything of ugly shape. 

kusumbi, hump ; da kusumbi 

kusumbi, restiveness. 

kusumbisa (i.e. kusu mouse 
and bisa above), squirrel. 

kusumburua, a reed growing 
amongst the guinea-corn and 
like it in appearance ; not 
edible ; flutes are made of it. 

kusurua (or by metathesis 
sukarua^ q.v.), pi. kusu7'oyi 

(cf. Ar. jj^), corner; kusu- 
ruan hanu elbow ; bada i 
ina da kusuruan uku the 
(stalk of the) badai grass 
has three corners or project- 
ing angles ; kusuruan arewa 
nearly North (a point of the 
compass), gabaz kusuruan 
arewa = North-East ; maiku- 
surua angular. 

kuta, to persuade. 

kutanchi, likeness ; see koian 

kutara, the name of a tree : 
rafters made from it are bent 
by being heated in the fire. 
Hence a beam for pumping 
water with, DIG shina takura 
kamal kutara he falls down 
like the beam for pumping 
water ; see jigo which is the 
word most frequently used. 

kuto, to escape, implying 
motion towards speaker, ta 
kuto she escaped here. 

kutofi, a bead necklace worn 
by women. 

kutsa, to trespass on a for 
bidden place, to step over a 

kutu, the male of the common 
lizard (Sokoto equivalent^ 
kiski) ; see kadayigare. 

kutufani, kotafani, pi. kutu 
fanal, a large round shield 
made of skin. 




kutuma = bura. 

kutumba, pi. kutumbobi, a 

^hort and fat person, 
kutumshi*, likeness, F 145 

for kotanchi, q.v. 
kutunku, kutunkun bauna a 

large bull buffalo, kutunkun 

barao a formidable thief. 
kutup klitup, tottering, ap- 
plied to the walk of the old 

or blind, 
kuturi, the hinder part of an 

animal ; cf. jakuturi the 

kuturu, pi. kutare^ 1. leper; 

2. applied to gero = blighted. 

kuturchi or kuturta leprosy, 
kututura, kututtura, kotu- 

tura, kuturtura, or kutu- 

turri, 1. stump of a tree, 

branch with leaves cut off; 

2. stubble, 
kuwa, a cry, shout, 
kuyafa (S.), spoon; see kunafa. 
kuyanga, kwiyanga, pi. ku- 

yangai, kuymigi, used as fern. 

of hawa = i\. female slave; the 

plural is used of slaves of 

botli sexes. 
kuyiwa, kiwuya, refusal ; see 
' ki. 

kuza, to rush ; see kucha. 
kuza, kusa, tin ore. 
kwa, also ; see kua. 
kwS,be, to come loose, of the 

head of an axe, etc., to come 

away from the haft, e.g. 
gatari ya ktvdbe. ya kwdbo 
it came loose and fell down 
by me. kwabia coming loose. 
gatari maikwabia an axe with 
a loose head. 

kw&be, kw&ba,, to 
repress, hinder, stop short ; 
kwdbe linzami use your bit, 
ya kwdbe ma^ananshi he 
stopped his mouth. 

kwabe, kube, kwaba, to mix, 
A 76 kam ba rua kwabe ka- 
sanka ya sheka^'e if there is 
no water to mix with it, 
your earth is dry. 

kwabi, n. mixing. 

kwabri, kwauri, pi.' kwabruka, 
ktvobruka, shin-bone ; see 

kwache, 1. to plunder or take 
a thing away by force, to 
snatch ; 2. to rescue, deliver, 
abin kwache booty ; 3. to 
prevent, stop ; rua ya kwa^che 
the rain hindered me. kwa- 
cheche stolen, kidnapped. 
maikwachewa one who 
snatches away ; kwaso to 

kwS,chia, the raised part of a 
saddle ; see kwochia. 

kwachia, pi. kwachaye, a glass 
basin, M. H. p. 73. 

kwadai, longing for; seekodai. 

kwadandemi, kudandem.!, a 




hut made with mud walls and 
roof, air circulates through a 
hole in the top which is 
closed by a circular grass 
shutter (60^0) attached to a 

kwadaye, to long after. 

kwadigo or dan kwadigo 
(S.), a farm labourer who 
works for wages. 

kwado, an arrow poison ; cf. 

kwado, pi. kwadi, kwadodi, 
frog, toad, kwcidon halshi 
uvula ; kwadon hanu biceps; 
kwadon chinya thigh muscle ; 
kwadon kofa lock of a door. 

kwagiri, a long pliant creeper 
used for making walking- 
sticks ; maikwagiri a nick- 
name given to one who is 
fond of beating men. 

kwagua, 1. pincers; 2. a crab; 
cf. kugiya hook. 

kwajiri, kwagiri, a cane. 

kwake, fading away, as of a dyed 
garment; kwaki, adj. fading. 

kwakia, a long, slender, light- 
coloured snake. 

kwakole, to pick a thing out, 
e.g. of a hole ; see kolkole. 

kwakota, a tobe ; see kwa- 

kwakwa, pi. kwakoki, kwakuna 
(Elaeis guineensis), oil palm 
tree, soup is made from its 

kernels ; main ja the oil ob- 
tained from it. The oil is 
expressed from its seeds or 
nuts which grow in large 
clusters. It is largely used 
as food by the Hausas ; kwa- 
kwan altagara coco-nut palm. 
( Attagara is said to be the old 
home of the Arago tribe.) 

kwS,kwafa, kokofa, kwok- 
kwofa, a canter with little 
progress, a circus canter. 

kwakwalla, kwakwalla hakori 
to pick the teeth ; cf. sakatta. 

kwakwalwa, brains ; see kolua. 

kwakwari, place or hole made 
for horses' dung, etc. 

kwakwSita, kwakota, a tobe 
with short, lined body and 
wide single skirt. 

kwakwume, to grip, twist ; 
kwakwutne wuya to grip the 
throat., kwalla, 1. to wash 
thoroughly; 2. to jeer at, 
revile ; cf. makwalla. 

kwalde or kulde, to strip off 
leaves from a stalk. 

kwalfe, kolfe, to skim. 

kwalima, greediness. 

kwalkwasa, travelling ants ; 
see kwarikwasa. 

kwalkwata, kwarkWatta, 
kolkota, lice. 

kwalli, antimony ; cf . koli. 

kwS.lo, a ball ; see kwolo. 




kwalo, kwalua, 1. nut, seed 
capsule, e.g. of the water lily; 
kwalon goriba nut of the dum 
palm ; 2. big, fine : kwaluar 
kaza a plump chicken. 

kwalua, skull ; see kolua. 

kwama (S.), a kind of red 

kwEunbe, a head shaved round 
the base with a circle of hair 
left over the crown. 

kwami, used in compound 
kwmnin wuta ; see gwami. 

kwamme (S.), the fruit of the 
kuka tree. 

kwamsa, kwansa, mucus from 
the eyes ; see komtsa. 

kwana, pi. kwanaki, kwanuka, 
the 24 hours of day and night, 
day. The sing, form is fre- 
quently used instead of the 
plural, e.g. kwana fudu four 
days ; kwana nawa ke nan 
how many days ago was it ? 
kwanaki ya tafi he left a long 
time ago ; ban kwana to say 
good-bye ; kwana to pass the 
night, to sleep ; ankwanda 
rua the night has been passed 
in the rain ; sai ankwan bin 
good-bye for some time (lit. 
till it has been slept twice), 
sanu da kwana biu a greet- 
ing after a prolonged absence ; 
kwana biu biu every other 
day ; kwananddga a bivouac 

on a field of battle ; kwo/nche 
to lie down, to sleep, to rest, 
B 58 ; kwanchiar hankali da 
approval of; Imnkali ya 
kwanta da I (or he) approved 
of ; ba ka kwana sai ka mutu 
you won't live till night; 
kwana da, kwanda to lie 
with ; kwankwanche, id. mak- 
wanche a place to lie down 
in, a burial place ; kwanta to 
lie down to sleep ; hankalinsa 
ya kwanta he became reason- 
able ; rainsa ya kwanta he 
was satisfied ; kwanta da to 
lay down; kwanta arua to 
float; Tua ya kwanta (or 
kwana) the water settled ; 
kwantawa lying down ; F 63 
ka san kai dai ka kwantaioar 
kushewa thou knowest that 
thou shalt lie down alone in 
the tomb; kwantasda to allay; 
kwanto lying in wait, ambush ; 
kwanchia, n. sleeping ; kwan^ 
chiar hankali, n. content ; 
kwankwanche or kankwanche, 
adv. lying down. 

kwanafi, see kwarnafi. 

kwanandaga, bivouac ; see 

kwanche, to lie down; see 

kwanche, to untie ; see kunclie. 

kwanchi, n. lying down. 

kwanda, kunda, a cup in- 




verted on a reed in a field as 
a charm against thieves, the 
sight of it is supposed to 
cause the thief's hands to 
drop off. 

kwando, kondo, 1. the centre 
inside a thatch roof where 
the reeds meet together ; 
2. a large round wicker 

kwangara, n. a white oblong 
shield, usually carried by high 

kwangara, v. to strike with 
the fist. 

kwangare, boxing. 

kwangi, laths or bamboo sticks 
used in making ceilings. 

kwango, the wooden frame of 
a drum. 

kwangura, shield ; see kwan- 

kwankwani, kwonkwani, a 
shrub, the seeds of which 
form the chief source of arrow 
poison in N. Nigeria (Stro- 
phanthus hispidus, Apocyna- 
ceae). The name is also ap- 
plied to Strophanthus sar- 
mentosus which is a tall 
woody climber. 

kwankwasa, to knock at a 
door, to tap a pot to see if it 
is cracked. 

kwano, a tin basin or bowl, a 
Nupe word (2). 

kwanso, shell of eggs or nuts, 

cartridge-case ; kwanson ab- 

duga cotton pod. 
kwanta, pinching ; yin kwanta 

to pinch, 
kwanta, to loose, unbind, e.g, 

a load ; cf. kunche. 
kwanta, to lie down; see 

kwanta-rafi, reed buck : cervi- 

capra redunca ; for list of 

antelopes found in Hausa- 

land, cf. under barewa. 
kwantasda*, to allay; see 

kwantatoi, sand grouse; of. 

suwaka, ladin rogo. 
kwanto, lying in wait ; see 

kwanya, pi. kwanyoyi, or 

kivanyuna^ skull, brains ; see 

kwara, n. the act of trying 

to swallow something ; see 

under kwarika. 
kwara, the River Niger; see 

kwara, pi. kwarori, grain, fruit, 

kwara kwara, 1. a thin jointed 

mat; 2. a thick split cane 

woven mat used as a door 

hanging, also called 'muna- 

Jiki' because it hides what 

is within, but allows those 

inside to see out. 




kwaraba, thread-worm. 

kwarai, rightly, properly, 
thoroughly ; na ji kwarai 
I understood aright; na- 
kwarai, f. takwarai correct, 

kwaraka, to be greedy ; see 

kwarakwara, kwarkwara^ 
kworakwora, a slave-wife = 

kwarami, dan kwarami sl corn 
buyer who buys on the farms 
and sells in the market. 

kwaranga, a ladder ; see ku- 

kwarari, bef. pron. k war are to 
overtake, v. n., kwarare^ suka 
y% kwararensa they overtook 

kwarche (S.), witchcraft. 

kwarda, maikwarda one with 
a bent arm = mailaushi. 

kwardabi (S.), a door made 
of corn stalks. 

kwardodo (driver away of the 
evil spirit), the large mosque 
swallow: hirundo senegalen- 

kware, kwari, to peel, strip, 
bark, skin, kwaro strips of 
black leather worn round 
the neck and hanging in 
front. kwaria a strip of 

kwari, strength, firmness of 

texture, su yi kwari they 
are strong. 

kwari, quiver ; see kwori, 

kwari, a depression ; see kwori. 

kwaria, calabash ; see kworia, 

kwariche, the name of a poison 
given in food = sammu. 

kwarika, kwaraka, to be 
ravenous or greedy, to beg 
food ; maikwaraka one who 
lives by begging food, a para- 
site ; see kwdra. 

kwarikwasa, a hammer. 

kwarikwasa, kwalkwasa, 
kwarkwasa, korkasa, a 
large black ant, usually called 
the travelling or driver ant ; 
it travels in columns and 
feeds only on living creatures. 
For description of its habits 
cf. 'Hausaland,' pp. 96, 164. 

kwarkware (S.), to clean out, 
take the inside out ; cf. 

kwarkwaro, the sliding wood- 
en cylinder which works longi- 
tudinally in the shuttle and 
round which the weft passes, 
hanchin kwarkwaro the thin 
wooden pin on which it re- 
volves; cf. tangori. 

kwarkwata, kwalkwata, 
kolkota, louse (pediculus 
capitis), in Sokoto kyaya. 
ka zuha mani kwarkwata I 
have caught lice from you. 




kwarmi, gwarmi, pi. kwarmu, 
socket, hole, joint of scissors, 
depth of eye, maikwarmin ido 
a man with deep-set eyes. 

kwamafi, kwannafi, an ail- 
ment affecting chest or throat, 
heartburn; kwamafi ya facia 
it is cured. 

kwamo, green leather; cf. 

kwaro, pi. kwari^ 1. a night 
moth, flying insect; 2. a 
thief who comes at night. 

kwaro, small change for money. 

kwaro, strips of black leather ; 
see kwclre. 

kwarra (S.), a species of teal. 

kwarsana, to chip with a 

kwarugom, great pain. 

kwarukwasa, ants ; see kwari- 

kwaruru, kwalulu, 'earth 
pea,' used generally for gu- 

kwarzame, to scrape, scratch 
with the fingers. 

kwasa, a hoe with long handle 
and broad blade used for 
cutting up stubble. 

kwasakwasa, a bird, pelican. 

kwasfa, shell ; see kosfa. 

kwashe,partof the embroidery 
on the front of a tobe. 

kwashe, kwaso, to take up 
and carry away (distinct from 

kwache), to take food out of 
the cooking pot; kwaso to 
take and bring. 

kwatanta, to speak in parables ; 
see kotanta. 

kwatta, cf. bakinshi yana 
ktvatta, he has an accent. 

kwauri, dried trunk of a tree, 
shin-bone, etc. ; see kobri. 

kwaya, masc. or fem., a grain 
of corn, rice, etc. ; kwayan 
ido ball of the eye. 

kwazazzabo, dry gully ; see 

kwazo, diligence, da kwazo 

kwiafa, kuyafa (S.), a wooden 

kwibi, pi. kwibobij kwibuna, 
side of the body, the side of 
the body between the bottom 
of the ribs and the thigh- 

kwikuyo, kwikwiyo, kurk- 
wiyo, pi. kwiakwiye, kuya- 
kuy% kwikuye, youngling, 
young of animals, puppies. 

kwilki, kwilkin kofa door-post; 
cf. kulki. 

kwiwa, a shrub with pink 
flower, its leaves are used in 
making temporary shelters. 

kwiya, ridge in a field ; see 

kwiyaka, a cistern for collect- 
ing rain-water. 




kwiyanga, female slave ; see 

kwobe*, to repress ; cf. kwdbe. 
kwobruka or kwabruka, 

withered branches ; plural of 

kwabri, q.Y. 
kwochia, kwachia, 1. the 

pommel of a saddle, kwochiar 

gdba the front peak, kwochiar 

bdya the cantle ; 2. the shell 

of a tortoise, 
kwoda, kidney ; see koda. 
kwodago, kodago (S.), ripe 

fruit of the giginia tree ; cf. 

kwoddo, a mixture made of 

rama leaves, salt, pepper, etc. 
kwodogi, strong vigorous man. 
kwoffa, a click made with 

tongue or teeth, a sign of 

kwoi, koi, pi. kwoinyaye, an 

egg ; aje kwoi, used of a bird, 

to lay eggs, kwoin kifi pearls. 
kwokkwofa, to trot; see 

kwokua, the name of a poison 

used for smearing on arrows, 

a plant belonging to the 

strychnine-producing family, 
kwoli, antimony ; see k6li. 
kw61ia, face decoration ; see 

kwoliba, bottle; gidan kwoliba 

a prison with walls tipped 

with broken glass. 

kwolkwola, butterfly. 

kwolkwoli, kolkoli, a metal 

kwolo, the ball-like fruit of 
fan or deleb palm, hence a 
nut ; see kivaXo ; wasan kwolo 

kwolshi (S.), unripe fruit of 
the giginia tree ; cf . kwo- 

kwomarchi, cobra ; see ku- 

kwomi, a drinking trough for 
animals ; see komi. 

kwomo, a small bean eaten by 

kwonda, to bring back or 

kwondariya, kondariya, a 
large wooden hook, some- 
times used for catching fish, 
also applied to one tree which 
encircles another. 

kwondege, armlets; see kun- 

kwondo, basket ; see kwando, 

kwondua, kondua, yolk of an 

kwongo, the slightly curved 

head-tray on which the women 

of some pagan tribes carry 

their loads. 
kwonkwombishi, a small 

black stinging ant. 
kwonkwosso, hip-bone, 
kwontso (S.), bait. 




kwora, kwara or man 
kwora, the Hausa name of 
the river Niger. 

kworakwora, a slave-wife ; 
see kwarakwara. 

kworemi, corn-trading ; yan 
kivoremi traders in corn. 

kwori, kori, pi. korurua^ 
quiver, in Hausaland usually 
made of wood and covered 
with skin ; kworin kibia 
quiver for arrows. 

kwori, kwSri, furrow or de- 
pression in ground, pit, val- 
ley ; cf. korama. 

kworia, kwaria, koria, pi. 
kore, kworuka, kwore (cucur- 
bita lagenaria), gourd ; cups 
or calabashes are made from 
it; muna kworia we are at 
the bowl, i.e. we are eating. 
kworia is also used to denote 
the shell of a tortoise, kworiar 
guga a calabash used as a 

kworno, korno, the husks of 

kworo kworo, 1. swelling of 
the glands ; 2. looseness, ya 
yi kworo kworo (my shoe) is 
too big for me. 

kworomi*, maikworomi, one 
with sunken eyes. 

kwororo, a bag of cowries; 
see kororo. 

kworto, paramour ; see korto. 

kwosfofi, egg-shells, pi. of 

kosfa, q.v. 
kwosuSTi, a second annual crop 

of indigo (bdba) ; it is regard- 
ed as better than the first, 
kwotami, katami, a hole 

where dirty water is thrown. 
kwotana, a string of beads 

worn by women round the 

kwotashi, kotashi, a small 

basket with a lid used by 

kwozo, a toad (kwado) with a 

swelling on its back, i.e. a 

sick toad. 
kwozozobo, water course ; see 

kwumbe, baldness ; cf. kumbe. 
kwungTira, a large oblong 

shield ; see kwangara. 
kwur kwur kwur, the sound 

of running water, M. H. p. 

126 ; cf. war. 
kwuriya, a stringed drum ; see 

kuria. i 

kyache (S.), to threaten, 
kyafa, kyapa, to dry meat 

before a fire so as to preserv 

kyafirflta, sand-fly. 
kyama, disgust, aversion, 
kyang, onomat. the clang of 

metal on metal, 
kyanwa, cat ; see kenwa. 
kyara, a black horse. 




kyasi, to measure ; see Jdyasi. 
kyau, well ; see keau. 
kyaure, door ; see kaure. 
kyauro (K.), kyemru (S.), 

arrow-shaft ; see kemru. 
kyaya, louse (in Sokoto); see 

kyerr, tight, used of a string. 
kyetu, kyestu, ketu, a flint; 

see kastu. 

The letter J is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English I. In a few 
instances the Ar. ^ (i.e. a 
sort of modified d) is pro- 
nounced by the Hausas as I ; 
cf. fululu from Ar. J>«a?, 
luUo from Ar. ^.03 . In the 
last case and in the case of 
many other words beginning 
with I, the initial letter re- 
presents the Arabic article, 
e.g. lahdri from Ar. j^, laiji 
from Ar. oi«j-»-. In the 
western districts of Hausa- 
land and in the hinterland of 
the Gold Coast an initial I is 
often substituted for r, e.g. 
lua^ lafi, liga, like for Q^ua, 
rafi, riga, rike. In these 
districts the feminine forms 
ending in -Isa, -Ita, etc, are 
not used, but the forms -rsa, 
-rta, etc. An ^ sound is some- 

R. H. D. 

times heard (where perfect 
contact of the blade of the 
tongue with the palate is not 
made) intermediate between 
r and /, thus we find jariri or 
jarili infant. I is inter- 
changed with s, r, n and A, 
and perhaps with m; cf. halalj 
halas; fasali,fasara', haherta, 
later ta ; lobe, robe ; linke, 
minka ; lumfashi, numfashi. 

la'ada, ladda, a special dis- 
count, a broker's commission. 
The usual commission paid 
to the broker, through whom 
almost every bargain in a 
Hausa market is made, is 
5 p.c. on the amount involved. 
If a man sells anything lada 
woje (lit. discount outside) 
he receives the whole of the 
money paid and the buyer 
pays the market fee or broker's 
commission ; if however the 
transaction is concluded lada 
cMkiQit. discount within) the 
seller pays the commission. 

laana, la'na Laj, pi. laanoni 
(cf. Ar. j>xJ), a curse; kai 
laana a curse be upon thee ! 
kun yi la^na ye have brought 
a curse upon you ; ya yi laxina 
it is an accursed thing. 

laanta, laana, laanchi, to 
curse ; ya laaneshi he cursed 





laasar, fem. (cf. Ar. j-ap, day 
or night), afternoon, esp. 
applied to the time between 
4 and 5 p.m. ; cf. Gr. p. 86. 
The initial letter represents 
the Arabic article. 

labaran, the fast month. 

^ ^ 

labari (Ar. j.^^ with art.), news, 
message, G 7 ; lahdrin dunia, 
lit. news of the world. When 
two Hausas meet their first 
question usually is e7ina labari 
or e7ina laharin dunia ? na 
ji labarinka I heard news of 
you ; laberta to publish news, 
with ace. to publish news of ; 
cf. haherta, id. 

labda, lapta, labda ga to put 
on a load, to put a saddle on, 
to pack up a load ; cf. M. H. 
p. 210, analahduwa shanu the 
oxen were being laden; lahche, 
lahtache, laden, loaded (cf. 

Ar. juJ, saddle-cloth). 

labe (S), n. a bow-string used 
in cleaning cotton., to crouch down, hide, lie 
in ambush, to seek conceal- 
ment; Idhe ga to hide at or 
under ; yaki ya lobe ; alahe 
concealed ; lahaho cMkin gari 
to proceed against a town by 
stealth; ^<i6eisusedinSokoto, 
rabe in Kano. 

laberta, to publish news ; see 

labi, asmallor newly made path, 
labo, deceit, wickedness, 
labubu, f, labubua the young 

of an animal. 

labuda (Ar. juS)), certainly, 
to be sure, no doubt, just so. 

labuje, name of town in Nupd, 
given as name to a kola nut 
of a superior kind, it being 
their place of origin. 

lS,bu-lS;bu, soft, spongy, used 
of mud. 

labunijdam or embankment for 
enclosing and catching fish. 

^ ^ 

lada (Ar. 5^U), wages, pay- 
ment, recompense, reward ; 
E 14 ku sa77ie lada you will 
receive a reward ; cf. prov. 
kowa ya chi ladan kuturu ya 
yi masa aski he who takes ai 
leper's pay cannot refuse to 
shave him, i.e. if a man takes ■ 
money for a job he must go 
through with it, however dis- 
tasteful it may be. 

lada, commission ; see la'ada. 

ladabi (cf. Ar. >^>\, liberal! 
education), 1. education, e.g. 
B 37 ladabi gaskia a true 
education ; D 33 en kun samu « 
yaya ku nema ladabi garesu 
if you have children seek in- 
struction for them ; 2. the 




result of education, good 
manners ; ya kamata sariki 
shi yi masu ladabi the king 
ought to teach them manners; 
"i the bowing salutation on 
the knees with hands resting 
on tlie ground. 
' ladama, grief, remorse; ap- 
' parently a form of 7iaddma, 

I ladan, ladam (Ar. o^>*^), the 
man who calls to prayer, the 
I ladi, 1. Sunday ; 2. name given 
I to a girl who is born on a 
I Sunday; see lahadi. 
! ladin kogi, crocodile bird. 
i ladin rogo, sand grouse; cf. 
! kwantatoi, suwaka. 

ladiifi, a humble person, 
i lafafa*, see lafia. 
' lafe, to turn back the ears, used 
I of a horse. 

I lafe, to sew, to mend ; cf. lafi. 
lafero, laheru, leferu, large 
pad on a donkey's back, placed 
on top of akumari^ q.v. 
lafi, lafe, hem; lafen zmie the 

hem or edge of the cloth. 
laiia, pi. lajiyu^ lajiyoyi (Ar. 

A^U), health, i.e. good health, 

B 62 ; yin lafia to be in good 
health ; common in saluta- 
tions, karia lafia are you well? 
sai lafia or lafia lau quite 

well ; used adverbially, e.g. 
ya komo lafia he came back 
here well, or safely; ya samu 
lafia he recovered his health ; 
sauka lafia may you dismount 
safely ! (a farewell to a horse- 
man) ; lafiaye^ pi. lafiayazti, 
lafiyeyu a healthy person ; 
B 46 allah shi hamnu tcwana 
lafafa may God grant us 
days of prosperity. 

lafua, a water-cress. 

lagoni, lamp- wick made of twist- 
ed cotton. 

lahadi, ladi (Ar. j^'n)! ^>j), 
Sunday, lit. the first day. 

l^hani, blemish, defect; lahani 
ga ido a blemish in the eye. 

laheru, a donkey's pad ; see 

lahira (Ar. Sj^t), the future 
state including both heaven 
and hell, A 7, 33. 

lai*, see lau. 

laidore, a shrub ; see raidore. 

laifa*, to condemn ; cf . seq. 

laifi, pi. laifufuka (Ar. OU*. 
with article), that which is 
wrong, sin, guilt ; yin laifi 
to do wrong, hada laifi or 
laifa to condemn, babu laifi 
there is no harm in it ; dauki 
laifi to confess a sin or wrong. 

laihi, eunuch. 

laima, damp, mildew. 





lairaa, tent ; see lema. 

laiya, laya, lahiya (Ar. 
A;ia> .gJI, sacrifice); sallan lai- 
ya the feast on the occasion 
of the killing of the paschal 
lamb on the 10th day of the 
month Dsul Hiddsha, which 
commemorates Abraham's in- 
tended sacrifice of Ishmael ; 
ragon laiya the paschal lamb. 

lajibi (Ar. sJ^sf. ,c with article), 

wonderful, D 90 ; cf. ajaba. 
laka, mire, mud. 
l^ka, spinal marrow, 
lakabi, a nickname, distinguish- 

ing name, title (Ar. s,^). 

lakhira, see lahira. 

lako lako, softly, gently; 
adaureshi lako lako tie it up 
loosely ; ayaba lako lako yike 
the banana is soft, 

lalaba, lalabe, pi. lalahohi, feel- 
ing, groping, the act of fond- 
ling; B 144 dunia ta kan yi 
lalaba the world, it would 
fondle (you) ; ya juri da la- 
labe he is accustomed to grop- 
ing about. 

lalabe, lalaba, to grope in the 
dark, to feel after, search 
with the hand for. 

lalache, to be useless, worth- 
less, idle, to perish, miscarry ; 
cf. lalata. 

lalafa 1. idle lazy; 2. quiet,. 

easy, tame, cowardly ; lala- 
fanchi idleness, quietness, 
easy disposition. 

lalaftu, laplaptu, lalabtu, 
darning; yin I. to darn. 

lalas*, to burn with hot iron, 
pass, in F 170 ana masu lalas 
a hot iron shall be (prepared) 
for them ; used of burning or 
marking the skin with a hot 

lalashi or lilashi, n. coaxing, 
persuasion ; see lallashi. 

lalata, 1. destruction, ruin, 
condemnation ; 2. evil dis- 

lalata, 1. tr. to spoil ; 2. to 
linger about, to be idle or 
worthless ; lalachi idleness, 
indifference, badness ; mai- 
lalachif malalachi one who 
is idle, lalache to perish, be 
destroyed, pass away; B 101 
dunia ta lalache the world 
passes to destruction; lala^ 
chewa perishing. M. H. p. 1 98 
yaki zai Icdachewa — the war 
will miscarry, lalatache, fern. 
lalatachia, pl.lalatatu, 1. lost, 
perished; B 126 ku ber ta 
dunia lalatache leave the 
world to perish; 2. worthless, 

lalita*, a small bag. 

lallaba, to mend, repair; cf. 




lallabe, that which is incom- 
plete, a partial repair. 

lallasa, to persuade, appease. 

lallashi, ii. persuading, appeas- 
ing, coaxing. 

lalle, lenle*, need, necessity; 
da lalle of necessity, under 
all circumstances ; lalle ne it 
is necessary or needful, shina 
zua lalle lie must needs come, 
en lalle kana so ka zamna da 
shi if you must needs wish to 
stay with him. 

lalle, lelle, the henna plant 
from which a red stain is 
made (Lawsonia inermis, 

lambe (S.), a game played by 

lambu, pi. lambuna, 1. a pole 
weighted at short end with 
mud and with bucket at long 
end for irrigating ground ; 
2. a dry season garden, an 
irrigated garden. 

lambusu, a grass eaten by 

lami, pure, tasteless, insipid ; 
da lami, id., used of eggs 
without salt or of broth with- 
out meat, etc. ; lami lafia 
very good health. 

lamiranta, to long after, desire 

lamiri* (Ar. j«o1, ordered), ne- 
cessity, desire, used of the 

obligatory time for morning 
and evening prayers. 

lamuni, lamini (probably from 
Ar. ,>o*^), 1. security; woti- 
kan lamuni letter of safe 
conduct; 2. a surety for pay- 
ment of a debt; mailamuni 
one who acts as surety ; cf. 
M. H. p. 204, hachi na la- 
vnuncheka I credit you with 
the corn; ladan lamuni a- 
umri nan it is the price paid 
for my protection here, na 
yi lamuni I stand security. 
lamunta, laminta to be or 
become surety for; constr. 
with accus., also intr. to be 
safe, cf. ba ya lamunta ha ka 
halbi it is not safe for you to 
shoot, lamunche, id., e.g. na 
lamuncheshi I became surety 
for him. 

lamyache (K.), to bind, tie 

lana, curse ; see laana. 

lana for rana, day, M. H. 
p. 227, allah shi mailana. 

landi, a wanderer. 

langa, lenge, lunge, a chil- 
dren's game, hopping on one 

langabu, the skin of an animal 
beaten, cooked and eaten. 

lange lange, lean, slender. 

langi, lange, lengi, a long 
narrow bag for salt. 




lankosa, lankoshe, to droop, 
used of a leaf, to bend, tr. 
and intr., used of a tree, 
spear, etc.; cf. tankoshe. 

lankoso, drooping. 

lanza*, nuts. 

laplaptu, darning, the stitch 
used in darning ; see lalaftu. 

lappa*, a cover for a saddle. 

lapta, to load ; see lahda. 

laraba, larba (Ar. w^), found 
in comp. halarahe an Arab, 
and its pi. larabawa Arabs; 
E 49. 

laraba (Ar. l^j*:)\ j>^Jt), Wed- 
nesday ; lit. the fourth day. 

larura (Ar. cj^j^), 1. neces- 
sity, e.g. E 14 domin larura 
for the sake of necessity ; 2. 
trouble, ya rike larura he 
feels pain, e.g. on receiving 
punishment for wrong-doing ; 
3. needs, wishes, ya tsare da 
larurar sariki he looks after 
the king's interests ; cf. tale. 

laruranta, to hinder. 

lasa, lashe, to lick, lick up ; 
of fire, to lick up, consume ; 
cf. prov. hanu mahnia aka- 
lasa the hand that has soup 
gets licked (of cupboard love). 

lasabta, lasalta, to enumerate, 
make a list ; see lisafta. 

l^SO, a score, used like hauia, 
q.v., for counting amounts 

divisible by twenty. laso 
biu forty. 

laso, a composite material used 
in building walls. 

lasshe lashe, plenty to eat. 

latini, Monday ; see litini. 

latse, laze, to squash, crush, 
e.g. with the foot. 

lau, adv. used with lafia, quite^ 
lafia lau or lau lau quite 
well, lau is sometimes used 
in Sokoto without lafia, e.g. 
lau mu ke we are very well. 
It is also used as an inter- 
jection implying denial, de- 
rision or disbelief ; cf . lau ai 
mu gamu (sotto voce) all 
right, wait till we meet ! 

lauashi, the leaves of onions; 
see lawashi. 

laudi, bending ; cf. proverb 
laudi ba karaya ha bending 
is not breaking. 

lauer, a sweet potato ; see 

lauje, laushe, a small semi- 
circular sickle for cutting 
grass ; mailauje, mailaushi a 
man with an arm bent like 
a sickle. 

lauma* loma (Ar. a^), a 
mouthful; B 30 wonda ke 
jiran kahaki dunguin . . .ha shi 
kulata da lauma he who 
waits for abundance to eat 
cares not for a mouthful. 




launi, pi. launonif launoka ( Ar. 

O^), 1- colour, hue; 2. kind, 

species ; D 78. 
laushi, loshi, thin, fine, as 

flour, dust, etc.; cf. roshi. 
laushi, a sickle; see lauje. 
laushiwa, being blunt; da lau- 

shiwa blunt. 
lausuru, a plant with edible 

seeds (algaru) and leaf like a 

turnip's, one variety has red 

seeds, and a smaller variety 

has black. 
lauya, to twist, to fold, to fold 

one leg over the other, 
lawali (Fulani lawal), a track 

or spoor. 
lawashi = gainyen albasa the 

leaves which sprout from the 

top of an onion. 
lawur, sweet potato, used in 

Sokoto for dankcdi. 

lay a, pi. lawaye, layu (Ar. 3o\ 
with the article prefixed), 1. 
a writing of any kind, 2. a 
certificate of freedom or ma- 
numission of a slave ; 3. a 
written charm or armlet, con- 
sisting of a piece of paper 
written on and sewed up in 
a leather bag and worn on 
the neck or arm ; ya yi 
laya (lit. he made a charm) 
he vanished ; layan zana a 
charm which renders a man 


invisible ; it is also the name 
of the tree from the fruit of 
which is made the following, 
layan sabanij i.e. a charm to 
prevent injury in war ; tuirir 
kia mailawaye a sheep with 
two wattles hanging from 
the lower jaw. 

laya, a feast ; see laiya. 

layS,ta, layache, to roll over, 
roll up. 

lazami, lezami, linzami, 
horse's bit ; see lizani. 

laze, to crush ; see latse. 

lazumta, lazumche ( Ar. ^jJ), 

1. to adhere to, stick to- 
gether; 2*. to be necessary, 
e.g. lazumcheni I must do, 
lazumtache obligatory ; cf. 

lebatu, the wattles of a cock ; 
cf. seq. 

lebo, lebe, pi. lebuna, lehu^ lip. 

ledai, spoon ; see ludai. 

lefe, 1 . a basket used by women 
made of kaha, i.e. palm fibre ; 
2. a present sent by the bride- 
groom to the bride several 
days before the wedding. 

leferu, lafero, pi. leferai, a 
pad for a donkey; see lafero, 

leka, leki, leko, to spy, peep, 
overlook, to look out from a 
doorway ; mi suka leka what 




did they peep at? ha ni so 
kowa shi leko daganan I don't 
want anyone spying in here;* 
cf. verbal nouns leleka, leke- 
leke^ leke^ lekawa, shina leleka 
(or leke leken) dakuna he was 
inspecting the rooms, ya leka 
huta he squinted into the 
bottle, lekeii garu looking 
over the wall. 

leke, to roll up the covering of 
a doorway. 

leke (S.), the lower part of the 

leki, 1. leather satchel; 2. a 
piece of cloth thrown over 
the shoulder. 

lekke, to be stretched out, used 
of a dog. 

lela, a dance accompanied by 
music, practised by young 

lele, one much loved, darling. 

lele, to tame, e.g. an animal. 

leleya, to rub or stroke with 
the hands. A children's 
game in which a piece of 
stick is buried in the heap 
of sand, when the sand is 
graduallj^ scraped away. 

lelle, the henna plant, the leaves 
of which are ground up to 
make a stain for the hands ; 
the dye is specially used for 
decorating brides ; see lalle. 

lema, damp ; see laima. 

lema, laima, Kanuri leima 
(probably from Ar. <t.»^^, a 
tent, with article prefixed ; 
cf. lahari, from Ar. j-**.), 

1 . tent ; kafa lema to pitch 
a tent, ndde lema to take 
down (lit. to roll up) a tent ; 

2. umbrella. 

lemu, lemo (Ar. o>o-J, Pers. 
jj^^), lime, lemon. 

lenge, lunge, to hop on one 
foot; see lange. 

lengi, a sack of salt ; see langi. 

lesafi, counting ; see lisafi. 

leshi, a cord or stalk on which 
fish are' fixed for carrying. 

leso, a grass mat. 

letafi, writing ; see litafi. 

leya, to kill for sacrifice; cf. 
sallan leya (or laiya). 

liar, dollar; a word used es- 
pecially by Hausas in N. 
Africa, possibly an inverted 
form of Spanish 7'ial. In 
Nigeria it is used of the 
Maria Theresa dollar. 

lidi, ridi, a cultivated plant 
with white or purple flowers. 
The seeds produce oil and 
are used to make cakes, or 
added with the leaves to soup 
(Sesamum Indicum, Peda- 

lidin barewa, a wild sf)ecies 
of lidi with divided leaves 




. and beaked pods (Sesamum 

lifidi, lifdi, pi. lifida, a quilted 
shirt of mail worn by horse 
soldiers to protect horse and 

its rider (cf . Ar. jtJ , to press 
lika, to join one thing to (go) 
another. like intrans. to 
cleave to ; see liki. 
likafa, pi. likdfu, 1 . steps placed 
for mounting a horse ; likd- 
fan doki, id. ; 2. stirrup. 
fatan likdfa stirrup leather. 

lik&fani (Ar. ,j>ai), a winding 

sheet ; cf . kafan. 
likaken wuri, a blocked-up 

cowry shell, with the hole at 

the back filled up ; see lika. 
liki. like, to stick to, absorb ; 

rana ta like raba the sun 

absorbed the dew. 
lili, a wing feather, 
lilibi, veil ; see luhvhi. 
lillashi, to appease ; see lal- 

lilo, n. swinging; wo lilo to 

limam, liman, pi. limami (Ar. 

voU^)l), leader in prayer, chief 
mallam ; Uinanchi the office 
or practice of a limam. 

limana, peace. 

jlimota (S.), a fool ; cf. loto. 

jlingabu, the young twigs or 

buds of the adua tree, also 

a medicine made from the 

leaves of the tree. 
linjlla, the four gospels in the 

N.T. (Ar.). 
linkaya, swimming ; yin lin- 

kdya to swim. 
linke {=nunke, q.v,, or nimka), 

to fold cloth, twist strands 

of thread. 

linzami, a bit ; see lizani. 
9 ^ ^ 

lisafi, lesafi (Ar. s, <>.■■&■), num- 
ber, account, bill ; yin lisafi 
to render or come to an ac- 
count, to number, count. 

lisafta, lisabta, lasalta, li- 
santa, to enumerate, make 
a list, reckon up ; cf. ha 
shi lisabtuwa it cannot be 

lisha (Ar. i\1jS\), about 7 p.m.; 
for list of approximate hours 
of the day see under rana. 

litafi, letafi, pi. litdtafi (cf. Ar. 

AA-JaJ, elegant literature), 
writing, book ; litafin allah 
a name frequently given to 
a butterfly, which is also 
called malam huda litafinka 
mallam open your book, but- 
terfly, so called from the 
constant opening and shut- 
ting of its wings ; another 
common form of the plural 
is litatafai. 




litini, litinin (from Ar. ji^j 
^Ili*^T), Monday, lit. the 
second day. 

liwS,sa, an epithet applied to 
a piece of cloth without a 
seam in it. 

liyar, dollar ; see liar. 

lizani, lizami, linzani, n. a 
horse's bit or bridle, linza- 
min riga part of the em- 
broidery on the front of a 

loatse, to crush, bruise ; see latse. 

loatsu, fern, loatsua the young 
of an animal. 

loba, foreskin. 

loda, a herb, the root of which 
is put in milk to keep it. 

lofi or lofin tab a, pipe, or 

loga (cf. Ar. ajj), the meaning 
of a word. 

lojia, water melon. 

lOkachi, wokachi (cf. Kanuri 
lokta), probably from Ar. 
C^^, with article prefixed ; 
time, season ; lokachinda at 
the time that, or when ; 
wane loka^hi when 1 lokachin 
nan now. 

loko, 1. a temporary halting- 
place for carriers ; 2. a notch 
or projection in a tree for 
resting a load against; 3. 
the stick usually carried by 

porters in order to suppon 
their loads against a tree 
when halting. 

lokoja, the town at the con- 
fluence of the R. Niger and 
R. Benue, 290 m. up the R. 
Niger from the sea. 

loloki, pi. lolokai (Fulah id.), 
closet, small dark room, cup- 
board, any secret place. 

loma, a mouthful ; see lauma. 

lonkwashe, to bend or to be 
crooked ; cf. lankosa. 

loshi, thin, fine ; see laushi. 

loto, fem. lotua fool. 

loto, lotu, time, i.e. occasion 
or set time ; lotu is also used 
for a watch or clock. 

lotso, doki mailotso a horse 
with a depressed or hollow 

lotu, to load, or take up loads. 

lua*, used for rua, water ; cf. 
M. H. p. 228. 

lubiya, dates tied up in a 

lude, pi. lildai, ledai; ludayi^ 
spoons made from the rind 
of pumpkins. 

ludu, sodomy, from the Arabic 
form of Lot ; cf. lutsu. 

lufudi, coat of mail; see lijidi, 

lugude, the action of women 
pounding in a mortar, often 
accompanied by a drum. 

lullo (Ar. t^^ with article), 




purification, F 148 note; cf. 

luloki, pi. lulokai, dividing of 

lulu, a small glass box for 
frankincense ; it is seldom 
used except in the form dan 

luluba, to veil. 

lulubi or lulube, a long veil 
reaching to the feet. 

lumfasa, to breathe. 

lumfashi, lunfashi (cf. Ar. 
rt ^j^ with art. prefixed), 
breathing heavily ; dauki (or 
hade^ lumjashinka hold your 
breath ; also used idiomati- 
cally en ji lumfashinka let 
me hear what you think, or 
your wishes. 

lumshi, 1. small white clouds; 
cf. gilgiji ; 2. darkness (S.) ; 
cf . ido ya ddda lumshewa he 
was becoming more blind. 

unani, thought, remembrance ; 
for tunani, cf. M. H. p. 228. 

.unge, to hop on one foot ; see 

ungu, the inside corner of a 
fence ; lungun daki a dark 
corner of a room ; cf. dungu. 

unka, to fold over ; see linke. 

unzai, lunthai (Ar. ^\\ 

ura, n. insight, wisdom, know- 

lura, to look into, attend to, 
with accus. and also with da^ 
e.g. B 41 kad^ ka lura da 
aiki nai look not closely at 
his work. 

luru, 1. native cloth with alter- 
nate strips of two colours ; 
2. a heavy cloth blanket. 

lutsu (Ar.), sodomy; cf. ludu. 

The letter ji is used by the 
Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English m. 
When n is followed by b it 
is usually pronounced m; 
this sometimes happens when 
n is followed by /, z, or cA, 
thus hamfude, hamzari, da- 
hamchi are written hanfude^ 
hanzarij dahanchi. 

ma, a contraction of mua, used 
as a prefix to denote the first 
person plural of the future 
tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

m.a, inseparable nominal prefix 
placed before verbs to form 
1. nouns of the agent, e.g. 
saka to weave, masaka 
weaver; 2. nouns of place, 
e.g. sahka to unload, masabki 
lodging; 3. nouns of the 
instrument ; cf. dauka to 
take up, madauki handle. 
This use of ma or mai as a 
prefix to form nouns of the 




agent, etc. is analogous to, 
or borrowed from, the Arabic 
use of v» for a similar pur- 

pose, thus ^;^J, to shave, 

^^J-«, a barber; see mai. 

ma, too, likewise ; as an en- 
clitic it follows the word to 
which it is referred, e.g. ni 
ma ina tafia en nema dukia 
I too am going to search for 
property ; haderi na zua a 
storm is coming, Ans. da ma 
na fadi I told you so be- 

ma, to ; na gode ma allah I 
gave thanks to God. It is 
placed immediately after the 
A^erb ; na dakanta ma sariki 
I waited for the king ; cf . 
M. H. p. 224, ya yi ma yaki 
he settled the war. It is 
most commonly used with 
the personal pronouns, e.g. 
m,aka to thee, masu to them ; 
the vowel is often assimilated 
to that of the governed pron., 
e.g. mini=mani to me, mumu 
= mamu to us, musu — masu 
to them ; maka is frequently 
contracted to ma. 

maabanchi, flattery. 

maabba, maba (cf. Ar. ajI), a 
beggar who sings the praises 
of a great man ; dan maaba 
used of a town crier. 

m.aaikachi, pi. m,aaikata, 1. 
labourer, workman ; 2. work- 
shop ; 3. instrument with 
which work is done. 

maaike, m.aaiki, pi. masuaike, 
maaika, 1. one who sends; 
2. one sent, esp. used of 
Mohammed, messenger. 

m.aaiki, fem. maaikia, pi. mor 
suaiki, labourer, a servant. 

maaje, a place to lay up 
a deposit or to hide any- 

m.aaji, a court official in charge 
of the king's treasure; see* 

m.aana, meaning (Ar. ^-;x^), 
wanan ena ma^nansa what 
does this mean ? cf. azenchi. 

maanfani, useful, a place suit- 
able for keeping anything in, 
e.g. maanfanin nam,a a meati 
safe, larder. 

maasai*, blasphemy. 

maauna, m.aauni, scales, bal- 
ance, anything used for 
weighing or measuring ; see 

maaunia, a corn dealer who 
buys from farmers and selL 
in market (a woman's trade) 

m.abaachi, a scoflfer, vain je&> 
ter ; cf . baa. 

mabachi (Katsena), mabar 
chi (Kano), pi. mabata, i 




mab§,ga (S.), watch tower, 
sentry post; cf. bdgo. 

mabaiya, homage ; see mu- 

maballi, a buckle, fastening, 
latchet ; mahallen takalmi a 
shoe strap or lace ; see 

mabantari (K.), mabantali 
(S.), button. 

mab§.ras, mabarashi, mabu- 
rus, a white material used 
in making turbans, possibly 
= bermushi by metathesis. 

mabiriki, maburki, a small 
stick for stirring milk or 

maboya, maboiya, maboyi, 
a hiding-place ; cf. boya. 

mabudi, a key ; cf. bude. 

mabugi, one who beats clothes. 

mabugia, pi. mabugai, a thresh- 
ing-floor; a place where 
clothes are beaten in dyeing; 
cf, buga to beat. 

maburki, a stick with which 
to stir a liquid ; see mabi- 

maburus, a white material 
for making turbans ; see ma- 

mabuya, folly, shina da ma~ 
buya — shi marasliankali 7ie. 

machara, used in Kano for 
a species of reed grass. 

machauchi, an animal which 

barks, about the size of a 

mache, pi. ma^a, woman, female, 
as opposed to namiji male, 
tamache adj. female; mache 
maimiji a married woman ; 
yar mache a young woman ; 
see mata. 

mache, machi* to die, to 
perish ; from this comes the 
particip. adj. matache dead, 
q.v. amache is used as a past 
participle for 'dead,' M. H. 
p. 96. mxichewa ■= m,utua, 

mache, matse, matsa, to 
push, squeeze, crush, force, 
press, amachesu push the 
attack home ; machiachi, m,at- 
siachi, 1. one who is dis- 
tressed, perplexed, helpless ; 
2. distress, poverty, care. 
ma^hiata, matsiata anxiety, 
distress, machichi squeezing, 
D 14 ; cf. matsu. 

machechi, pi. m^acheta, 1. de- 
liverer, saviour, intercessor; 
2. deliverance; cf. cheche. 

m.achechia, intercession, de- 

macheto, a refuge. 

machi* to die, B 102; see 

m.achi, pi. machia, glutton : 
the plural form denotes also 
a place by the wayside where 




food is sold, also much food, 
abundance of food ; see chi. 

machiachi, matsiachi, dis- 
tressed ; cf. tsia poverty. 

machiata and machichi, see 

machiji, fem. machijia, pi. ma- 
chizai (lit. biter, cf. chiji), 
snake; farin machiji a thin 
snake (psammopis sibilans) 
sometimes 6 feet in length, 
it lies along overhanging 
branches of trees ; sarkin 
machiji, 1. a black viper 
(atractaspis), 2. a cobra. 

machikura, pi. machiakiira, 
one who obtains an undue ad- 
vantage, a cheat, def rauder ; 
from chi, q.v., and kura gain. 

machiri, a mutilating form of 

machirkia, matsirkia, a 
stringed musical instrument; 
cf. tsarkia. 

machitsundum (lit. splash- 
maker), 'African belted king- 
fisher ' (Ceryles rudis) ; cf . 

machiwa (S.), bile. 

machiyi, he who feeds on. . .ma- 
chiyinka your dependent; cf. 

machuchi, maker of mischief, 
probably a contraction of 

inS,da, madda, covetousness ; 

da madda avaricious ; yin 
'inadda to fail to satisfy. 

m^dabi, pi. maduba, a wooden 
beater for pounding clay. 

madachi, the African ma- 
hogany tree, its bark is medi- 
cinal (Khaya Senegalensis, 

madadi-n, in place of, instead 
of ; cf. itiadedi. 

madafa*, pi. madafai ; hu ma- 
da/a, lit. the father of cannon 

(cf. Ar. ^, father and %9J^, 

cannon), is the name given 
to the Spanish dollar, which 
has cannon impressed upon 
it. The word is used by the 
Hausas in N. Africa. 

madafi, pi. mada/ai, kitchen, 
stove ; cf . dd/a. 

mad^gi, a shrub with white 
flowers, smal] bifid leaves and 
black twisted pods (Bau- 
hinia spinosa, Leguminosae). 

niad§>ha, a beggar or mallam 
who sings. 

madai, contemplation ; yin 
mddai to contemplate, re- 

madaidaichi, pi. madaidaita, 
1. moderate size, average, 
e.g. yaro shina da m,adai- 
daichi the boy is of moderate i 
size; 2. anything of moderate 
size : cf. daidaiche. 




madaji, the plain edge of a 
mat ; cf . chinkai. 

madaki, madaiki, a chamber- 
lain, one of the chief officials 
in the Hausa states, in Kano 
the order of precedence is 
sariki, galadima, madaki, in 
Zaria the inadaki comes next 
to the king. It is probably 
a contraction of madawaki 
and originally meant master 
of the horses. 

madala (Nupe id.), yes, in- 

deed, i.e. Ar. ^^)t J3 U, 

what has God shown! 
madamri or madamrin chiki, 

a girdle ; cf . damre. 
madanbachi, a cooking pot 

with holes pierced at the 

in§,dara (cf. Ar. rt jj^), fresh 

or sweet milk, 
madat, madas, a poison ground 

up and used for destroying 
j mice, etc. 
Imadauchi, madabchi, an 

office in Zaria usually held 
I by one of the chief slaves. 
imadaukaki, the great or high 

one, e.g. a king ; cf. daukaka. 
madauki, handle, that part of 

anything by which it is held 

in the hand ; cf. dauka. 
madawami, fem. madawamia, 

long lasting, incessant; often 

pronounced madowami ; cf. 

made, the strutting of a woman. 

madebi, a spoon used for 
measuring ; cf. debe. 

madedi, a substitute ; see ma- 

m^di, madya (F 230), a kind 
of molasses made from the 
fruit of the dumia, taura, 
dinya, or kaiwa tree, or from 

m.S.diga, used of the spot in a 
baby's skull which pulsates ; 
cf. diga. 

m.adigo, immorality between 

madinkia, needle ; cf. ma- 
dumki a tailor, from dumke 
to sew. 

m.adobia, a tree with yellow 
blossoms, and flat winged 
fruit : from its wood spindles 
are made (Pterocarpus erin- 
aceus, Leguminosae). 

mSidogara, stay, prop, support ; 
cf. dogare. 

m.adoro, hunchback ; cf. doro, 

miS/dubi, glass, eye-glass, look- 
ing-glass. The latter is more 
commonly madubin fuska ; 
cf. duba. 

madudai* (cf . Ar. j^), reckon- 
ed up, B 122. 

madudu (S.), an idler, slow- 




madufa, cannon, M. H. p. 63 ; 
cf. madafa. 

madugu, pi. madugawa, madu- 
gai, 1. leader or headman 
of a caravan ; he always walks 
behind, whilst the jagaha 
usually walks in front; 2. the 
title of a prince amongst the 

maduraki, fem. madumkia, pi. 
madumkai, madumka, tailor; 
cf . dumke to sew. 

mSidundumi, a small aquatic 
bird which, the Hausas say, 
cannot see except at night : 
the * darter ' bird, it feeds on 
fish ; cf. dundumi to grope 

mS-dya, a syrup, F 230; ci.mddi. 

mafada, pi. mafadawa, council- 
lor, adviser or minister of a 
king ; cf . fadaiva. 

mafadachi, wild, inclined to 
fight ; cf . fada. 

mafaka, a place to lie in wait, 
hiding-place; Qi.fako, hako. 

mafS-lashi, glutton. 

mafalki (S.), mafarki (K.), pi. 
mafalkai^ dream ; yin ma- 
falki to dream ; cf. (?) falka 
to awake. 

mafarauchi, pi. mafarauta, 

mafarauta, n. hunting. 

mafari, beginning, origin; cf. 

mS,fashi,maifeshe,pl. mdfasay 
brigand, robber. 

mafauchi or mahauchi, q.v., 
a butcher who sells meat in 
the market ; cf . fauta. 

mafauta, n. butchering. 

m.afiadi, a crosspiece of wood \ 
which rests upon two gofa \ 
sticks, and supports the roof 
of a house. 

mafichi, landing-place; d.fita. 

mafifichi, pi. mafifita, superior, 
Hhe great,' wanan mafifichi 
ne ddga wonchan this is su- 
perior to that ; see fiflta. 

mafigirma, greater, lit. that' 
which surpasses in greatness^ 
it is usually followed by ddga. 

mafitsara, 1. bladder; 2. 
scoop-shaped knife to smootht 
inside or outside of a gourd. 

mafiyawa, more, lit. that whiebt 
surpasses in number, followed^ 
by ddga. 

miafori, miaiforo, instructor j 
see foro. 

mafuchi, mafilfichi (S.), ma-« 
ferfichi (K.), mafifichi, ai 
fan ; cf . fifita. 

mafuri, a kind of bellows ; cli 

magabachi, 1. title of a royal-^ 
ofiicial ; 2. a patron, lit. onei 
who is in front, pi. m,agdhaia* 
great ones. 

magabchi, an enemy ;• see gaba.\ 




magadi, magashi, magaji, pi. 
magada, niagata, heir. 

magagachi, fool, senseless, 
B 108 ; cf. gigichi. 

magagari, 1. a tool or rasp for 

! sharpening swords, etc. ; 2. 
saw ; see g agar a. 

jmagagi, reeling or staggering 
as of a dying man ; mag agin 
berichi stretching one's limbs 
sleepily on awaking. 

magaji, a minister of the house- 
hold, esp. of a king's house- 
hold ; magaji (of which maji 
is perhaps an abbreviation) 
is probably formed from gaje 
to inherit ; cf . maji. 

magaji^ heir ; see magadi^ m^t- 

magajiyi, lazy, incompetent; 
from gaji to tire. 

magana (from gani to see), cf. 
shina da magana he is pretty. 

magana, pi. maganganu, 1. 
word, vocable ; 2. speech, 
language, e.g. magana hausa 
the Hausa language; yin mxju- 
gana Jmusa to speak or to 
know the Hausa language. 
maganan mi ku ke yi what 
are you talking about? al- 
lah shi maimagana ne am/ma 
ha da haki ha God speaks but 
not with the mouth, M. H. 
p. 228. keren-m^agana an in- 
nuendo ; see kere. 

R. H. D. 

magangami, mag&ma, 1. 
meeting or confluence of 
rivers ; cf. gangama to mix ; 
2. joint of a limb, elbow, 
knee, etc. 

m.agani, pi. maganguna and 
magunguna, 1. medicine, re- 
medy ; m,aimagani a doctor ; 
maganin kuda a strip of 
leather placed over a horse's 
eyes to keep off flies ; maga^ 
nin zawo a purgative medi- 
cine ; 2. poison (cf. Kanuri 
magali, id.); 3. a charm, 
maganin yaki a charm to 
afford protection in war ; cf. 
prov. maganin gari da nesa 

maganta, discussion, yin ma- 
ganta to hold discussion. 

magantawa, magantirwa, 
council or discussion before 
a king, etc., or with any- 

m.agaria (zizyphus lotus), a 
bushy tree resembling the 
kurna, with edible fruit about 
the size of cherries. The 
fruit is pounded and made 
into little cakes tuwon ma- 
garia, and sold at the little 
wayside markets. 

m.agariar-kura, zizyphus mu- 
cronata, Rhamnaceae. 

magarub, magariba, magu- 
riba (Ar. w>/**o), 1. late in 




the evening, just before sun- 
set, the time between laasar 
and lisha, see rana; 2. the 

magashi, magaji, fem. maga- 
shia, heir ; see magadi. 

magaya, magauchi, pi. ma- 
gata, heartless, unsympa- 
thetic ; cf. gaya evil. 

mS-ge, 1. the tame cat; 2. ma- 
gen tental the civet cat, it is 
a native of N. Africa but is 
kept in a state of captivity 
by the Hausas for the sake 
of the frankincense (turare) 
which is secreted in a double 
pouch under its abdomen. 
idon mage squint ; cf. m,u- 

mageduwa, ainhum, i.e. the 
disease in which the bone of 
the little toe becomes gradu- 
ally absorbed and the toe 
eventually drops off; maim,a- 
geduwa one so afflicted, cf. 
'Hausaland,' p. 152. 

magena, a tree from whose 
leaves a yellow stain is made; 
this mixed with indigo makes 
a green dye. 

magewayi, maigewoye, pi. 
magewaya, spy, scout (in So- 
koto majewayi) ; cf. gewaya, 

magi, to walk aimlessly. 

magidanchi, a married man, 

because only a married man 
has a house of his own. 

magimpa, maigemfa, a plant 
used to put in a pond for 
stupefying and catching fish, 
one of the leguminosid class 
(Tephrosia vogelii). 

m.agini, fem. maginia, pi. ma- 
gina^ 1. builder, potter; 2. 
an instrument with which to 

magirbi, sickle ; see girhi. 

magirki, pi. magirkai, stones 
put under anything to sup- 
port it ; anything which un- 
derlies something else. 

magiro, pi. magirgij'a, 1 . ghost, 
evil spirit ; 2. one who paints 
his eyebrows and pretends 
to be possessed by a spirit; 
cf. giro an eyebrow. 

magodi, magoji, a measure; 
cf. goda to measure. 

magogora*, throat ; see mako- 

magori, a plant with small 
white flowers clustered in a 

magudanchi, mugudanchi, 
pi. magudantai, a slave about 
fourteen years old ; probably 
formed from gida and origin- 
ally applied to a slave born 
in his master's house. 

magudia, a small plant with 
white chaffy flowers (Poly- 




carpaea linearifolia, Caryo- 

maguje, muguje, pi. mayu- 
dane^ maguda, 1. one who 
runs away in war, or from a 
master; 2. a place of running, 
ji line of flight, so a trench 
for carrying away water. 

maguraza, a species of wild 

maguriba, evening ; see maga- 

magurji, mugurji, a flat stone 
on which rice, etc. is rolled 
or on which cotton is pressed ; 
dan tnagurji the stone which 
is used as the roller ; cf. gurje 
to press. 

maguzawa, pagan Hausas, 
heathen, a pi. form of bama- 
guje, q.v. 

magwaji, scales, measure ; see 

magwara, a small blue and 
copper-coloured bird, some- 
thing like a swallow. 

mahaifa, 1. birthplace; cf. Gr. 
p. 137, 1. 11 ; 2. the uterus. 

mahaifi, pi. mahaifa, one or 
both parents. 

mahakiunchi, a person in au- 
thority ; see mahukumchi. 

mahalbi, pi. m,ahalha, m,asu- 
halbi, 1. bowman, spearman, 
marksman, anyone who dis- 
charges guns or arrows ; cf. 

halbi ; 2. the constellation 

mahalbiyi, pi. mahalbai, wea- 
pon, implement for hunting, 
mahalichi, maihalichi* pi. 

m,ahalita, creator ; cf. halita. 
mahamudi, white calico used 

in making tobes. 
maharam, the first month in 

the Mohammedan year. 
nia]l3.ri, pi. m^ahara, a raider ; 

cf. hdri. 
maharma, maharama (Ar. 

4-oj.a— o), handkerchief, 
mahasadi, one who causes 

trouble or vexation, slanderer, 

persecutor; cf. hasada. 
mahauchi, mafauchi, pi. ma- 

hauta, a butcher, Tnahauta a 

mahaukachi, fem. mahauka- 

chia, pi. m,ahaukataj a foolish 

person, a lunatic; mahauka- 

chin kdre a mad dog ; cf. 

mahawara, a black and white 

mahawayi*, an obj ect of terror, 
mahayi, steps, ladder, means of 

ascent ; cf . hawa to ascend : 

also a ford or the end of a 

ford ; cf . mashigi the entrance 

to a ford, 
mahayi, pi. mahaiya, a rider, 
mahukumchi, mahukunchi, 

pi. m,ahukumta, m,ahukunta, 





a person in authority ; cf . 

mai, pi. mastij a nominal pre- 
fix forming nouns of agency 
from verbs, substantives and 
adjectives, e.g. gudu to run, 
maigudu a fugitive ; gona a 
farm, maigona the owner of 
the farm ; girima great, tnai- 
girima one who is great ; cf . 
prov. mai-uwa da murufu 
bai chin tuo gaya the man 
who has his mother by him 
with the stove will not eat 
uncooked food. The forma- 
tion is closely analogous to 
the Arabic ; cf. ma. Words 
beginning with mai which 
are only occasionally used 
will be found under their 
original forms ; thus for mai- 
gudu cf . under gudu. 

mai, frequently used in con- 
versation for m,asa to him ; 
cf. 7iai for nasa. 


mai (Ar. %t^), oil or grease of 
any kind, e.g. butter, the fat 
of meat ; main shanu cow 
butter, ynainja palm oil, main 
geda oil obtained from ground 
nuts, m,ain kackmiya oil from 
seeds of shea butter tree, tnaiu 
ridi oil obtained by distilla- 
tion from sesamum seed, main 
sJwfewa ointment of any kind. 

maiabin, one 
something, the owner. 

maia, to return, go again ; see 

maiabu, or in construct form 
who possesses 

proprietor ; the pi. m,asuabu 

is often used for wealthy 

m.aiaddini, pi. masuaddlni, a 

religious person ; see addini. 
maiagazawa*, maiagajewa, 

helper, F 106. 
m.aiajia, store-keeper; cf. ajia. 
maialgus, maialgusu, deceit- 
ful person ; cf. algus. 
maiamfadi (S.), door-mats for 

hanging over a doorway. 
m.aiaro, tenant, one who hires 

a farm from the maichi or 

holder; cf. aro. 
maiata, misfortune; see mor- 

m.aibada, pi. masubaday giver; 

cf. bada. 
maibaiwa, generous, M. H. 

p. 194. 
miaibarra, one who begs in the 

name of God, the professional 

beggar, contrast mairoko: cf. 

maichara, maishara, 1. cock, 

lit. the one who crows ; 2. 

the reed of a wind instrument • 

cf. chara. 
maichi, owner, proprietor ; 

sariki maichi the reigning 




king, in contr&stv^ith jfitache7i 
sariki the deposed king ; cf. 
chi to gain possession of. 
maida, to turn, change ; cf. da 
shi talaka ne amma ammai- 
_ dashi sarki he was formerly 
!^a poor man but he is changed 
(into a king ; then with various 
[modifications of the idea we 
Ihave maida kamna C 9 to 
lirect the desire, na maida 
'camna gareshi I like him, 
6 maida, h%m,a to pay at- 
mtion to or to do quickly, 
lida kansa to pretend, E 6 
laida addinin asna to imi- 
bte the religion of the hea- 
bhen, maida haya to put be- 
lind, to degrade, to cause to 
lo, e.g. ya maidashi shi kwan- 
*che he caused him to lie down ; 
to turn or change in value, 
.g. sariki ya maida kurdin 
ladafa sidli biu the king has 
[changed the value of the 
[Spanish dollar to 26-., kada 
ca maida mutum abin wofi do 
lot put down a man as a 
worthless thing. In this last 
[instance m,aida is used in the 
rsense which is usually attach- 
ed to mayerda. mayes used 
without an object is equi- 
valent to maida, : 7ia mayes 
masa da magana I answered 
him ; ka mayes = ka komx) da 

shi. maye7' masa hand it 
over to him ; mayesda, 7na- 
yerda to send back, to return; 
cf. tnayesdxMhi put it away, 
also to translate, e.g. a letter; 
m,aishe is used before a pro- 
noun, F 207 jahimi na ji fa 
maishesu the fire, I under- 
stand, shall change them ; ya 
m^aisheni hawa he made me a 

maida* (Ar. SjuU), table. 

maid§,fua, cook ; see dafa. 
mLaidagirima, n. gratitude, 
maidalili, 1. with reason; 

see dalili. 2. a kind of 

m.aidaukan-kaya, a carrier; 

cf. maikaya the owner of a 

maidere, lord of the night, 

M. H. p. 227. 
maidilanchi*, trader; cf. di- 

maidoro, humpbacked. 
m.aidiimi, warm, fresh, used 

of milk or of cooked food ; 

see dumi. 
maiesa, why? cf. mayesa. 
maifefeto, winged, M. H.p. 158; 

cf . faifeto. 
m.aifeshe, pi. masufeshe, robber, 

brigand ; see mafashi. 
m.aif itina, a tease ; see fUina. 
maiflto, ferryman; ci.ftto. 




maiforo, mafori, instructor; 
cf . foro. 

maifuchi, one who gasps for 
breath; ci. fuchi. 

maigaraji (S.), a man who 
talks fast without stopping 
to think ; cf. garaje. 

maigaskia, an honest man ; 
cf, gaskia. 

maigero, with eyebrows, M. H. 
p. 205 ; cf. gera. 

maigewoye, majewaye, spy ; 
cf. gewoye. 

maigobe, lit. possessor of to- 
morrow ; cf . nhangijinmu 
maiyo maigobe He (God) is 
our lord to-day and for evei*. 

maigona, pi. masugona, posses- 
sor of a farm ; cf . gona. 

maihakia, a man with only 
one eye ; cf. hakia a disease 
of the eyes. 

maihalichi*, creator, see ma- 

maihari, a single isolated 
warrior on horseback ; cf. 

maihaya* (Ar. SU»-), the liv- 
ing One, i.e. God. 

mail, intoxicated, e.g. with gia 
or hanissa. 

maiikochi, possessor of power, 
M. H. p. 228. 

maijia, one-eyed; cf. ijia. 

maijika, lit. possessor of the 
bag, a kind of stork. 

maikai, a person with a large 

maikamsir, a flint-lock gun ; 
see kamsir. 

maikari*, scorpion. 

maikasala, a beggar who re- 
fuses to work ; cf. kasala. 

niaikatarta*, one who trem- 
bles ; cf . ^nakarkata, maker- 

maikeau, maikiyo, beautiful, 
good ; cf. keau. 

maikeri, blacksmith ; see ma- 

maikesua, a firefly ; see ma- 

maiki, vulture, Gr. p. 137, 
1. 12 ; cf. meke. 

maikinji, 1. enemy; 2. a hard- 
headed or stubborn person.; 
cf. ki. 

maikira, blacksmith ; see md- 

maikiso, fem. maikisia, hair- 
dresser ; cf . kiso. 

mai-kl-wuya, maikiuya, a 
man who refuses to work, 
M. H. p. 147; cf. ki, cf. 
yaro ba ki tvuya a name 
given to a large iron needle 
used in thatching roofs. 

maikiyo, beautiful ; see mai- 

m.aikoda, fem. maikodai, a 
person seeking employment 
or hire; cf. koda. 




maikoda, maikodia, a woman 

who pounds corn ; cf. prec. 
maikoiya, maikoya, a teacher; 

see koiya^ 
maikora, a bald man ; cf . kora. 
maikoto, beak ; cf . koto to peck, 
maikunche, a wrestler ; cf. 

kunche to loosen. 
maikurmusu, one who eats 

on the sly, greedy ; see kur- 

maikwaraka, a glutton, used 

esp. of a man who lives by 

begging food, M. H. p. 147 ; 

cf. kwarika. 
maikwarda, one with a bent 

arm ; cf. mailauje. 
maikwazo, a diligent or ener- 
getic person ; see kwazo. 
maikworomi, one with sunken 

eyes ; cf. kworomi. 
mailam.uni, one who goes bail 

or surety for another, 
mailamunta, one who is surety 

for payment of a debt; cf. 

mailana* for mairana, lord 

of the day, M. H. p. 227. 
mailauje, one with an arm 

bent like a sickle ; cf. mai- 

mailom.a, glutton ; cf. loma a 

maimade, one fond of display ; 

see made. 
maim.agani, a doctor. 

maimageduwa, one who has 
lost his little toe ; see maye- 

maimai, n., 1. tilling the 
ground, heaping up the earth 
round a plant when it has 
grown to a height of about 
three feet, especially used of 
digging round yams ; 2. yin 
mainiai, applied to writing, 
to blot out or erase, to 
repeat an action ; cf. na yi 
maimai I have written it 
twice over, ka maimaita abu 
you have repeated it., the owner or seller 
of butter ; also of meat, juicy, 
with plenty of fat in it ; cf. 

maimaita, to repeat again and 
again, maimaichi repeatedly. 

maimalaka*, ruler, M. H. p. 
228 ; cf. malaka. 

maimeki, maimaki, mai- 
m.ako, 1. that which is 
parallel or like to something 
else ; 2. a substitute for 
something else ; 3. maim£ki7i 
is used as a preposition 'in 
exchange for.' 

mai-muwa (S.), our lord, our 

maina*, 1. cf. Kanuri id., a 
prince ; used only of the son 
of a king; 2. a species of 
large antelope. 




a man who goes 


slowly or deliberately ; of. 
nauwa weight. 

mainema, a profligate or pros- 

mainidai* (cf. Ar. tjJ), one 
who calls. 

mainya, m.anya, pi. of haha 
great. It is frequently re- 
peated for the sake of em- 
phasis, e.g. mainya mainya 
mutane very great or very re- 
spectable persons ; cf. m,aiya 
maiya ; Gr. p. 137, 1. 14. 

mairaki, a coward ; see raki. 

maireda, miller, proprietor of 
a mill ; cf . marede a mill- 

mairoko, pi. maroka, a man 
who begs by cajolery or flat- 
tery, contrast maibdra. 

mairowa, a grasping, covetous 
person ; cf. rowa, marowachi. 

maisa, mesa, misa, a python, 
said by the Hausas to eat 

maisaida, pi. masusaida, one 
who sells, salesman ; cf . saida. 

maisanda achi goriba (man- 
with-a-stick eat thedum palm 
fruit), the name given to a 
particular kind of cloth. 

maisane, thief, usually applied 
to a robber who steals openly; 
cf. sane. 

maisanko, bald ; see sanko. 

maisarari, spacious ; cf. sa- 

maisari, a retailer of goods. 

a peddler ; cf. save to cut up. 
maishaida*, pi. masushaida. 

a witness ; cf. shaida. 
maishako, a man with a coir 

in the head ; cf. shaka. 
malshe, to change ; see maida. 
mai-shi, pi. masu-shi, owner, 

maita, 1. witchcraft ; 2. a man 

who utters charms which 

cause the death of another : 

cf. maye. 
maita'adi, mischievous, des 

tructive ; see ta^adi. 
maitarian-hainya, a highway 

robber; cf. tare. 
maitsS,ri,maitsaro, a guardian 

or custodian ; see tsdra. 
m.aitsia, a poor person ; see 

maitsini, sharp pointed (used 

of needles) ; cf. maikarifi, 

sharp (used of a knife). 
maiwa, the species of gero 

(millet) which ripens with 

the dawa in December. 
m.aiya, a great one; see 

maiya, sorceress ; see maye. 
maiyanchi, age, honour, im 

portance ; see mainya. 
maiyani, mayani, handkei 

chief; cf. yane. 




maiyawa, pi. masuyawa, much, 
many ; cf . yawa. 

maiyelwa, spacious ; cf . yehva. 

maiyesa, a colloquial expres- 
sion, for what cause, why? 
see mayesa. 

maizache*, meditating; cf. 

maizumba, a rogue, one who 
refuses to restore a pledge or 
who buys a thing and runs 
away without paying for it ; 
see zarriba. 

majajaiwa, majejawa, ma- 
j auj awa, maj uj a wa, a sling, 
slinging (a stone). 

majarabchi*, a villain; cf. 

majayi, a girth or girth-strap; 
cf. kaitara, hauji. 

maje, the copaiba tree, a large 
tree from which a sweet scent 
is obtained (Daniellia thuri- 
fera, Leguminosae). 

majemi, pi. majema^ a tanner; 
also used of a tanning block. 

majewaye, magiwaye or 
maigewoye, scouts, spies; 
cf. jewayi, gewaya. 

maji or maje (perhaps a short- 
ened form of magaji, q.v.), 
one of the chief officers of 
a king : another possible de- 
rivation is from maaje one. 
who stores (the king's goods) ; 
see viaaji. 

raiajibari, a moth. 

m.ajidi, a lodging house. 

miajiga, majigi, a red dye 
made from the pounded wood 
of a tree and used in staining 
the body. It is sold in 

maji-kira, an attendant who 
listens for a call, an orderly. 

majina, a cold, cold in the 
head, mucus, sickness ; hura 
majina to blow the nose ; cf . 

m.ajinachi, m.ajinyachi, m.a- 
jiyachi, one who is sick, an 
attendant on a sick man ; cf . 

mLajinachia, blood letting ; cf. 

m.ajinata*, one who gives 
water or acts as an attendant 
in time of sickness ; majina- 
taka thy water-bearer, B 59 ; 
see jinia. 

majiiiaya (K.), vein ; see jini. 

mLajingini, pillow; seejingina. 

majiya, pi. majiyata, nurse ; 
cf. majinachi. 

m.ajujawa, a sling ; see major- 

majusi, pi. majusawa (Ar. 

^yw^-w.^), heathen, lit. a ma- 

gian, sometimes pronounced 
maguji; cf. bamaguje. 

makada* (Ar. >bC«), being on 




the point (or, one who is 
on the point) of doing any- 

makadaichi or mukadaichi, 
sole, only ; shi makadaichi 
he only ; c£. kadaichi. 

makadashi, makadas, a re- 
gent or one who holds an 
office in another's absence. 

makadi, a drumstick, a drum- 
mer ; cf . niaikidi. 

makafche, to become blind, 
to be blind ; see niakaTnche, 

makafchi*, a tiller of the 
ground ; cf. kafa to dig. 

makafO; fem. makafua (S.), 
makaunia (K.), pi. makdji^ a 
Ijlind man ; cf. kdfo, id. 

makafta, makanta, makam- 
ta, makopchi, blindness. 

makagar a, objection ; cf. {T)ga.- 

makalechia, a thin stick made 
from a corn stalk and used 
in thinning cotton with the 
hakan shiha. 

makama, 1. the title of a 
royal officer ; 2. the chief of 
the police. 

makaraa, that which lays hold 
or is laid hold on, hence the 
handle of anything = kota. 

makamche, makanche, ma- 
kafche, 1. to become blind, 
to be blind ; 2. to dazzle the 
eyes, wolkia ta makamcheka 

the lightning has dazzle*^ 

thine eyes. 
m.akam.i, pi. tnakam/mai, 

wound ; anyi masa makami 

he was wounded, 
makangari, a rebel ; see kair 

m.akankara, one to rub out, 

A 38, a knife used for erasing ; 

cf. kankara. 
m.akankari, a mussel shell, 
makanni, a platform from 

which guardians of crops 

drive away birds. 
m.akanta, m.akamta, blind- 
ness ; cf . makafta. 
mak3,ra, to be late in starting 

or doing anything ; D 23 ku 

her makara da salla leave off 

saying your prayers late ; mai- 

m^akdra one who is late, 
makara, n. lateness, cf. 7ia yi 

makdra I am late. 
makara, the basket of palm 

fronds in which kola nuts 

are packed for the march, a 

load of kolas. 
m.akaranchi, fem. makaraa- 

chia, a scholar ; cf . karatu. 
makaranta, school ; cf . karatio. 
makarfo, makarufo, a tree 

from which medicine is 

obtained (Dalbergia sp., Le- 

makari, a complainant; cf. 





iiakari, end of anything, e.g. 
the end of a book ; makarin 
kdt^a a boundary ; cf. proverb 
<(bu niaiwvya shina da maka- 
rinsa the thing which is diffi- 
cult comes to its end at last ; 
makarin herchi the last sleep, 
i.e. death ; cf. kdre. 

saakari, a shield made of skin. 

[nakari, prop or support to 
prevent anything falling, any- 
thing placed under something 
else, e.g. stones plafced under 
a bag to keep it off the 

oaakariachi, makaryachi, pi. 
makariata^ a liar ; cf . karia. 

makarkata, one who trembles, 

I ad j . trembling ; see makerketa. 

makarwa, partridge ; see ma- 

\ kerua. , 

!mLakS,sa, a vital spot (fr. kashe 

: to kill); ya sameshi a 'inakasa 

I he hit him in a vital spot. 

makasari, makassari, fem. 
tnakasaria, halt, lame. 

makashi or makasshinkai, 
a murderer. 

makaskachi, pi. makaskasta, 
poor, oppressed ; cf. kaskasta 
to despise. 

mak^ta, to stick with a hook. 

makaunia, fem. of makafo, a 
blind woman. 

makaurachi, a place of migra- 
tion to, a new site ; cf. kaura. 

makauyo, headman of a vil 
lage (kauyi). 

makawa, resistance, objection, 
that which can create a 

makaya, porcupine; see kaya 
thorn ; cf. makibia, hegua. 

make, to seize, lay hold of, to 
take under the arm. 

make*, to be hung up, get 
fixed in (a tree), v.n. inakewa. 

makelachi, one who stares, 
generally used in a bad 
sense ; also used in the sense 
of cruel, M. H. p. 96 ; ci.kdlo. 

m.S,kera, an anvil, blacksmith's 
shop, v. kira to forge ; cf. seq. 

makeri, maikeri, maikira, 
pi. maker a,^ mukira (Z.), black- 
smith ; sarikin mukira the 
title of one of the principal 
officers of the court at Zaria. 

makerketa or makarkata, 
trembling or shivering Avith 
fear or cold. 

m.akero, pi. makerori, a large 
sore, ringworm. 

makerua, makarwa, m.akor- 
wa, pi. makware^ a red-legged 
partridge, francolin (in So- 
koto fakara is used). 

makesua, maikesua, a fire- 
fly : cf. dimin-dawa. 

maketachi, pi. maketata, woik- 
er of evil, cruel ; cf. keta. 

maketari, a ford ; karamin 




maketari a shallow ford ; cf. 
mashigi, and mahayi. 
makewaye, latrine, closet ; cf. 

makiayi, herdsman ; see mor 

makibia, porcupine ; lit. pos- 
sessor of arrows ; cf . makaya, 
makidi, a player on a musical 
instrument, esp. on a drum; 
cf. kidi, makadi. 
makinkiro, a disease affecting 

the hair, 
makiraye, messenger ; see kira. 
makisake, hearing news before 
it is officially reported ; cf . 
kisa (Ar.) new^s. 
makiyachi, one who refuses 
or dislikes labour ; see ki, 
makiyaya, a place for feeding 

cattle ; see makiyaye. 
makiyaye, pi. makiyaya, herds- 
man, also applied to one in 
charge of horses, 
makiyi, m.ikyi, pi. makiya, one 
who hates, adversary ; see 
m.ako, discomfort. 
m.akobchi, neighbour ; see ma- 

m.akodaichi, makwadaichi, 
covetousness, unakwadaita 
covetous ; cf . kodai. 
makodi, pi. makodai, the 

smooth flat stone used for 

smoothing a grindstone. 
makofchi (S.), makwabchi 

or m.akochi (K.), pi. makota. 

makofta, makoshe, neighbour, 

also the next in rank t< 

makoshen sariki the king 

head warrior. 
makSgoro, makogwaro, pi. 

makogorai, throat ; cf . ma- ■■ 

m.akoiyi, m.akoyi, a scholar ; • 

cf. koiya. j 

inak5ki, lamentation, esp. used ' 

of lamentations at a funeral. 
makoko, swelling or wen on th( 

throat; also used of 'Adam 

apple ' in the throat. 
makokofo, green woodpeckei ; 

cf. kqfa. 
m.akoma, end, ran makont" 

the last day. 
m.akonchi, a grave. 
m.akopchi, blindness ; see ma- 

m.akopkoffi, the 'coppersmith 

makorwa, partridge ; see ma- 

makoshi, m.akwoshi, throat; 

wanken inakoshi a gargle. 
makoyi, scholar ; see makoiyi 
m.aku, heavy rain, in tens, form 

mamako, q.v. ; see malka. 
m.akuba, husk of the locust 
bean dorowa. When steeped 




in water the liquid is 
sprinkled over newly laid 
walls and floors to bind to- 
gether the surface. 

aaakubchi*, neighbour ; see 

nakubli (S.), pi. makuhla% 1. 
ke}"^ ; 2. button ; cf. kuhli to 

nakllblia, pi. makiihla, a fe- 
male slave, concubine; see 

oaakukubi, a black and white 

nakuUi (K.), lock. 

[nakura, n. 1 . choking ; 2. a 

[aUkTlre, to choke. 

(nakuri* (of. Ar. j.^U), to 

deceive; C 18 ita makuri she 
acts deceitfully ; cf. M. H. 
p. 227. 

makurma, a species of ante- 
lope ; cf. kurmi. 

makuru, a woman's loin cloth. 

makurua, throat ; cf. makure, 

makusata, relatives; see kiisa. 

fnakwadaita, covetous, greedy; 
cf. kodai, makodaichi. 

tnakwalla (K.), a place where 
idle persons sit and jeer at 
I>assers by ; cf. kwdla. 

makwanche, makwonche, 
1. a place to lie down, a 

sleeping-place, den, lair ; 2. 
a burial-place ; cf. kwana. 

makwoiwa, a species of red 
travelling ant, smaller than 
the kwarikwasa, it eats white 

makwoiyo, pi. makwoyai^ vil- 
lage headman ; cf. kauye (?). 

mala, pi. Tnalalaki, a large 
leather bag such as is carried 
by a blind man to hold 

malafa, malfa, pi. mdlafuna^ 
mdlafai, a large hat made of 
plaited straw; also used of a 
plaited straw mat (in Sokoto 

malaika, pi. mcdaiku, angel. 

malaka, mallaka, n. property, 
government; cf. prov. abin 
chikin aljifu raallakan mai- 
riga ne that which is in 
the pocket is the property 
of the owner of the cloak ; 
i.e. all that a son or a slave 
has belongs to his father or 
master ; rriaiirnallaka ruler, 

malaka, mallaka, mallaki, 
before a n. obj . ; mallake before 
a pron. obj. (Ar. <^^), to rule, 
reign, govern ; mallaki hawa 
to own a slave. 

malala, n. a flood, plenty: ma- 
. lala ya yi there was abund- 



mamayi ; 

malala, to flow out, fill up, 
spread over, su7ia malala du- 
nia they overrun the world. 

malalachi, f. malalachia, pi. 
malalata, 1. idle person, idler; 
2. wicked person ; c£. lalata. 

malam, malami, pi. mdlamai 
^ a ^ 
(cf. Ar. ^eJ^)? ^ learned man, 
a doctor ; haban malami a 
great scholar or doctor in 
learning ; often used as a 
title, e.g. mMam, musa. m.a- 
lam,in daji is a common title 
of a jackal ; a feminine ad- 
jectival form malama is occa- 
sionally found ;cf.M.H. p. 208. 

malfa, a straw hat ; see 'nidlafa. 

malika*, maliki*, angel; see 

malka (S.), marka (K.), ma- 
ku, heavy rain, e.g. rain 
lasting all day ; cf . sarafa. 

malle, a species of guinea-corn. 

malmala, a ball of tuo, one 
man's ration ; cf. dunkule a 
ball of fura. 

malmo, marmo, a tree with 
fragrant flowers and leaves 
and a black or purple berry 
(Eugenia owariensis, Myr- 

malmon-biri, a tree with a 
white flower and small purple 
fruit like a damson. 

malolo, the pouch of a bird; 
see TYiaroro. 

malufi, velvet ; see 

malwa [perhaps a contractic 
of m^alulua^ a plural foi 
of mari, q.v.], leg-irons ; cf. 

mama (cf. (?) Ar. ^1, mother), 
a woman's breast. 

mam.a, mami, mam.e (Z.), to 
attack, fall upon a town. 

mamabi, fear, anxiety. 

mamachi, fem. mamachia, a 
dead person. 

mamachi, dead = matache. 

mamaki or abin mamaki, 
anything wonderful ; yi7i ma- 
maki or jiii mamaki to Avon- 
der., a heavy downpour; 
see Tnaku. 

miSmLare, to feel for or grope 
about with the hand for any- 
thing ; cf. mare. 

m.amari, a sort of plank with 
which to beat a floor; also 
used as a v, to plaster a floor. 

mamari, marimari, muri- 
muri, large fish-hooks at- 
tached to a line. 

mamaya, n. something unex- 
pected, a surprise attack. 

mamaye, mame, suddenly; 
yin mamayi to be astonished. 

mamayi, pi. mamaya, heir, 
e.g. to a kingdom (used to 
translate Khalif), successor, 




deputy, substitute ; cf . mai- 

raamumi (Ar.), a worshipper 
in a mosque. 

mamuna, ugly ; see mumona. 

mana, if you please, of course, 
then, etc. ; zo rtiana come if 
you please ! rarely used in 
writing but extremely com- 
mon in conversational Hausa. 

mana (K.), muna (S.), to us. 

mana, mani, to press, cling 
to, tr. and intr. ; kainka ku 
manashi da hanyo press your 
head against the wall ; ina 
manawa da shi it is pressing 
against it. 

manaa* (Ar. j-;ji^), meaning, 
manafuchi, deception ; see 

manche, to forget ; see manta. 
manda (a Bornuese word), 

black salt from Bornu. 
mandawari, sewing-thread, 
man do, a blight on guinea- 
corn, etc. 
mandua, bracelet ; see mun- 

mangala, the pack saddle for 

;i donkey or ox with pockets 

for Avater pots, etc. 
mangara, mangare, to kick, 

to kick backwards with the 

heel as in boxing, 
mani, to me, for me ; see ni ; 

sun yi mani or ayi inani T 

manmaza*, contracted from 
maza Tnaza, or ynabnaza, very 

manomi, 1 . planter, cultivator ; 
2. sowing-time. 

manta, manche, to forget, 
err, make a mistake, mari- 
tua forgetting, forgetfulness, 
error, mistake ; yin mnantua 
to forget, to make a mis- 

mantanpas (S.), a muzzle- 
loading gun. 

mantawa, a parasitic plant 
with fern-like leaves and 
green pendent fruit which 
is sold as a love charm. 

manti, swagger ; cf. takama. 

manuni, forefinger; see nuna. 

manya, pi. of baba, great. 

manzani* (cf. Ar. ^}^), bar- 
ber ; see tvanzami. 

manzo, pi. ma^izani, 1. mes- 
senger, esp. one sent by a 
king ; yin manzo ga to send 
a messenger to ; 2. mfianzo is 
often used as a title of an 
official at court. 

mara, loins, used generally for 
hypogastric region. 

md.ra, the odd numbers ; cf. 
chika ko mdra even or odd. 
allah mdra ne God is one. 




mara, to take up with the hand 
or in a spoon. 

mara, 1. to strike ; 2. rattling ; 
ka ji kachokacho ina mara 
dost thou hear the pod rat- 
tling'? see mare. 

mara, a calabash with a piece 
broken out, a broken pot ; 
also used to denote a small 

mara, without ; see mar as. 

mS,raba, marhaba, an excla- 
mation of welcome (cf. Ar. 

marabi, that which separates 
or divides; cf. ena marabin 
wanan da wanchan what is 
the difference between this 
and that 1 Also, the person 
who distributes, giver. 

maradi, muradi (cf. Ar. itj), 
a searching after, what is 
sought for, desire ; maradin 
fnutane that which men desire. 

m.aradi, a slanderer. 

marai, a small bird with red 
plumage which feeds on 

maraichi, orphanhood ; cf. 

maraita*, a going away, C 29 
gawa ra tnaraita lahira a 
corpse on the day on which 
the dead man sets out for the 
next world, maraita also de- 

notes to depart in the evening 
and m,araito to come in the 
evening: possibly it is formed 
from the same root as 7na7'eche 

maraka (S.), heavy rain; cf. 

maraki, mareki, fem. mardka, 
pi. marukka, m,araku^ calf up 
to two years; dan maraki a 
bull calf, yar maraki cows. 

maraki, m.arako, a fellow- 
traveller, a spare man or 

maran lebo, the lip disk {j^e- 
lele) worn by certain pagan 
tribes embedded in the lips. 

mararabi, an intensive form 
of raha, 1. divided, different; 
2. division, m,ararahin hainya 
the meeting-point of two or 
more i-oads ; muraraba, a 
plural, is sometimes used for 
regions which are divided. 

ma-raraki, one who bores, a 
gimlet, a sieve ; see rarake. 

marari, a small grass basket 
used in making bread for put- 
ting flour and water in. The 
water is strained out ; cf. 

maras-, fem. marashia-, pi. ma- 
rasu-, marasa-, a negative pre- 
fix, denoting the absence of 
a thing in the same way as 
'less' in English, e.g. ma,- 




ra^kumia shameless, maras- 
kankali senseless, maraskariji 
powerless, e.g. marasa-kumia 
shameless people, niarasa-lajia 
sick people ; formed from rasa 
to be without. 

maratayi, liandle, suspender, 
peg ; maratayin kansakaXi 
sword-string or belt; also 
used in Sokoto like ragaya 
(K.), q.v., for the slinging of 
a calabash from the roof; cf. 

marauchi, a riddle. 

maraya, 1. a cave in rocks, 
hiding place ; 2. ambush. 

maraya*, a large town or city. 

maraya, a strap round a horse's 
head fastened to the bridle. 

I maraya, fem. marainia, pi. 
mardyu, orphan. 

marbika* (cf. Ar. rt ^j), 
confusion; used adverbially, 
■^u komo marbika they re- 
turned in confusion. 

mare, mara, mari, to strike, to 
give a blow with the hand. 
mari, pi. m^arumari, a blow, 
a stroke. m,armarawa, strik- 
ing repeatedly. It is specially 

; used to describe the hand-over- 

I hand stroke in swimming. 

jmarea, mareya, m.ariya (cf. 
Ar. ajjU, wild cow), a red 
cob antelope, Buffon's cob. 

mareche, evening ; da mareche 

R. H. D. 

in the evening; marecJie ya 
yi the evening came on. 

marede, pi. maredai, millstone; 
maireda a miller, or proprietor 
of a mill. 

marefia (S.), a net for fishing ; 
cf. 7'dfa. 

mareki, calf ; see mardki. 

marena, testicles. 

marenia, f. a nurse. 

mareta, to depart in the even- 
ing ; see maraita. 

m.arga, a tree with yellow 
blossoms like laburnum. 

margi, a spear used for throw- 
ing, harpoon. 

marhaba (S.), welcome; mar- 
hahshe to welcome ; see ma- 

mari, a large species of fish. 

miS.ri, pi. m^arurua, malulua, 
fetters ; see m,alwa. mdrin 
kusu (mouse's irons) a thorny 
plant like spinach used medi- 
cinally ; cf. kayar kusu. 

m.ari, pi. m,arumari, mare m,are, 
a blow ; see mdre. 

mtarike, a tree ; see m^arke. 

mariki, pi. tnarika, handle ; 
cf. rike. 

marikichi, a deceitful person, 
esp. one who pretends to buy 
but steals ; cf . rikichi. 

mariko, custodian, jailer; cf. 

marili, oryx ; see mariri, 





marili* (Ar. cAjj-«), sick. 
marimari, fish-hooks ; see ma- 

m3,rina, pi. mdrinai, a dye-pit, 
a deep hole in which cloth 
is left to soak in indigo dye ; 
for a description of the dye- 
pits of Kano, cf. M. H. p. 57. 
tndrini, pi. masicrini^ dyer, 
dye-worker, proprietor of a 
dye-pit ; cf . rina. 

mariri, marili, oryx. 

marka, used in Kano for malka 
continuous rain. 

m.arke, marike, a tree with 
small pale leaves and balls 
of whitish flowers. Its wood 
is durable and resists white 
ants (Anageissus leiocarpa). 

marmara, 1. stones collected 
together, e.g. those placed 
round a well to keep it from 
falling in ; 2. a rocky or 
stony piece of ground ; 3. 
(K.) stones for building. 

m.arm.arawa, redupl. parti- 
cipial form of mare, striking 

marmari, desire; yin 7na7"mari 
to be fond of, to like; esp. 
used of anything sweet to 
the taste ; abin marmari a 
delicacy, the verbal form is 

marmam, marmaro, maro- 

maro, a spring or fountain 
of water. 

marmashi, crumbs, remains 
of food. 

marm.ata, eunuch. 

miarmo, a tree ; see malmo. 

marokachi, begging ; cf . roko. 

maromaro, a spring ; see mar- 

maroro, malolo, 1. double 
chin or a swelling under the 
chin ; 2. crop of a bird. 

marowachi, 1. greed, greedi- 
ness ; 2. a greedy, selfish per- 
son ; cf . rowa. 

marsa, large selected kola 
nuts ; cf . saranwaga large 
and small kolas mixed, minu 
little kolas. 

m.artabba* (Ar.), honour, dig- 

m.arubuchi, pi. marubuta, a 
writer, scribe ; see rubuta. 

m.arude, mairude, pi. maruda, 
one who tempts, deceives or 
misleads ; cf. rude. 

marufi, pi. maru/ai, a covering 
of any kind, a cork stopper ; 
marufin kofa door, i.e. usuall\ 
a mat let down in front of a 
doorway; cf. rufe. 

maruru, boil, abscess, prob- 
ably derived from rua water. 

m.arwa, pain. 

marwashi, a ramrod. 

miasa, a cake or small round 




piece of bread made with rice 
and dawa such as is dipped 
into broth. juyen-mdsa(t\xvn- 
ing over the cake), an ex- 
pression used to describe the 
action of pulling up on a 
horizontal pole and turning 
over legs foremost between 
the arms. 

mS,sa*, quickly ; see maza. 

masaala (Ar.), question, mat- 
ter, ga masaalar, touching, 
as regards. 

masaba, pi. masdbai, a large 
hammer used by blacksmiths. 

masabi, masebi, 1. flint and 
steel for striking a light; 
2. a bow-shaped instrument 
used for cleaning and pre- 
paring cotton = bakan sMha ; 
cf. sdhi. 

masabki, masapki, masaf ki, 
a lodging-place ; cf. sabka. 

masafiha (cf. Ar. »---U), shak- 
ing hands. 

masai, a hole; i.q. saiga. 

mS-sai, carrion ; cf . mushe. 

masaka, 1. a shuttle; 2. a 
weaver; cf. saka. 

masakanche (cf. Ar. ^SLt), 
peacemaker, mediator ; cf . 

masaki, weaver ; see masaka. 

masaki, maseki, the largest 
kind of gourd, wide and deep, 
used for carrying fodder ; cf . 

M. H. p. 155; also used as 

a drum. 
masaala, pi. mas^aloli (Ar.), 

matter ; see masaala. 
masallachi, pi. masallatai (cf. 

Ar. rt ^JLid), place of worship, 

mdiSani, pi. masana, a learned 

man, a mallam ; cf. sani. 
masar, mazar, Egypt (Ar. 


j-^A^) ; itchen masar (Egyptian 

tree), a shrub which is some- 
times planted in compounds 
(Croton Zambesiacus). 

masara or dawa masara, 
Egyptian corn, maize, kan 
masara the feathery top of 
growing maize, goiyon ma- 
sara, maize cob, so called 
because carried below the 
kai or tuft, masaran giwa 
a poison used for arrows. 
masaran machiji a plant with 
a red and yellow flower some- 
what resembling a tiger-lily. 

masarauchi, pi. masarauta, 
ruler, governor; cf. sarauta. 

masarchi, a mounted drum- 
mer or trumpeter. 

masarchi*, pi. masartai, a 
comb ; cf. masefi. 

masarmaina, matsarmama, 
gall bladder, gall. 

mSiSasaki, pi. masasaka, car- 
penter, joiner; cf. sasaka. 





mas^sara, fever, a cold; masd- 
sara ta kcmiani tlie fever 
caught me, i.e. I caught 
fever, jin masdsara to have 

masaso*, the name of a black 
snake, applied to a warrior. 

masebi, flint and stone ; see 

masefi, a frame used in weav- 
ing through which the warp 
threads pass after leaving 
the alera; cf. matsefi. 

maseki, gourd ; see masaki. 

mashako, 1. a sore throat; 
2. a rat trap ; cf. shake. 

mashari, a rake with two 
prongs used for gathering 
up rubbish ; cf . shara. 

masharua, 1. rainbow; lit. 
water-drinker; 2. the arch 
used in building, see kofojin- 
guga ; 3. an arch. 

mashasha, a quantity of any- 

mashaya, 1. watering-place, 
waterside; 2. a place of in- 
toxicating drinks, E 17; cf . 

mashayi, pi. mashaya, a toper. 

mashekare, a place where 
cattle stay through the rains; 
see shekare, 

mashekia, winnowers ; cf. shi- 

mashemi, a hoe ; cf. shema. 

masherera, mashirare, the 
small mosque swallow ; cf. 

mashi, maji, pi. masu, masu- 
suka, 1. a spear ; yesda mashi 
or yada mashi to throw a 
spear as a declaration of war ; 
this expression is specially 
applied to the first war waged 
by a king after his accession ; 
cf. Gr. p. 139, 1. 46 ; 2. ma- 
shin tamraru a shooting star, 
usually regarded as prognosti- 
cating war from the quarter 
whence it comes ; 3. a stick 
of wood dipped in antimony 
for smearing the eyes ; 4. ma- 
shin jirigi a pronged stick 
used for tethering canoes; 5. 
mashin zomo (hare's spear) a 
species of fern with leaves 
arranged alternately on the 

m^shidi, 1. a resting-place, 
lodging, khan ; 2. steps by 
which to come down from a 
place ; maimashidi host, inn- 
keeper ; cf . shida. 

mashigi, the entrance to a 
ford, a ford ; karamin ma^ 
shigi a shallow ford ; cf. mor 
ketare, mahayi. mashigin 
rami the entrance to a hole^ 

mashimfidi, pi. mashimfuda^ 
1. a small trader who spreads 
out things for sale; 2. a 




covering for a horse ; cf. 

mashimi*, a tanning block; 

see majemi. 
mashirare, the small mosque 

swallow ; see masherera. 
mashiye, the small stick used 

for applying antimony. 

, masiba,pl. masibai [Ar. A^c u e), 

pain, affliction ; D 40 en shara 
ka aika ka sha tnasiba if thou 
hast done evil thou wilt meet 
with great pain, 
maslfa, 1. mischief; 2. mis- 
fortune, calamity ; 3. mis- 
chievous, maimasifa, pi. ma- 
snmasifa a felon, villain, mis- 
chievous or vicious person. 
Possibly this may be only an- 
other form of prec. 
) masilla, misilla (Ar. aJlI-o), 

a large sail-needle, 
masirchi, comb ; see masefi. 
masisika, floor, threshing-floor; 

cf. sisika. 
m.aski, a spot, e.g. of grease. 
maskwa, a grain something 
like guinea-corn grown in low- 
lying ground. 
maso,pl. masowa, lover, friend; 
i F 79 ; cf. masoyi. 
masokachi, mirror; see mat- 

i m.asom.i, pi. masomai, begin- 
[ ning, from soma to begin; 

cf. A 30, ita dunia nana che 
masomi a lakhira this world 
is the beginning of the future 
state ; cf . soma^ 

m.asoro, a kind of pepper, M. 
H. p. 123, also a tree which 
produces berries from which 
pepper is obtained. 

masoshi, comb ; cf. masefi. 

masoyi, pi. masoya, masoyu^ 1, 
one w^ho loves, or is fond of 
either a person or a thing, a 
lover, friend; 2. pass, be- 
loved, dear; cf. maso. 

m.asr, Egypt ; see masar. 

m.asu, dragon-fly. 

masu, massu, matsu, to be 
hungry or distressed ; cf. 
niatse, matsua. 

masukwani, a place for horses 
to gallop ; cf . sukua. 

masulifdi, mail-clad ; cf. lifdi. 

m.asuna, = chiwon sainyi. 

m.asuna, pi. masusu, one who 
fishes, e.g. with hand -nets; 
cf. su. 

m.asiinclli, one who fishes with 
a net. 

masunta, a place for fishing, 

m.asiiru, cat ; see muzuru. 

m.asusuka, a threshing place ; 
cf. susilka. 

masutashi, nomadic people; 
see tashi. 

masuwa, affliction ; cf. masu. 




mata, 1 . plural of makhe women ; 

2. raata is also applied to a 

married woman, wife, of which 

the pi. is mataye. 
mata*, death, another form of 

mutna ; B 158 mata ta maida 

mutum, kwanche death causes 

men to lie down. 
matabata*, F 82, enduring, 

lasting; cf. tahdta. 
matache, fem. matachia, pi. 

matatu (cf. Ar. OU), 1. dead; 
2. a dead person, corpse; 3. 
broken, e.g. tukunia unatachia 
a broken calabash or a cala- 
bash with holes in the bottom, 
matatun kworia broken cala- 
bashes or vessels ; see similar 
use of mutu ; cf. mamahi. 

mataimaki, helper; see tai- 
mako assistance. 

matakara*, a ladder made of 
wood or rope. 

mataki, 1. a sort of spindle, 
used esp. by women, made 
of skin; 2. the two sticks 
used as pedals for the feet in 
working a loom ; cf. sq. 

mataki, pi. matakai, 1. steps; 
matakin soro the stairs lead- 
ing to an upper floor; 2. foot- 
stool ; cf . taki. 

mataki, soles of the feet, A 30; 
in comp. matakinbiri a horse 
whose ankle-joint nearly 

touches the ground, lit. one 
that steps like a monkey. 

matalaga, small hammer ; see 

m.atalauc]ii, pi. matalauta^ 
poor, poverty stricken; cf. 

m.atamache, thoughts, cares, 
concerns ; mataniachen dunia 
the cares of the world or of life. 

matamachi, iron-ore ; cf . tdma. 

matamni, pi. matamna, a molar 
tooth, lit. the grinder, from 
tamna to chew ; the plur. 
matamna — 3A\ the teeth to- 

m.atankadi, a sieve; cf. tan- 
kadi to winnow. 

matankani, the fan used when 
grinding flour to get rid off 
the chaff. 

matanyi, helper ; see taya. 

matara, masc, or mataran- 
hatsi, a place where corn is' 
stacked, a stack ; cf . tar a to - 

m.S,tari, spool, bobbin. 

m.^tashi, young, growing ; mori 
tashin balaga, a boy arriving; 
at age of puberty ; the femi- 
nine form is matashiyar-bcU- 

m.atashi, 1. used in comp. ma-' 
tashin kai pillow, rest for the 
head ; 2. the repetition of tbe< 
first word of following page 




at foot of preceding page; 
cf. tashi, kai. 

matataki (fr. tdki manure), 1. 
the wandering of animals to 
graze on and manure a farm ; 
2. the place where the ani- 
mals wander. 

matauria, used esp. in expr. ma- 
tauria zuchia hard-hearted ; 
cf. tauri. 

mataushi, lit. presser; 1. ma- 
taushin kofa a piece of wood 
leaning against a door to keep 
it shut ; 2. mataushin tvotika 
a signet ; cf. taushe. 

mataye*, helper ; cf. taya. 

matsa, matse, mache, q.v. 
(the last two forms are speci- 
ally used before a personal 
pronoun), to squeeze, press ; 
cf. matsu. 

matsafa, pi. matsafi, a place 
for worship, a fetish spot. 

matsafi, pi. masutsafi, one who 
worships or sacrifices to idols, 
an idolater ; cf. tsafi, 

matsaifata, m.atsefata, twee- 
zers, or large needle ; see 

m.atsakaichi, f. matsakaicha, 
midway between, the mean 
of; cf. tsdka. 

matsarbaje (S.), tendons of 
the foot. 

matsarmama, gall ; see ma- 

m.atsatsaka, leech ; cf. (?) 

tsaga to bleed, 
miatsawa, n. pressing, squeez- 

ing ; cf. matsa. 

m.atsawa;, length, extent, en- 
during ; cf. tsawo. 

matsayi, a raised place; cf. 

matse, to squeeze ; see matsa. 

m.atsefata, see m,atsaifata. 

m.atsefi, masefi, pi. matsefaiy 
miatsefuna^ a comb made of 
wood or iron ; cf. m,ajsarchi. 

m.atsetsi, a ring or pad of grass 
which a water carrier puts on 
his head to prevent his water 
pot from falling ; cf. gamo. 

m.atseyi, duration, matseyin rai 
for life ; also abiding place. 

miatsi, machi, n. squeezing ; 
lourin machi a narrow place. 

m.atsiachi, matsiyachi, pi. 
matsiata, one who is destitute 
or in distress ; cf. mache. 

matsina*(Ar. iJauo), suspicion, 

matsira, a refuge, place of 
safety ; cf . tsh^a. 

m.atsirkia, machirkia, a 
stringed musical instrument; 
cf. tsarkia. 

m.atsokachi, mLasokachi, mir- 
ror ; matsokachin ido the 
pupil of the eye ; cf. tsokachi, 

m.atsorachi, cowardice, terror. 




matsorata, matsorache, a 

coward ; cf . tsoro. 
matsu, a pass, form of matse 

(cf. mache), 1. to be narrow, 

hainya ta matsu the road is 

narrow ; 2. to suffer hunger, 
matsua*, hunger ; cf. masu. 
matuchi, fem. pudenda. 
matuka, boundary, limit, the 

utmost possible. 
matuki, a paddle used as a 

rudder ; 2. one who paddles ; 

cf. tuka] 3. a handle fixed into 

the pole of loom ; see takala. 
matuna*, matunan*, a 

thought ; cf . tuna. 
maturike, stable, M. H.p. 222; 

cf. turike. 
matuturchi, everlasting; cf. 

matuwa, an ass (f.). 
mauda, dark-coloured salt. 
maulo, a musical instrument ; 

see molo. 
raauro, pi. maurori, a poor 

slave who begs. 
mawadachi, pi. mawadata, 

1. fortune; 2. a man of for- 
tune ; see wada. 
mawashi, a grindstone; cf. 

mawauta, 1. abstr. from wawa 

folly, foolishness ; 2. concr. a 

foolish person. 
maya, mala, to return, 
may a, may e, may i, to take the 

place of another, to succeed 
another, to take over, see 
maida \ ka maye sarauta seize 
the kingdom : used of corn 
= to be backward in ripening. 

mayafi, pi. maydfai, bed- 
clothes, coverings, covering 
thrown over shoulder ; cf. 
ydfa to fold over. 

miS,yaki, pi. mdyaka, soldier ; 
cf . yaki. 

mayani, maiyani, pi. maya- 
nai, handkerchief ; cf. ydne. 

mayata, sorrow, calamity, 
trouble ; cf. prov. sabo da 
mayata m,aganin wota rana 
being accustomed to misfor- 
tune is the medicine for the 
(unknown) future ; used of a 
rich man who was formerly 

m.ayawa, many ; see m.aiyawa. 

mayayi*, an interpreter. 

m.aye, n. drunkenness ; yin 
m,aye to be drunk. 

maye, to take over, succeed ; 
see vnaya. 

maye-maye (S.), a dish made 
of rdma leaves and flour. 

m.aye, m.ayi, fem. maiya, ma- 
yia, pi. mayu, one with evil 


sorcerer, wizard, A 82 

note ; cf. maita witchcraft, 
mayenki, mayanki, knife; cf. 

m.ayenwachi*, pi. mayenwatay 




one who is hungry or desti- 
tute ; cf . ynnwa. 

mayes, mayer, to change ; see 

mayesa, maiessa, maiyessa, 
why? a corruption of mi ya 
sa what caused it ? 

mayesda, to send back, return ; 
see maida. 

mayi, 1 . intoxicated ; see maye ; 
2. jan mayi a cannibal. 

mayi, sorcerer ; see maye. 

mayi, to take the place of an- 
other ; see maya. 

mayinchi, gluttony. 
j m.ayocleri*, strategem. 
I inS,za, quickly ; frequently re- 
duplicated thus, m^za mdza 
or m,alm,dza very quickly. 

mS,za, mazaje, mazaizai, men, 
plural of miji, q.v. ; m,azan- 
gaskia brave men, ' real men.' 

mazakuta, mazaknnta, ma- 
zakunchi, 1. bravery, man- 
liness, mettle ; 2. penis. 

mazam.bachi, pi. m^azamhata^ 
rogue, M. H. p. 20G ; cf. 

mazamni, dwelling-place, habi- 
tation, seat, spot on which a 
man sits down ; maizamnij 
mazarani, inhabitant. 

mazar, Egypt; see musar. 

mazargi, 1. a string, e.g. for 
tying up trousers {wanduna) ; 
2. a noose for catching ani- 

mals; cf. zarge, azargagiy 

mS-zari, spindle. 

mazawuri, the large intestine. 

mazifa (S.), overseer. 

mtaziga, the stick fastened to 
the bellows ; see zugdzugu. 

m.azigi, one who blows a fire 
with bellows worked with a 
stick fixed into a skin ; cf. 

mazo, bush buck (tragelafus^ 

mazoni, sitting place ; amaida 
wanan am,azonin icanan 
change this in place of that. 

miazoro, wild cat; see muzurto, 

mazowa, inhabitants. 

mazubi, seal, stamp. 

mazngu*, dan mazugu one who 
is foolish. 

mazurari, spout, funnel; cf. 

make, mekiya, mikiya, pi. 
mekiyCj the black and white 
fishing vulture (gypohierax 

male, ulcer, rash. 

mena (K.), a species of ante- 
lope ; see muina. 

merki, a species of acacia ; a 
medicine for horses is made 
from it. 

m.esa, python ; see mdisa. 

metin (Ar. O^^)) *wo hun- 




metso, a small species of ante- 

mi-, to, prep, used as insepar- 
able prefix before a pronoun ; 
see ma. 

mi, me, what? In interroga- 
tive ' sentences the personal 
pron. must be emplo3'-ed as 
well as the interrog., e.g. mi 
ya samekaw\\ai.t is the matter 
with you 1 Forms strength- 
ened by the addition of the 
subst. verb are m,ine, minene, 
what is it ? 

mia (cf. (?) Ar. cU), broth, 

relish ; cf. prov. mugun mia 
ha ta karewa atukunia bad 
soup never gets finished in 
the pot. 

mia, an hundred ; see mhiya. 

m.iagu, bad, pi. of mugu, q.v. 

m.iau,, saliva, spittle; 
tofi miau to spit. 

michali*, m.ithali*, simili- 
tude ; see misali. 

m.iji, pi. maza, m^azaje, mazai- 
zaiy man, husband ; miji da 
mache married man ; cf. na- 
m,iji male. 

m.ijinachia, vein ; cf. majin- 

mijiria, mijirya, minjiria, 
m.isiria, 1. cramp, convul- 
sions; hafata ta yi mijiria, 
or mijiria ta kam^a kafata 

my foot has gone to sleep; 
2. electric fish ; 3. a large 
tree like a kurna with red 

mika, mike, 1. to stretch forth, 
e.g. the hands or limbs ; Tnike 
tsawo 'step out' ! to straighten 
out ; 2. to yawn, or as a n. 
yawning; cf. M. H. p. 147, 
sai shina mika he does no- 
thing but yawn, mikaken 
dutsi a precipitous rock or 
cliff*. TThiko to pull in towards 
oneself, miku to be extended 
or stretched out, e.g. hainya 
ta miku the road stretches 
out to a distance, mimike 
or m,inmike to sit at ease. 

mike, to recover, get well. 

miki, pi. TYiiyaku, sore. 

m.ikia, vulture ; see m.eke. 

mi-kwana-ki-ba-ni, the name 
of a mouse. (a borrowed English word), 
used in Sokoto to denote 
1000 gaha cubits, or 2000 
camel paces. 

milgi, a kind of fish. 

mine, minene, what 1 see mi. 

mingio, a venereal disease = 

minjirya, cramp; ^ee mijiria. 

minshari*, nansari or han- 
sari (cf. (?) Ar.^Li; Fulah 
min harr a = l snove), to snort:;. 

minu, a name given to the 




cheapest and smallest kola 
nuts after the largest have 
been picked out ; cf . marsa. 

minya, mia (Ar. ajU), an 

hundred ; arba mia four hun- 

minzeri* (cf. Ar. SjJsuU), tele- 
scope), spectacles. 

mio, spittle ; see miau. 

mirda (S. ), to twist ; see murda. 

mirdago, see murdago. 

mirgina, murgina, mirgine, 
to roll about, e.g. a stone. 

mirmirto, a plant with an 
edible root. 

misa, python ; see mdisa. 

inisali(Ar. Jt«), 1. similitude, 

parable, proverb, D 94 mu 
dai mu yi michali kadan we 
indeed speak a little as it 
were in parables ; 2. like, as, 
used like tamka. misalinsa 
- kamansa an expression ap- 
plied to a picture or likeness; 
3. meaning, explanation, ex- 
ample ; cf . har ya wuche mi- 
sali it was past all reason. 

misalta, to compare; see mi- 

misilla, a large needle ; see 

misiria*, cramp, etc.; see mi- 

miskal* (Ar. JU1«), a weight 

especially used for measuring 
gold = 86 grs. 
mita, a noise. 

9 J 

mitalafi* ( Ar. otlJU), generous, 

miyo, spittle ; see miau. 

mizani (Ar. o!j**)' scales, bal- 
ance; F 139 akai da mi- 
zani ga kotva the balance is 
brought for everything. 

moda, 1. the refuse of a gourd 
iduma) used for making 
spoons ; 2. a large wooden 
spoon used for dipping up 
mz«, etc. 

moda, a plant from which a 
species of hemp is obtained 
(Sansevieria spinosa, Lili- 

modi, a gambling game played 
with cowries ; yin m,odi to 
throw down dice, shells, etc. 
in gaming. 

molo, pi. moluna, music, play- 
ing; kiclin molo drumming, 
E 1 6 ; abin molo a musical 
instrument of any kind ; 
m,olo is sometimes used to 
denote a kind of guitar with 
three strings. 

m.onomi, planter ; see manom,i. 

m.onzo, for manzo, messenger, 
M. H. p. 218. 

m.ori, bef. pron. more, v. n. 
mo7'o, to make a profitable 




use of; cf. wane ha he moro 
which do you use ? ina mo- 
ronsa I am making use of him; 
moria use advantage, profit. 
yin moria to be profitable, 
motsa, 1. tr. to shake, to move; 
2. intr. to move ; 3. to be in 
commotion, e.g. gari duka ya 
motsa the whole town was in 
a state of excitement ; shina 
nem,a shi motsa mani he is 
trying to rise against me ; 
V. n. motsuwa, cf. ya hi mot- 
suwa it can't be moved. 

motsi, mosi, movement ; mot- 
sinshi his movement. 

mowa, favourite wife. 

mu, 1. first pers. pron. pi. 
conim. gender, 'we'; 2. -nynu, 
used as poss. pron. ' our ' ; it 
is suffixed to a noun when 
the object possessed is mas- 
culine; the forms -rmu or 
-lm.u are used when the object 
possessed is feminine; 3. as 
objective pron.= 'us,' e.g. sun 
hannamu they hindered us. 

mua, often contracted to ma, 
used as a prefix to denote the 
first person plural of the 
future tense; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

mubaiya (Ar.), homage, allegi- 
ance sworn on installation of 
a king. 

mubugu, mubugi, mabugu, a 
professional cloth hammerer. 

muburmi, a small calabash. 

muchia, a stick used for stir- 
ring soup, a large stick used 
by dyers. 

muchu* to be moved; cf. 

mudabar (S.), freedom given 
to a slave on the death of 
his master (Ar.). 

miidu (K.), pi. muduna (Ar. 

jc«), 1. a measure, made of 
wood or metal ; the Sokoto 
equivalent is rakka; mud^ 
anabi the cup or measure 
with which the contributions 
oi fida kai, q.v., are made; 
2. curb, chain. 

mufuradi, 'singular' (Ar; 

' * ■* 

>jA^)', ci. jami^ 'plural.' 

mugama, 1. a stay; yin mu- 
gcima to make a stay at a 
place for some days, to ab- 
stain from work, to rest, e.g. 
as on Friday ; 2. a rest day. 

mugo, a white ass. 

mugu, fem. mugunia, pi. ini- 
dgu, bad, e.g. mutum mugu 
or mugun mutum a bad man; 
cf. mumuna. 

mugun-dawa, the wart-hog; 
cf. durungu, alhanzir. 

mugunta, badness, wicked- 

mugurji, a fiat stone; see ma- 




muhawara, contention, join- 
ing of issue in a case; cf. 
hawcda, and wohala. 

muhiba, love. 

mujededdi*, a title given to 
a reformer or innovator (cf. 


Ar. j^y 

muji, in comp. mujin Jcarifi, 
loadstone, magnet. 

mujia, pi. rmijiye, owl. 

muka, first pers. pron. pi. pre- 
fixed to narrative tense. 

mukadaichi, only ; see maka 

mukS,das, a regent; see ma- 

mukami*, power, jurisdiction 
(? - hakumi by metathesis). 

mukamuke, jaw-bone, a pi. 
of mumuki, q.v. 

mukira, blacksmiths, a pi. of 
mdkeri, q.v. 

muku^inaku, to you, for 
you ; cf. ma. 

mukublia, makublia, a con- 
cubine, female slave, from 

■ kuhle to lock up. 

mukuma, a species of ante- 
lope ; cf . makurma. 

mukuru, a woman's under- 

mulki*, Ar., kingdom, rule. 

mulmule, a ball, a round piece 
of anything. 

muhnuleli, to rub anything 
in the hand, e.g. guinea-corn. 

mulmushi, n. smile ; see mur- 

mulufi, malufi (cf. (?) Ar. rt 
v-*^-tf), 1. velvet, wool, wool- 
len cloth ; 2. the name of a 
small scarlet woolly beetle; 

3. the scarlet 'cardinal-bird'; 

4. a cummerbund, 
mulwa, pi. mulwoyi (S.), fetters 

put on the feet of slaves or 
prisoners ; cf . malwa, 

mumberi, part of the embroi- 
dery on the front of a tobe. 

mumona, mumuna, ma- 
muna, ugly ; see muni. 

miunu = mamu, to us, for us ; 
cf. m,a. 

mumuki, pi. mukamuke, lower 

mumuna, ugly ; see mumona. 

mumuni, fem. mumuna (Ar. 

^^y^), believer, one who is 

mun, pronoun 1st pers. pi. used 

with perfect tense, cf. Gr. 

p. 27. 
muna, first pers. pron. pi. pref. 

to pres. tense ; cf. Gr. p. 28. 
muna, joy = murna. 
muna (S.), mana (K.), to us. 
munafuchi (S.) or munafichi 

(K.), guile, deceit, hypocrisy, 
munafuki (S. ), munafiki (K.), 

fem. munafuka, pi. munor- 

fukai (Ar. sjt3\i^), hypocrite. 




mundua, mandua, pi. mun- 
daye, arm -ring, bracelet, 
bangle, usually made of sil- 
ver or brass ; mundayen kdfa 
foot rings. 

munguli, a cake of native salt. 

muni, ugliness, cruelty; da 
muni ugly, cruelly. 

muntalaga, matalaga, a small 

muntsini, to pinch. 

munumunu, a dark-coloured 

mura, n. a cold in the head. 

muradi, desire ; see marddi. 

muramura, a species of guinea- 
corn; cf. ddwa. 

muraraba, divided; see mara- 

murda, murde (K.), mirda, 
mirde (S.), to twist, wind, 
throttle, e.g. shina murda 
wuyan kaza he wrings the 
neck of the chicken; used 
of medicine, etc. to gripe, to 
cause griping, murje, 1. to 
rub in the hands; 2. to 
twist, e.g. thread ; intensive 
form murniurda. murda^e 
to wring, twist, maimur- 
dagen baki the man with a 
twisted mouth. 

murdago, mirdago, throttler. 

murdaka, two or three reeds 
forming a circular binding 
line inside a roof and near 

to the centre (kwando) ; there 
are several such in a roof. 

murfu, pi. murd/u, fire-place, 
hearth ; see inurufu. 

murgine, to roll about; see 

murgu, pi. inuryogi, 1. money 
paid by slave to master for 
permission to work for him- 
self, i.e. either a lump sum 
or daily self-hire ; 2. money 
paid to a king by a master 
for return of a fugitive slave. 

murgude, to twist, distort; 
a^nu7'gude twisted. 

muri, a stable ; dan muri a 

muria, murya, pi. murioyi, L 
loud voice, cry ; 2. wind-pipe. 

murichi, muruchi, stalks of 
a young giginia tree ; in ap- 
pearance they are like celery 
and are largely eaten. 

murimuri, fish-hooks ; see ma- 

murjan (Ar. oU.j-i), pearl 
red beads used as ornaments ; 
murjanin tudu a large red 
bead or stone used by women 
in a necklace. 

murje, to rub in the hands, t. 
twist ; see murda. 

murjeki, mursekyi, to dra^\ 
the foot along on the ground, 
e.g. to crush an insect, crush, 
crumple up. inurjeke, fem. 




iimrjekn, pi. mnrjeku^ rubbed, 
murmura, n. a. kind of sweet 

murmura*, to rub or thresh 

I murmushi, m.ulmushi, smile, 
! yin murmushi to smile. 
* muma, muna, joy, gladness ; 
[ yiii muma or jin m,urna to 
I rejoice, F 217 suna mui'na da 
jama^u annabatva they re- 
! joice with all the prophets. 
murshan, beads, M. H. p. 124 ; 

cf. murjan. 
murtsuka, to tear, rend, to 
j rub (grain) in the hands ; cf. 
j murda. 

I muruchi, stalks of young palm 
! tree ; see murichi. 
\ murufu, murfu, pi. miord/u, 
\ fire-place, stove, place on 
' which the pot is placed for 
cooking ; usually formed with 
i three stones. 
murya, voice ; see muria. 
murza* (cf. Ar.Jj^), to rub. 
musa*, Moses. 

m.usa, mussa, pi. musoshi^ mu- 
sai (S.), cat ; cf. muzuru; dan 
mussa a name given to a 
snake which spits like a cat. 
musafaka*, to shake hands. 
m.usaya, n. change, e.g. change 
of money, yin musaya to ex- 
change one thing for another. 

musaya, musayi, musaye, 
bef. pron., to change alter, 
e.g. to change clothes, to 
change religion. 

mushe (K.), a dead body, car- 
rion ; yin mushe to die a 
natural death. 

mushia*, owl ; see mujia. 

musiba, pain ; see masiba. 

musilmi* A 5, i.q. musuhniy 

muska (Ar. s*X»«^), musk. 

m.usu, n. denial, dispute, con- 
tention, contradiction; mai- 
musu one who habitually con- 
tradicts. m,u8uwa contend- 
ing; F 159 habu m,usuwa ga 
kowa there is no contending 
for anyone. 

m.usulm.i, pi. musulmai (Ar. 


^^.L.xo), a moslem, Mohamme- 
dan. m,usulumchi worship, 
religion, in the Mohammedan 
sense of the word. 7nusu- 
lumta* to become a Mussul- 

miusuru, Fulah id., cat; see 

musuwa, contending ; see 

m.utu (Ar. OU), 1. to die; 
2. to end, come to an end, 
e.g. har wata ya mutu until 
the month-end ; hainya ta 
mutu the road is closed, wuta 




ta mutu the fire has gone 
out. matache, pi. matatu, 
dead, mw^wa death; mutuan 
allah a natural death. It is 
not polite to use mutu of a 
friend or a great man, thus 
a Hausa would say sariki ya 
rasu lit. the king is lost (to 
us), in anyi miaka mutua if 
bereavement befall you . ha ya 
ifl?a mw^ita he is not qu i te dead. 

mutua, death ; see mutu. 

mutum, mutume, pi. mutdne, 
man, human being; A suf- 
fixed e regularly appears be- 
fore the genitival suffix qi 
and before the pronoun nan 
or ga, e.g. mutumen nan or 
mutumenga this man, mutu- 
men sariki the king's man; 
mutum is frequently used in- 
stead of the pi. form mutane; 
cf. M. H. p. 208, mutum ya 
ji arbain the men were more 
than forty. 

mutumchi, humanity, also 
office, position, chin mutum- 
chi to disgrace a man, to take 
away his self-respect, sariki 
ya Jishe shi ya chimutum- 
chinsa the king deposed him 
and deprived him of his 
position in life. 

mutume, see mutum. 

mutumnia, 1. woman ; 2. con- 

muturu, fem. mutura, without 
a hump, specially applied to 

muzuru, m.uzulu, mazoro, 
m. cat ; kyanwa is used a;s 
the feminine ; muzurun-juda 
civet cat. In playing dikkf 
which is the commonest fori 
of chacha when the shells fail 
4 open (i.e. with the teeth 
uppermost) and 2 shut, th< 
throw is called idon-mazuru 
cat's eye ; see under mage. 

The letter ^ is used by th 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English n. When ^j 
is followed by h it is pro- 
nounced m. This is som« 
times the case when n \- 
followed by ^ 2; or ch ; for 
instances see under m. n is 
sometimes interchanged with 
I ; cf . niitika, linke ; nadama. 

n, for use of the letter n as a 
definite article, see 7ian. 

na, fem. ta, particles, 1. pre 
fixed as signs of the genitive, 
e.g. G 1 litaji na labari sarc 
kuna the book of the histoi'v 
of the kings ; n a shortened 
form of na is used to denote 
the possessive and genitive 
relation, e.g. dokin sariki the 




king's horse, sauran nama 
the rest of the meat. When 
the object possessed is femi- 
nine this n is changed to I or 
7' ; 2. used before pr. names, 
e.g. A 19 na ahmadu of Ah- 
madu; 3. pron. suff., e.g. nasa 
his, nata her, nasu their; 4. 
placed before card, numerals 
. to form the ordinals, e.g. 
nabiu tahiu second, na goma 
tagoma tenth. The connec- 
tive na is often used where 
suna would have been ex- 
pected, e.g. mutane na yin 
hdka the men are doing so, 
dawaki na gudu the horses 
are running away, wasa na 
zua fada, leken garu na mi 
the performers are going to 
the palace, of what use is 
looking over the walU hako 
na ido ba na gan gari ha the 
stranger (though) possessing 
eyes cannot see the town. 

na, a contraction of nia used 
as a prefix to denote the first 
person singular of the future 
tense ; cf. Gr. p. 32. 

na, pronominal particle, first 
person sing. masc. and fem. — 
I, 1. prefixed to the simplest 
form of verb to denote the 
perfect tense : na taji I went, 
or I have gone ; 2. as an 
inseparable ' possessive pron. 

R. H. D. 

suffixed to either singular or 
plural substantives provided 
that the object possessed is 
masculine, e.g. uhana my 
father, dawakina my horses, 
cf. use of -ta when object 
possessed is feminine. 

^ ^ 

na'am (Ar. j^\ yes. It is 
used in response to a sum- 
mons ; e.g. yes sir ! or, here 
sir ! It is not used in answer 
to questions. 

na'amaa (Ar. ^^), a kind of 
sweet herb or grain. 

nabaya, fem. tabaya, that which 
comes after, the second. 

nabua, thickness of lips. 

nache, to approach. 

nachi, nachia, n. constancy, 
continuance, persistence; da 
ndcJii constant. 

n^da, before, already, e.g. ba 
ya ji tsoro ba kaman nddd he 
was not afraid as before ; it 
is used also as equivalent to 
'former,' e.g. litafin nan duka 
data kaman nada this book 
is just the same as the former 
one ; cf. da of old. 

nadama (S.), nidama, lada- 
ma, Ar. 4^tjJ, repentance, 

nS-de, commonly pronounced yx^'i^ 
nede to roll, roll together, used 
of twisting yarn in spinning, 
also to put on a turban ; ta 





yi nede kaman namiji she 
wore a turban like a man. 
nade also denotes to put on 
the royal turban, i.e. to be 
crowned as king, e.g. akandda 
he came to the throne ; nan- 
nada to coil oneself up, used 
of a snake ; verbal n. nan- 
nade, nade-nade the winding 
of a turban ; nadu intr. to 
roll or coil up. 

n^di, n. rolling, twisting; yin 
nddi to roll. ^ ' 

nadiye (K.), a form of ndda 
to roll, twist. 

nafari, fem. tafdri, ord. num. 
first ; da nafari first-born son. 

naferko, nafarko, fem. taferko, 
first; F 147 ga tozo nai na- 
ferko at its first turning. 

nafsi* (Ar. jj-a3), the desires; 
D 22 kit hi allah ku her hi 
Ictinu da shi da nafsi follow 
God, cease following the wick- 
ed man, leave both him and 
his desires. 

nS.gari, fem. tdgari, pi. ndgar- 
gfU'u, good. 

nagerta, nagarta, goodness, 

nahau, nahauri (Ar. ^a^), 
grammar ; malamin nahau a 
mallam so learned that he 
knows grammar (which is the 
final stage of education). 

nai, of him, to him, his ; equi- 
valent to nasa. 

nai, a contracted form of na yi 
I did, I made. 

naibi (Ar.), deputy, agent. 

naima, nema, kindness ; see 

najasa, najasu (Ar. J^aJ^), 
abomination, excreta ; yin 
najasu to be filthy. 

naka, separablepossessive proii. 
second pers. sing. ' thy,' used 
when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine; 
when possessor is fem. and 
thing possessed is masculine 
naki is used ; cf . taka, taki. 

naki, thy ; cf. prec. 

nakia, small balls of sweet stuff 
make of rice and honey ; cf. 

nakiri* (Ar. j-Jo), Nakir, an 

angel whose office, according, 
to Mohammedan belief, is to 
try the dead in their graves; 
cf. D 41. 
naku, separablepossessive pron. 
second pers. pi., used when the- 
object possessed is masculine; 
cf. taku. 

nakuda (cf. (?) Ar. kid), to be< 

in travail, 
nakuja, balls made with rice^ 

and honey. 
nama, pi. namomi, namunOff 




masculine (cf. Zulu ^nymna 
meat), 1. flesh, meat; iiaman 
daji bush-meat, venison, game; 
1^. naman daji wild, beast, also 
as coll. the beasts of the field; 
iiaman kaza mushroom. 

namiji, fern, tamata,, pi. mazaje. 
Both forms are compounded 
of the prepositions na, ta, and 
the nouns miji and mata. 
1. male, fem. female; 2. na- 
miji also = man, husband, the 
pi. is then maza ; namiji da 
shara, lit. the man with the 
broom, a taunt applied to a 
bachelor, because he has to 
sweep his own house ; phr. 
jan namiji with reckless cour- 
age ; cf . miji. 

namu, separable possessive 
pron. first pers. pi. 'our,' 
used when object possessed 
is masculine ; cf. tamu. 

nan, 1. this, that, these, those, 
e.g. dokin nan this horse, lita- 
tafai nan these books ; 2. so, 
e.g. shi ke nan it is so; 3. 
here, e.g. ha shi nan ba he is 
not here ; ananan, lit. he (or 
it) is here, is used at the end 
of a sentence for ' so it was ' 
or ' so it is ' or less frequently 
in the sense of 'moreover.' 
ke nan also denotes 'so it is,' 
ka tafi ke nan har ahhada you 
are departing in fact for ever, 

ko ranan nan kasamu perhaps 
thou wilt find it one day, 
achikin gari yi ke ko anan ne 
he is in the town or some- 
where, nan da ?ian just now, 
is used of past action or in 
narration, n which is prob- 
ably a contraction of nan is 
sometimes used as though it 
were a kind of definite article- 
Thus a man who had failed to 
see a woman whom he had 
expected would say enna ma- 
chen where is the woman? 

nana, here, hither, this, A 10; 
cf. prec. 

nana, 1. to stick to, cause to 
adhere ; 2. intr. to stick, ad- 
here ; 3. to flatten. 

nan^fa, a plant with small 
black seeds, red inside ; a 
purgative is made from it. 

nanake, flattened ; maihanchi 
nanake a man with a flatten- 
ed nose. 

nandanan, just now ; see n^tn. 

nani, n. sticking, adhering. 

nankaiya*, wading through 

nansari, nasari, to snore ; see 

narike, narika, narka, to 
melt, tr. and intr. to smelt ; 
parti cip. adj. narkake, fem. 
narkaka^ pi. narkaku, melted. 
narihvL to melt, be melted ; 




ina akan narikewa it is just 

at melting point, 
nariki, narki, n. melting, 
narko (S.), threat. 

nasa (Ar. ^), used of water, 
to spread. 

nasa, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing, 'his,' used 
when possessor and thing pos- 
sessed are both masculine ; cf . 

nS,sa, nS,she, to throw, e.g. 
a spear ; nasa wani abu a 
ivuta to throw anything into 
the fire, pass. part, nasashe. 

nSsara ( Ar. j-cJ), victory, suc- 
cess, good luck ; G 2 bayayi 
nasara ha he did not obtain 
the victory; nasarchi victory, 

nasaranta, to become a Chris- 

nasari, to snore ; see nansari. 

nSiShe, to spear ; see nasa. 

nashe, to be saturated with oil, 
to be greasy or oily, used of 
cloth on which oil has been 
spilt : riga ta nashe ; cf . nu- 
che (?). 

n^shi, pi. 7iashe-nashe, n. throw- 
ing, e.g. a spear. 

naso, nashi (S.), to be greasy. 

nassia, da nassia graceful. 

nasu, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. pi. 'their,' used 

when the object possessed is 
masculine; cf. tasu. 

nata, third pers. possessivefem. 
pers. pron. ' her,' used when 
object possessed is masc. and 
possessor is fem. 

nata, an early crop of kola nuts : 
see under goro. 

nati, dark blue thread, darker 
than shudi. 

natsu, 1. to be occupied or en- 
grossed in anything; cf. ko 
natsu da aikinka you are en 
grossed in your work; 2. of 
a man, to be at peace ; 3. of 
wind, to be calm ; cf. seq. 

natsu*, nazu* (cf . Ar. rt ^3 , 
to be distant), used with han 
kali, e.g. hankalinsa ya na%r 
lit. his wits are away, i.e. his 
wits have not yet come back 
to him, he is still asleep or 

natsu, natso, natsua, n. peace 
fulness, calm, attentiveness. 

natsua, n. peace, calm. 

naiiku, fem. tauku, ord. num. 
third ; A 48 naukunsu the 
third among them, the third 
one of them. 

nausha, naushe, nushe, to 
hit with the fist, to box. 

naushi, n. boxing. 

nauwa, v. to be late, to linger, 

nauwa, weight, heaviness, a 
drag or weight, dull wit ted- 




ness ; cf. mainauiva a man 
who goes slowly. 

nauyi, noyi, weight, heavi- 
ness ; da nauyi heavy. 

nawa, separable possessive pro- 
noun first pers. sing. * mine,' 
used when the possessor and 
the thing possessed are both 

nawa, n. late-coming ; yin na- 
wa to come late ; cf. nauwa. 

nS.wa, often pronounced nauwa 
X * X 
(cf. (?) Ar. ^a^J, about, ac- 
cording to), how much 1 how 
many ? e.g. kurdi nawa what 
is the amount '? su yi nawa 
how many were there ? gilda 
naioa how many ? 

nawS.ya, to cause distress to. 

naw3,ya, distress, ha sa mani 
nawaya you cause me distress, 
ni na gamu da nawaya I ex- 
perienced distress. 

ne, substantive verb to be, used 
with any person or number 
but usually with masc. sub- 
ject ; with a fem. subject che 
is used, while ke is used with 
either gender. It is usually 
placed at the end of the clause, 
e.g. wanan harao ne this man 
is a thief, though this might be 
written wanan shi ne harao. 
ne in reply to a question is 
sometimes placed after a com- 
plete verbal phrase, ' who is 

it you want?' Ans. na zo 
wurinka ne ' it is you that I 
come to.' In answer to a 
foolish question na sani ne ? 
{ai ban sani ha being under- 
stood) do you think that I 
know, or how should I know ? 
cf. M. H. p. 190, ya yi chin- 
tua(t8intua) ne=he has made 
a find. In Sokoto and Zan- 
fara ?ia, ka and ta are fre- 
quently used for ne, ke and 
che, e.g. godia ta it is a mare, 
doki na it is a horse. 

nema, n. masc. seeking ; mai- 
neman aure a suitor for a 
wife ; ahiit, nema an object of 
desire ; matar nemansa the 
girl of his choice ; da7i nema 
child of courtship (i.e. not 
preceded by a marriage), 
bastard ; see under nima. 

nema, without obj., with n. obj. 
nemi, with pron. obj. neme, 
to seek, look for, search ; ya 
nemi ahin kansa he looked 
after himself; a pass, form 
anim is found in B 155 kai 
dai anim shinni gun malla- 
mai thou must seek know- 
ledge with the mallams ; nemo 
to go to seek and return with 
a thing. 

nena (S.), nina (S.), or niina 
(K.), 1. to be fully cooked, 
e.g. abinchi ya nena the food 




is finished cooking; 2. to 
cook; 3. to be ripe, e.g. diyan 
itache ta nena the fruit of the 
tree is ripe, nenane, nunane, 
pi. nena7iUi nuncmu, 1. cook- 
ed, baked ; 2. ripe. 

nesa, nisa, distance, da nisa 
at a distance, far, ddga nisa 
from afar, nesa is sometimes 
used as an adj. rua nesa ya 
ke the water is distant ; nes- 
anta to place at a distance, to 
drive away ; nesanchi, ni- 
sanchi to keep aloof from ; 
nisanta, n. aloofness, keeping 

ni, first pers. pron. sing. comm. 
gender, ' I ' ; when followed 
directly by a verb it is used 
like zani to denote the future 
tense, ni tafi I will go. It is 
often placed for the sake of 
emphasis before na or ina ; 
ni na tafi it was I who 
went, or I indeed went ; cf. 

ni, first pers. suffixed pron. 
comm. gender preceded by 
1. a verb, e.g. sun kirani 
they called me ; indirect obj. 
e.g. ya bani wanan he gave 
me that; 2. a prep., e.g. mani 
to me, gareni id. 

nia - is it I ? do you mean me 1 
e.g. in answer to a call, esp. 
used in the district of Sokoto. 

The final letter is the sub- 
stantive verb; cf. under a. 
nia, used as a prefix to denote 
the first person singular of 
the future tense : often con- 
tracted to nd. 

niam*, Ar. j^, prosperous, 
found B 169 tana niam it is 
a prosperous place. 

niche, to immerse, to drown ; 
see nuche. 

nidama, remorse ; see naddma. 

nifa, to wish ; see nufa. 

nika, to grind. 

niki, n. grindstone, mill. 

nima, naima, pi. nimomi (Ar. 

iLpJu), pleasure, kindness ; D 

75 7nu sha nima we shall have 
pleasure; dan nima, 1. a 
bastard (see under nemo) ; 2. 
a term of endearment used by 
a father to his son ; cf. niam. 

nimka, to fold up cloth, paper, 
etc. ; see nunka. 

nma, to be ripe ; see nena. 

ninkaya, to dive, to swim. 

ninsari, to snore ; see nansari, 

nisa, distance ; see nesa. 

nisanchi, to keep aloof from ; 
see nesa. 

nishi, groan, cry ; yin nishi to 
groan, used of a sick man. 

nisso, niswa, calm ; cf. natsii. 

nitso, to dive, sink ; of. niche. 




-nka, -nki, -nku, -nmu, 

inseparable possessive pro- 
nouns ; cf. ka, k% ku^ mu. 
I XlOChe, to sink ; see nuche. 

noke, to withdraw into shelter, 
to retire into its shell, used 
of a tortoise's head, or of a 
snake retreating into its hole. 

noma, nomi or nome, to work 
with the hoe, to till the 
ground, nomame, nomeme, 
fern, nomamia, used of crops 
that have been hoed and 
weeded, mainoma, mainomi, 
pi. 7nasuno7na, a tiller of the 
ground, manomi a sowing- 

noma, pi. nomomi, nomuna^ 
farm- work ; A 24 noma <ja 
mata bai kamata ha kun sani 
farm-work is not becoming 
for a wife, you know. 

nome, a plant about three feet 
in height, the white grains 
of which are ground and 
eaten (Sesamum Indicum). 

nomejide, used of farming in 
one place and living in an- 
other ; cf. noma, gida. 

nonanu, ripe ; see under nena, 
M. H. p. 182. 

nono, pi. noriuna, nonaye, 1. 
breast; pap ; 2. milk ; cf . 

nonon giwa, a forest tree; 
see rahaina. 

nonon kurichia (dove's milk), 
a creeping plant with pink 
fleshy stalk and pink flower, 
so called from its white milky 
sap (= euphorbia pilulifera). 

nordi, a black and white cow, 

noyi, weight ; see nauyi. 

-nsa, -nshi, -nsu, -nta, in- 
separable possessive pro- 
nouns ; cf . sa, shi, su, ta. 

nuche, niche, to sink, immerse; 
see nutsa, 

nufe, nufi, nifa*, to search 
for, to wish for ; ya nufi gida 
he set his face towards home, 
ka yi nufe ka tafi did you 
intend to go ? B 42 kaina na 
ke nifa ha kowa ha I myself 
desire nothing. 

nufi, nufe, n., object of desire ; 
F 251 da na Jita sokoto... 
nufina that I may go forth 
from Sokt)to is my desire. 
ya yi nufe = he desired or he 

nuna, to be ripe ; cf . neiia. 

nuna, to aim at, nuno to aim at 
place where the speaker is; 
cf . seq. 

nuna, nuni, to show, to point, 
to explain, e.g. B 41 ahinda 
malam,inka ya nunama that 
which your Mallam explains 
to you. nuna hanu to point 
with the hand. ya nuna 
masa da or ya nuneshi da 




he pointed at him with ; 
nian^ni forefinger, nunawa, 
particip. form, showing, mani- 
festation, explanation. 

nunane, cooked, ripened ; see 

nunfashi, to breathe = lum- 
jashi, q.v. 

nuni, a sign, instance, example, 
ya yi mani rmni he signed 
to me ; see nuna. 

nuni, the mounting of a mare 
by a stallion. 

nunka, nunke, to fold cloth, 
to twist strands into a thread 
or rope ; cf . ydmha^ linke. 

nunki,a strand of rope or thread. 

nuri*, to gaze upon, C 15 kai 
nuri wawa behold the fool ; 
cf. annuri and lura. 

nusa, nuso, see nuta. 

nushe, yin nushe to strike for- 
ward with the fist, to box ; 
see iiausha. 

nusufi, half (cf. Ar. otcu), 
not used colloquially. 

nuta, n. diving. 

nutsa (K.), nuto (S.), nutse, 
nitso, to dive, dip under 
water, sink, nuche to im- 
merse, to sink, drown. 

-nwa, suffixed interrogative 
pronoun for na wa of whom 1 
whose? dokimva whose horse? 
tumkianwa ke nan whose 
sheep is this? 

nyenyawa, a fox. 

oda, uda, a long-eared ram. 

oho, an exclamation, it does 
not concern me ! sun fi ko 
sun gaza da kddan oho 
whether they were more oi 
less does not matter; see 
under gazh. 

oraki, dan oraki ass belonging 
to a celebrated Sudanese 
breed, large-sized and of a 
light tawny colour. 

othman (Ar.), Othman. 

In Hausa as in Arabic there is 
no distinctive symbol for the 
letter ^j. It is represented 
by y, or less commonly by h. 
In many words the sounds /" 
and p are constantly inter- 

pa, pi. pdni (S.), a stone. 

pago, woman's luggage carried 
in a bag ; see /ago. 

paiya paiya, faiya faiya, a 
shrub with narrow jointed 
pods, common on river banks, 
also called alambo and waken 
rafi (Ormocarpum spinosum, 

pal, much ; see pul. 

palasa or falasa, punishment. 
palashe to punish, e.g. ya 
palasheni he punished me. 




palinwota, often. 

palle, one thickness of cloth, 
e.g. in a tobe; cf. ribbe double 

palpashe, cf. M. H. p. 179,= 
fcdfashe, an intensive form 
of fashe, q.v., to break in 

palshe, to break, for pashe, 
M. H. p. 215 ; &eefashe. 

pampama (S.), a hole = ram?'. 

pampamini, famfammi, a 
wind-instrument used by a 
court musician. 

pansa, ransom, pansawa ran- 
soming ; see /ansa. 

panshe, pansi, to ransom, re- 
deem ; i^ee fanshe. 

papaka, flapping ; see pupuka. 

pasa, arrow-head. 

p^sa, to break ; see/dsa. 

pasakori, a tree; see fasa- 

pashe, to burst, to break ; see 
fashe, pashe da gudu to run 
very hard, pashen hainya 
brigand, sun pashe hainya 
they spoilt the road, M. H. 
p. 210. 

pashi, a small kaato of an 
inferior kind of salt. 

passi, light coloured, used of a 

passuba, passuba ta yaki in- 
struction in manoeuvres. 

pataka*, fataka*, a florin (a 

word probably introduced 
from Lagos). , 

patako, a plant used in tanning. 

pat^la, head-cloth. 

pelele*, lip disk worn by pagans 
= maran lebo. 

pelua, a brass ornamental ap- 
pendage to a bridle, covering 
the front of a horse's head. 

perma, a young elephant. 

perma, to take by surprise, 
fall suddenly on. 

perpezi, a small plant with 
green berries, used as a medi- 
cine for rheumatism. 

pesa, to spit; seefesa. 

peshi, driving rain. 

peti peti, a soft mash of rice, 
guinea-corn or anything simi- 

piauka =: basiru. 

piga (a form of fige)^ to pluck, 

pilapili, pelapele (K.), fila- 
fili (S.), pi. pilapilaij a 

pinjum, the sound made when 
a stone is thrown into water. 

pom, exclamation = bang. 

poma, a wooden sword. 

potopoto, mud, slush. 

pudu (Daura), four ; cf. fudu. 

pul, pal, ful, very many, very 
much ; shortened forms are 
/u or bu ; fu and Jul are the 
forms used in Sokoto ; pul is 




nsed at Kano ; cf. Fulah fo 
altogether, completely. 

pupuka, Happing of wings, con- 
vulsive movement ; see fu- 

purmissi, close crowding. 

The letter j is used by the 
Hausas to represent the 
sound of the English r. It 
is sometimes interchanged 
with I, e.g. harbi, halbi ; fir- 
7naki,falmaki. In the words 
in which this interchange 
occurs the r sound is more 
commonly heard in the Kano 
district and the I sound in 
the Sokoto or western Hausa 

ra, a shortened form of rana, 
day, e.g. C 27 hahu murna 
ra shigowa dunia there is no 
joy on the day of entry into 
the world. 

rab, exactly, precisely, ya ka- 
ma rab it fits exactly, ya 
gamu rah, sun yi daidai rab 
it is an exact match. 

rS,ba, rSibi*, to divide, separate, 
distribute, decide, e.g. as a 
judge, part from, leave ; raha 
da ni get away from me ; cf. 
enna 'niarabin wanan da wan- 
chan what is the difference 
between this and that % alkali 
mairahan gaskia ne a judge 

is a dispenser of truth, M. \ 
H. p. 153; marabiwa the 
angel of death, lit. he who 
separates ; ya rabi fasalinsa 
he interprets, rahabe, fem. 
rababa, pi. rabahu, divided, 
cloven, separated, rdbu, intr. 
and pass, form of raba, 1. to 
be divided ; 2. to depart, slip 
from, leave, e.g. rabu da umta 
move away from the fire ; 
tunda shekara bokoi na rabu 
da kano it is seven years 
since I left Kano. rahua 
separation, estrangement, rd^ 
bo or rdbu, pi. raberibi, di- 
vision, part, e.g. D 82 rabunta 
bokoi its divisions are seven ; 
share oi- portion ; E 8 rabon 
doki da maidoki tlie share 
assigned to a horse and its 
owner; portion, lot, A 22 
da rabo ivuta their portion 
shall be the fire ; separation, 
B 1 1 8 sarikin rabo author of 
separation ; C 30 rabonta da 
dunia, its separation from 
this world ; cf. M. H. p. 221 
rabona shi ke such was my 
parting (with him) ; cf. also 
kina da 7'dbon tafi gida it was 
your lot to go home, M. H* 
p. 221. rabo also denotes 
that which is fated or de- 
creed, rdbon dunia da th<' 
parting of the world from, 




i.e. the cessation of a custom. 
rahonka da...tunyaushe How 
long is it since you left 1 
intens. form = raraba ; of. 
rdbas, rdbasda, rabda. 

raba, reaba (cf. Ar. Jai-j iv, 
to make anything moist), 

rS,babe, divided; see raba. 

rabaja* (S.), fringe, mane. 

rS,bas, used without an object, 
to distribute ; cf . raba. 

rabasda, followed by an object, 
to divide. 

rabbi, ribbi (Ar. wJj), Lord, a 
title of God ; cf. C 1, D 2. 

rabda, rabshe (before a pro- 
noun), tr. to separate from. 

rabe, raba, rabo, to crouch, 
etc. (a Kano form of Sokoto 
Idbe, q.v.); cf. dang a da ya 
rdbo da shi the fence that he 
was leaning against. 

rabe da, to know. 

rabi, half ; cf. rdbo. 

rabi, robe, serval-cat ; see 

rabji, serval-cat ; see rabi ; cf. 
rapke to crouch. 

rSibo, rS.bua, division ; see 

rabshi, roshi, fineness, used 
of ashes, flour, etc. yin rab- 
shi to be fine. 

rache, to turn out of the way; 
see raise. 

rada, 1. to whisper, speak se- 
cretly ; 2. to calumniate. 

rada, n. whispering, accusa- 
tion, calumny; mairada a 

radadi (K.), pain; mairadadi 

r^fa, a net for catching fish, 
esp. used in Sokoto; cf. ma^ 

rafago (K.), a grain store ; cf. 
rafonia, rumbu. 

rafake, ranfake, to cling to 
or hide behind any person or 
thing in fear ; ya ranfake ga 
itache he hid under the tree; 
cf . rapke. 

rafam, a maternal uncle. 

rafania, aunt on the mother's 

r^fasa, a plant which grows 
close to the ground with a 
yellow flower and small leaves 
Avhich are made into a vermi- 

rafashe, rdfashe aiki to shun 
or fight shy of work. 

rafi, refe*, pi. rafuna or rafa- 
fuka, brook, pool ; irrigated 

enclosure ; cf. Ar. ^ajj, a 

region near water, 
rafkama, to lose one's senses 

temporarily, to make a slip. 
rafonia, pi. rafoni, a round 

closed-in chamber, built of 

mud, about four feet across. 




common in Hausa huts, used 
for storing grain or treasure ; 
also a large jar for grain in- 
side the house; the Sokoto 
equivalent is rufewa^ q.v. 

rafsa or rapsa kuka, to utter 
a cry. 

raga, pi. ragogi, 1. a kind of 
sack made of network ; aikin 
rdga network ; 2. a net for 
fishing; 3. a hammock. 

raga, to leave over, to leave 

rglga, ragga, pi. rdgogi (S.), a 
torn or ragged garment. 

ragaia, a rope ; see ragaya. 

ragaiche, to be idle; see ra- 

ragaita, pi. ragaitu, idleness, 
want of employment, mai- 
ragaita one who saunters 
idly about; cf. rdgo,raganchi. 

rSigama, halter, a rope put on 
horses or camels to lead 
them, also a leather halter 
decorated with metal. 

rS,ganchi, ragonchi, laziness, 
idleness ; cf . ragaita. 

ragaya, pi., 1. a rope tied to 
anything, e.g. to a rafter in 
the roof, ropes supporting a 
shelf, etc. ; A 1 3 mu ga an- 
kafa ragaya ajia zari we see 
ropes set up (for weaving), 
and thread is placed ready ; 
2. a string basket hung from 

the roof to contain odds and 
ends; 3. the slinging of a 
calabash from the roof to 
keep its contents safe from 
rats, etc. ; Sokoto equiv. = 

rS,ge, to decrease ; see regi. 

raggas*, a messenger, fore- 

r^gO, f em. rdgua, pi. rdgaye, rd- 
gage, rdgaje, rdguna, an idle 
person, a waster, a coward ; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 38, sunka 
kore yxinfa rago they drove 
away the coward Yunfa. m- 
gon kaya abortion. rago 
maza a bird whose note is 
heard in the evening, said by 
the Hausas to be so called 
because it is idle, its mate 
providing it with food [or it 
may be derived from the Ar. 

?Uj, a species of bird, from 

Ar. rt ^j , to call loudly] ; 

cf. ragonchi, ragaita. j 

rago, pi. raguiia, 1. a ram; 2. 

fig. a chief warrior. i 

rSigonchi, idleness ; see ragan- 

rS-gonmaza, a bird ; see under 

rS,gu, to decrease ; see regi. 
rS-gua, rS-gowa, remainder ; 

used in Sokoto for saura 

yin rdgua to be over; set 





raha (Ar. «-(;), n. joy, exult- 
ing, amusenient; yin raha to 
speak proudly, exult. 

rahaina, rahainya, a large 
forest tree with dense foliage 
and red blossoms, and large 
non-edihle beans, also called 
nonon giwa. 

rai, pi. raiu, raiuka, rawuka, 
1. life; karhan rai, daukan 
rai the taking away of life 
(by Allah), i.e. death, da 
rai living, alive, na rike wa- 
nan rai da rai I will stick 
to this all my life ; 2. mind, 
soul ; ya zdto achikin rai he 
imagined in his mind; cf. 
phr. da giriman rai haughty, 
da karamin rai modest, hum- 
ble, da zafin rai irritable, 
fretful, da sainyin rai of 
patient temper or disposition ; 
3. followed by possessive 
pron.=self; ina da son rainsa 
I have a liking for him ; ra- 
insa ya kwanta he is at his 
ease ; F 254 ^rt raina kun ji 
na yiwa wonga waatsi and I 
myself, do you hear, make 
this song of instruction ; 4. 
the plural raiuka is applied 
to evil spirits. 
raia, rSya, to keep alive, give 
life to take care of, to render 
(land) productive; ya raiasu 

alokachin yunwa he kept 
them alive in time of famine ; 
raiesda to quicken, raiu to 
come to life, ba shi raiuwa 
he cannot be restored. 

raida (S.), to leave. 

raidore, laidore, a common 
shrub with yellow flowers 
(Cassia occidentalis, Legumi 

raiesda, to quicken ; see raia. 

raina, to quarrel with; prob- 
ably another form of rena, 

rairai, rere, 1. sand (cf. rere 
to filter) ; 2. a grass from the 
leaves of which when ground 
up a medicine is made; it 
has sharp thorns. 

rairaia, a sieve ; see rereyoj. 

rairo, the beard of a goat ; see 

raiuwa, coming back to life; 
see raia. 

rajiya, the name of a fish. 

rS,ka, rS,kaa (Ar. ^a^j), rais- 
ing the hands in prayer. The 
four motions of a Moslem in 
prayer are, kama standing up 
and looking towards Mecca, 
rdka raising the hands and 
calling upon Allah, rdkuu 
bending down with hands 
on knees, sajada prostration. 

r&ka,, rake, to accom- 
pany, to escort ; cf. ardkashi 




dede pass it on correctly (of 
a message passed from mouth 
to mouth), rdkia (S.), rdko 
(K.), pi. rakiyoyi^ the act of 
accompanying ; yin rdkia to 
escort, A 26 ka yi kokari 
rdkia rua achikin dere do 
thou endeavour to escort 
her to the water in the 
evening ; na kai maka 
rakia I will bear thee com- 

rakadi, a cry, outcry. 

rakaso, rukaso, to pursue in 

rS,ke, sugar-cane ; see reke. 

raki, fear, na yi raki I feared; 
cf. Gr. p. 139, 1. 42, kun yi 
raki ye trembled, mairaki a 

r3.ko, n. escorting ; see rdka. 

rS,koto (Z.), a cry ; cf. rakadi. 

rakua, rekua, a small non- 
stinging bee ; cf . gala. 

rakuman-rua, waves. 

rakumi, pi. rakuma (Ar. 

w»^^j), camel ; cf. phr. ra- 
kurain allah a man of extra- 
ordinary patience, rakumin 
kdsa the larva of a small 
species of ant. zamar ra- 
kumi an expression used to 
describe the sitting posture 
in which the body rests on 
the inside of the thighs with 
the feet splayed outwards. 

rakumin daji the giraffe. 
rakumin wuya larynx. 

rSikuu, the stooping position 
adopted by a Moslem in 
prayer with hands on knees ; 
see rdka. 

rama, 1. to pay, make restitu- 
tion, restore, give in place of ; 
2. to revenge ; rama alberi to 
reciprocate kindness, rama 
gaya to revenge an ill. sai 
en rama wait a bit ! (used 
in friendly and unfriendly 
senses), mairama, pi. 7nasu- 
rama avenger ; cf . ramche. 

rama, n. purchase or ransom 

r^ma (Ar. ^»fij), leanness ; yin 
rama to be lean, ya yi rama 
he is getting lean, i.e. he is 
very ill ; cf. prov. ramar ba- 
shi ta Ji kiharsa the leanness 
of a debt is better than its 
fatness, arame or ram,ame, 
fern, ramamia, pi. ramamu^ 
particip. adj. lean, emaciated. 

rSjna, toaccompajiy, e.g. zanird- 
maka I will accompany thee. 

rS-ma, ramma (Ar. l^j) (Hi- 
biscus spinosus, Malvaceae), 
1. a plant from which native 
ropes {fari^i- ramma) are 
made, soup is also made from 
its leaves ; it grows like a 
reed; 2. the rope made from 
this plant ; (?) see rumuya. 




ramanchi (K.), ramantaka 
(8.), leanness; cf. rainua. 

ramche, ranche, 1. a debt, 
loan, esp. used of things 
consumable, cf. aro ; 2. yin 
ramche to borrow, pawn, 
])ledge, sun yi ramchen kur- 
Jitia they borrowed my 
money ; cf. prov. km/^a ya 
<'hi shinkafar ranche tasa ya 
rhi whoever eats borrowed 
rice eats that which is his 
*^wn, i.e. borrowing won't 
ave expense ; cf. Gr. p. 97 ; 
see rama to pay. 

rame, to be or become lean or 

rami, ram.e, pi. ramuna, ramu, 
hole, pit ; sometimes applied 
to the ditch surrounding a 
town; cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 29. 

ramka, to restore, indemnify. 

ramko, compensation, indem- 

ranuna, a plant ; see rdma. or rammar 
rafi, an undershrub with 
small yellow flowers (Wissa-* 
dula rostrata, Legurainosae); 
cf. dangira. 

ramno or raiino, small grass 
used for making bricks for 

ram.paki, to hide behind any- 
thing ; see rafake. 

ramta, to lend or borrow ; cf . 

rdjnua, leanness ; cf . ramanchi. 

ramiua, revenge, compensation ; 
cf. rama. 

rana, ra, pi. ranuka*, 1. the 
sun ; har rana ta fadi until 
the sunset ; diyan rana heat 
waves in the air ; 2. the day, 
properly the time from sun- 
rise to sunset ; cf. kwanxi the 
day of 24 hours, rana is- 
however frequently used like 
kwana, e.g. rana uku three 
days, kicanaki is often used 
as the plural of rana. When 
rana means 'day' it is either 
masc. or fem., when it means 
' sun ' it is fem. ; mu yi tafia 
rana duka we travelled all 
day, D 61 rana chan on that 
day, rana tana da zafi, or 
rana ta yi kwarai it is hot. , 
rana ta yi the sun is high. 
habal rana the Day of Judg- 
ment, sai wata rana farewell 
till another day. ranan gohe 
(lit. the day of to-morrow) 
the last day, the resurrection 
day. ra is often used as an 
abbreviation of rana ; cf . ran 
gohe B 1 1 . randa = rana da 
on the day that, i.e. when. 
ransuna the day on which a 
child receives its name, rana 
is usually placed before the 




days of the week, which are : 
lahadi Sunday, litini Mon- 
day, talata Tuesday, laraha 
Wednesday, alhamis Thurs- 
day, aljimua Friday, assuhat 

The hours of the day are 
approximately : jijifi the twi- 
light just before the dawn ; 
ctssuba or azuha the dawn ; 
hantsi two hours after dawn, 
circ. 8 a.m. ; wcdaha circ. 
10 a.m.; rana tsdka or tsd- 
kan rana midday; zowall 
circ. 2 p.m. ; azuhur the 
time of the call to prayer, 
circ. 2 or 2.30 p.m.; laasar 
4 to 5 p.m. ; maguriha or 
magaruh just before sunset, 
mareche late in the evening : 
lisha very late in the evening; 
between lisha and jijifi comes 
dere night, and tsakan dere 
midnight, uhan rana step- 
father, adoptive father. 

rana, v. used of the sun, ana- 
rana the sun is shining. 

ranche, a debt ; see ramche. 

randa, when ; see rana. 

randa, pi. randuna, a large 
earthen pot with a narrow 
mouth ; cf. tulu ne ya ke ka 
kawo randa tana da daka the 
tulu you carry to and fro, 
the randa remains in the 

rande, a rope fastened between 
two posts to which animals 
are tied. 

ranfake, to hide behind ; see 

rangaji (K.), rangoda (S.), 
to sway to and fro, to act 

rangama, barter, the exchange 
of goods for goods. 

rangamu, an abbreviation of 
ranan gamu, day of meeting; 
D S ku ji tsoro akoi rangamu 
mu da mu da allah be afraid, 
there is a day of meeting 
between us and God. 

rangS,za, a plague amongst 

rangoda, to vaunt ; see ran- 

rangomi, a trade reduction ; 
see rongomi. 

rangomta, to make a reduc- 
tion ; see rangomi. 

rani (cf. Ar. ^j), the first 
part of the hot season after 
the conclusion of the cold or 
harmattan beginning about 
March ; cf. Gr. p. 87. chi 
rani to go on an expedition, 
or undertake work, during 
the hot season. 

ransuna, the day on which a 
child receives its name; cf. 
rana, suna. 

rantse, ranche, to swear, take 




an oath ; rui ranche da cdlah 
I swear by God ; cf. rantsua. 

rantsua, an oath, yin rantsua 
to swear ; cf. ranche. 

ranye, to escape, flee. 

rapke, to crouch, hide behind; 
see rafake. 

rapsa or rapsa kuka, to utter 
a cry ; cf . ruhsa. 

rara, the cup or bowl full of 
grain, over on selling corn to 
a dealer, which by custom is 
the latter's perquisite. ko 
rara ban yi ha there was not 
enough to give me my per- 

rara, a large black bird with 
white breast and red feathers 
under the tail, it eats locusts; 
used of the glossy ibis and 
less,er bustard. 

raraba, rarabi*, D 94 an in- 
tensive form of rdba, q.v., to 
divide, to scatter ; E 8 arara- 
bata a division is made, ba 
ararrabe it was impossible to 
distinguish between, mura- 
raba divided, B 23 rnura- 
raba da ba su gamu katsu the 
regions which are divided and 
have never met ; cf. rerebi. 

rftrafe, r^rafo, rS,refo, walking 
slowly, crawling along. 

r&rafe, rarrafe, rereffe, to 
creep or crawl, of animals, to 
walk on four legs like an 

R. H. D. 

anim al, B 1 7 1 . mairara/e, pi. 
viasurarafe, creeping things, 
reptiles = abin kasa. 

raraka, raruke, to burrow. 

rarake, n. boring, yin rarake 
to bore a hole. 

raratse, to pound, break in 

rarauka (K.), reproof. 

rare, to strain, to hlter. mai- 
rarewa, pi. masurarewa^ one 
who strains or filters, marari 
a strainer or Alter, usually 
in the form of a small grass 
basket through which water 
is strained out in making 
bread, etc. ; cf. rereya and 

raria, 1. a calabash with holes 
in bottom, used for straining; 

2. a hole in a wall for water to 
flow out; 3. sieve; see rereya. 

rariar kasa, a weed with yel- 
low flowers, sometimes used 
with lele to stain the nails 
(Chrysanthella procumbens, 

raruke, burrowing ; cf . raraka^. 

r&sa, 1. to lose; 2. to be lost; 

3. not to be in possession of 
a thing, to be without ; ka 
rasa kudu da arewa you have 
lost your bearings ; B 10 6«^ 
shi rasa huja ba he is not 
without reason, idonka ya* 
rasa gani ne ? can't you see? 





ya rasa ni da yani he did 
not see me. ya rasa is an 
euphemism for ya mutu, i.e. 
he is dead, na rasa hainya 
I am ignorant of the way, 
but na hache hainya I have 
lost the way. rasa used with 
a negative means can't be 
stopped from, ba shi rasa 
kuka = ba ahan7ia masa kuka 
he must cry it out. 

rashi or reshi, loss, a being 
without anything ; cf. prov. 
rOfShin sani ya Ji dere dufu 
to be without knowledge is 
worse than to be out in a 
dark night, sanu da reshi 
a form of salutation to one 
who has lost a relative or 
friend by death ; cf. sanu da 
kewa and sanu da rabua ; 
E 49 da babu rashi da kowa 
without lack of anything, yin 
reshi to lose, reshin kariji 
weak, reshin haifua barren, 
reshin lafia ill ; cf. similar 
use of maras. 

rSiSU, to depart, die ; ya rasu 
he died; see rasa. 

rata, da rata ' rather a long way. ' 

rS,tata*, abundance, e.g. of food, 
water, etc. 

rataya, rateya, rataye, to 
hang up, to hang, to tie ; rata- 
yawa particip. adj. ; marataya 
one who causes another to do 

anything, e.g. Q. wa ya kira, 
Ans. ni ne, Q. rataya ko dc 
kanka, i.e. did you call nic 
yourself or did someone tell 
3'ou to call me ? 

rataye, rataya, n. slinging, 
hanging, accoutrements; ara 
taye hung, maraiayi, q.v., the 
slinging of a calabash from 
the roof. 

ratse, n, tr. turning out of thf 
way, deviation ; yi7i ratse t < 

ratse, ratsa or rache, q.v., tc 
miss ; ratsa hainyan sheric 
to break the law ; also tc» 
skip words in reading, cf. 
A 73 ; ratsa hainya to pas 
along the side of a road, i 
deviate from it ; sun ratsa ta 
gari they turned off towards 
the town ; ratsa rua to cross 
a river. 

ratsi, intr. to go out of the wa} 
see ratse. 

ratso, to turn off in the direc- j 
tion of the speaker ; ratsowa 
a deviation. 

rauda (cf. Ar. rt ^jj), 1. to 
shake ; rauda kai to shake 
the head ; cf. kauda kai ; 2. 
to drive away. 

raunana, v. adj. weak, infirm. 

rauni, 1. wound, bruise; da 
rauni wounded; 2. pliancy as 
opposed to gaushi. 




rauni*, to sway to and fro. 

raura, to tremble, to shake, to 
shiver or shudder, as with 
cold ; raurawa shaking, trem- 
bling; yin raurawa to become 
deranged or raving. 

rawa,danee; 2/*»*^'««^*« to dance, 
xna taka rawa I dance, ji- 
kinsa yina rawa his body 
is all of a tremble, rawa is 
also applied to the drill of 
soldiers, mairawar kai a man 
with St Vitus's dance in his 
head ; cf . raya. 

rawani, pi. raunma, a bandage 
of any kind, head-dress, tur- 
ban ; rawanin sarauta the 
badge or insignia of royalty ; 
ya maida ratvani he resigned 

rawatsa, n. prattling, babbling. 

rawaya, a shrub with large 
yellow rose-like flowers (Coch- 
lospermum tinctorium, Bixa- 
ceae), a yellow dye is obtained 
from its bark by tanners, — 

rawaya, pi. rawayit, yellow. 

raya, to dance ; cf. rawa. 

raya, to take care of ; see raia. 

rayi*, life. 

raza,na, razS,ni, to fear (often 
used with da\ to start or 
hasten in fear of anything, 
frighten, disturb ; D 38 6a 
mutua ni ke razana I do not 

fear death, F 75 ka razana 
dag a kwana hasten to arise 
from sleep. 

raz&ni, n. fear, terror. 

reaba, a rope. 

rebe, to separate ; see rdha. 

reda, to jeer at. 

reda, to grind wheat, guinea- 
corn, etc. ; ha ski reduwa it 
cannot be ground ; maireda 
a miller, marede a mill-stone. 

rede, to scrape away, e.g. a bad 
surface of meat, etc. ; to cut 
into strips. 

refe, bank of a stream ; see rafi. 

refe, refo, pi. refuna, refu, a 
branch, used esp. in Sokoto 
district ; cf . reshe. 

rega, pi. reguna, rags, old 

rSga (S.), to peep into; cf. leka. 

rSge (S.), to allow muddy water 
to settle, to filter ; see rere, 

regi, r^gi, rage, tr. and intr. 
to diminish, to decrease, to 
remain over, ya rdgi it is left 
or there remains, mi ya rage 
what is left ? ya rage a^hirin 
there remains twenty; ya 
rage gari da kwana daia he 
was within one march of the 
town ; rdgu, intr. and pass, 
to decrease ; rana ta rdgu the 
day is on the wane ; rdgua 
diminishing, decrease. 




rego (S.), pi. regogi, reguna, n. 
peering into. 

reke, rS-ke, rike, a large variety 
of sugar-cane also called Mra/i 
sarki ; see rike. 

rekua, rakua, small black bee. 

reme, rema, pi. remaye^ a large 
species of tailless rat living 
in rocky ground ; probably a 
species of jerboa {kurege). 

rena, 1. to slight, neglect, dis- 
regard, e.g. shina rena abo- 
kinsa he despises his friend ; 
rena ma wani wayo to treat 
someone with disrespect ; part, 
form renawa despising ; 2. to 
refuse, renane, fern, renana, 
p]. renanu^ despised, despic- 
able ; cf. raina. 

rene, to lull, nurse, bring up, 

reni, n. despising ; renin wayo 
contempt of advice. 

reno, n. nursing, educating ; 
siika yi renona har na girma 
theybroughtmeup; maireno, 
pi. masureno, nurse, tutor. 

reran, reren, ' all of a heap ' ; 
nafadi reran I collapsed; cf. 
wata reran. 

rere, sand ; see rairai. 

rere (K.), to filter; see rare, 
rereya, rira; cf. rege. 

rerebi, to distinguish two 
things that are much alike ; 
cf. raraba, raba. 

rereffe, to crawl ; see rdrafe. 
rerereu, a shout or chant of 

joy, it implies ka zo ka ji 

come and hear ! 
rereya, rairaia, leleya, a sie^ e 

or fan for sifting ; see raria. 
rero, rairo, the hair and beard 

of a goat or sheep ; mairero 

reshe, n., pi. resa, rasa, branch, 

reshi, loss ; see rasa. 
reta, to shake to and fro, to 

swing, to swing the arms. 
reto, swinging, hanging ; yaya 

suna reto the fruit hangs 

down ; cf. M. H. p. 103 suna 

reto da shi they shake him 

backwards and forwards. 

ria (Ar. j^lj), pretence, story- 
telling, dissimulation. 

riali, liar, Spanish dollar, oc- 
casionally used by Hausas in 
N. Africa; cf. M. H. p. 216. 

riawa (S.), a false story. 

riba, to multiply, to increase; 
na riba shi goma I multiplied 
it by ten, or I increased it 

riba, pi. rlbobi (Ar. 9--»j), 1. pro- 
fit, esp. unlawful gain ; kill 
riba to hate covetousness or 
unlawful profit, chin riba to 
gain such profit, F 1 7 ^a tuba 
ka ber riba repent, cease from 




unlawful gain, F 20 1 masuriba 
those who make unlawful pro- 
fits ; riba is also used of any 
advantage, na bisa ya fi na 
kasa riba the one above has 
an advantage over the one 
below ; 2. to make unlawful 

riba, to go bad ; see ruba. 

ribadi (Ar. Ljj), reserve, sup- 
port (in war) ; cf. riba. 
S - 

ribbi* (Ar. ^j), 1. num. 

myriad ; D 59 ribbi da ribbi 
antaru myriads and myriads 
of them shall be collected, 
D 64 ribbi saba'in seventy 
thousandfold ; 2. used as a 
verb, to repeat ten thousand 
times, e.g. D 44 su kan ribbi 
sanduna maimai kaman du- 
atsu they pile up blows many 
in number as stones. 
ribda-chiki, prone ; see rubda. 
ribde, rifde, rubde, to strike 
violently, to smash up, e.g. 
to beat corn in mortar : used 
in Sokoto for ddka. 
ribdi, nibudi, pounded flour. 
ribe, ribi, rubi, a double thick- 
ness, e.g. of cloth ; also used 
of a strand of rope, or of 
anything folded ; cf. palle. 
ribe, rube, to twist strands 

into a rope. 
ribi*, half ; see rdbi. 

ribiye, n. folding up, placing 
one thing upon another. 

rida. Haying (e.g. of a goat). 

rida, to seize, to snatch at iu 
order to eat ; C 33 <a ridasa 
gun wuya she seizes him by 
the neck ; masurida gluttons. 

ridi, Sesamum Indicum, Peda- 
liaceae ; see lidi. 

ridi, a native cloth of a black 
or blue colour, with silk 
woven into it. 

ridimi, ridimin abu a big thing, 
pi. ridi-ridi. 

rifde, to smash, strike violently ; 
see ribde. 

rife, to cover, a form of ru/e, 

riga, pi. riguna, tobe, gown, 
shirt, and gen. garment; sa 
riguna to put on clothes, riga 
saki a dress with small blue 
and black squares, H^a isamm 
a dress consisting in part of 
yellowish brown silk ; rigan 
giwa dark blue shiny tobe, 
so called from its toughness, 
not from its size ; rigan rua 
a water-proof cape ; rigan 
gaba a jacket ; rigan hai/ua 
caul ; cf . prov. dere rigan 
mugu night is a cloak for the 
evil man ; cf . also rigan domin 
on account of another, riga 
is used metaphorically for 
greatness or power; ya 





rigar sarki he has the king's 
protection ; rigar domin some 
one's good offices. The tobe 
{riga) is the characteristic 
dress of the Hausas. Immense 
quantities are manufactured 
in Kano. Its shape is that 
of a loose surplice with a large 
embroidered pocket in front. 
They are made in blue, red 
and white cloth. 
riga, n. filtering by allowing 
water to settle ; abin riga a 
filter, see rege. 
riga-kafi, a medicine for syphilis, 
rigaya, riga, to get in advance 
of, to outrun ; shi yet rigamu 
he got in front of us ; kdda 
ha rigaya lokachiv.ka do not 
come before your time, ya 
rigaya ya tafi he is gone al- 
ready ; wane ya rigayamu 
gidan gaskia so and so is 
dead ; ya riga ta gona he 
was at the farm before her. 
rige, n. going before another ; 

see rigaya. 
rigi*, a vegetable used in mak- 
ing soup ; it has a mint-like 
leaf, and purple flower. 
rigigi (S.),a red bead; ct rikiki. 
rigima, confusion, tumult, ru- 
mour ; ana ta rigimar gobara 
there was a cry of fire ; suke 
ma mutane rigima they are 
disturbing people. 

rigingini, rigingine, n. 1. ly- 
ing on the back with the legs 
up ; sukafadi rigingine they 
fell backwards; 2. deceit; ya 
yi magana rigiyigini he ut- 
tered deceitful words; mairi- 
gingini deceitful. 

rijia, rijiya, pi. riyoji, rijiyoyi 
(cf. Ar. l».j, coping stone of 
a well), used both as masc. 
and fem., well, cistern, spring ; 
)'ijia da zurifi a deep well ; 
gina (or tonn) rijia to dig a 

rIka, to begin, used in Sokoto 
for fara (to be distinguished 
from rika) ; ya rika maker- 
keta he began to quiver with 

rika, rike, riki, 1. to hold, 
keep, retain, cleave to, select ; 
2. to hold fast in the mind, 
to keep, observe, e.g. the com- 
mandments of God ; 3. used 
of a woman, to betroth, to 
hold betrothed ; 4. to keep 
on doing a thing, thus zau 
rika tafia I shall keep on 
going ; kulum ka rika ba. shi 
rua give him water everyday ; 
rike da (dawaki) to lead 
(horses) ; Wto^a holding fast, 
cleaving to; rikake^ fem. rika- 
kia, pi. rikaku,he]d, retained, 
also full grown. The follow- 
ing are apparently strength- 




enecl forms of ri^e : riske, riski, 
ruska to hold, detain, obtain ; 
B 144 ta kan yi kdaba da ta 
riskeka it (the world) would 
fondle and detain you ; see 

rike, a variety of sugar-cane 
(Saccharum officinarum, Gra- 
mineae) grown only near 
streams and reaped about the 
same time as guinea-corn ; cf . 

riki, to hold, select ; see rike, 

rikichewa, a mistake ; see 

rikichi, pi. rikita, deceit, fraud, 
quarrel, double dealing ; also 
used of a chain getting into 
a tangle, rikiche, v. to be 
confused, intr. to act deceit- 
fully, tr. to treat deceitfully; 
B 100, kdda ka rikiche ka 
hi shashasha do not make 
a mistake nor follow a fool ; 
cf. rikida. 

rikida, to change oneself, to 
be transformed, e.g. as a cha- 
meleon is, to change oneself 
into or become something dif- 
ferent, e.g. na rikida tsuntsua 
I transformed myself into a 
bird ; also tr. to change one 
thing into another, rikidade^ 
feni. rikidadia, pi. rikidculu^ 
changed, transformed ; cf. ri- 

rikiki, a small red bead. 

rikirkida, the power of chang- 
ing one's shape, conjuring; 
cf. rikida. 

rikita, to confuse ; cf. rikiche to 
be confused ; cf . ha na rikitua 
I am not to be deceived. 

riko, n., 1. detention, holding 
on to anything ; BIS ba riko 
ha himbini he does not de- 
tain him or make a long 
examination ; 2. a stake in 
gambling ; mariko a custo- 
dian; 3. betrothal; anyimasa 
rikonta he was betrothed. 

rikumbu*, rikimbu* abund- 
ance, e.g. kaya rikumhu. 

rima, pi. rimomi, rimaimai, 
mildew, damp, moisture. 

rima fada, ruma fada, a com- 
mon herb with small white 
flowers (Scoparia dulcis, Scro- 

rimana, nimana, a wild 
gladiolus with edible bulb 
(Gladiolus spicata, Amaryl- 

rimdi, a broad road or track. 

rimi, used to describe the posi- 
tion of standing on the head. 

rimi, rini*, the silk-cotton 
tree (Eriodendron anfractuo- 
sum, Malvaceae), a large 
spreading tree greatly valued 
for the shade which it affords, 
also for the cotton obtained 




from it. Its seeds are en- 
veloped in long silken hairs 
closely resembling the true 
cotton, but owing to lack of 
adhesion between the hairs 
they cannot be manufactured, 
but are used for stuffing 
cushions ; of. ' Hausaland,' 
p. 159. Used in making ar- 
mour ; cf. lijidi. rimi tsamri 
a grass, the leaves of which 
when beaten up make a 
pleasant drink. 

rimin-samari, a common pink- 
flowered herb (Oldenlandia 
grandiflora, Rubiaceae). 

rimm.ani, pomegranate ; see 

rimtsi, to grasp ; see rumchi. 

rina, pi. rinoni, rinainai, a 

rina, to dye ; rinene, rinena, 
pi. rinenu, dyed, tinged, ri- 
nanta dyeing, ba ta rinuwa 
it cannot be dyed ; see rini. 

rinda, to fall back from Islam 
to paganism. 

rinfa, a mat-shed, a Kano form 
of rumfa. 

ringa, 1. (Z.) a stone wall; 2. 
(K.) a climbing plant. 

ringi* (K.), the rest, what re- 
mains over ; cf. kingly rdgua. 

ringingine, on the back ; see 

rini, n. dye, esp. indigo dye. 

marini a dyer, marina a dye 
pit ; see rina. 
rinjaya, rinjaye, rinjayi (cf. 


outweighed and 

^e^j, preferred), to prevail 
over, to overcome, na rinjayi 
mutum, = nafi karijinsa, B 38 
shi wonda zuchiata rinjayi 
he who overcomes his own 
heart ; cf . zuchiata ta fi rin- 
jaya wanan da wanchan I 
prefer this to that, ya fi 
rinjaya ' he takes to ' is some- 
times used as a paraphrase 
for 'often.' rinjaya is also 
used for ' to convince.'- 

rinjijia (S.), teal; cf. kiri^ijijia. 

rino, 1. an iron fork for toast- 
ing meat at a fire ; 2. a stake. 

rinta, to cheat. 

rinto, cheating, a false accusa- 

rinu, a fork ; see vino. 

rinzami* (K.), bridle; see 

rira, n. filtering ; see rere. 

risbawa (cf. Ar. JJ-j), desola- 
tion, B 92. 

risga, pi. risgogi, risguna, a 
small species of yam (dio- 
scorea) with a sage-like leaf, ' 
its root is eaten like the sweet 
potato, or ground up. 

risgar kurege, asclepias lenio- 
lata, a shrub with milkv 




juice and purple flowers. 

The spindle-shaped tubers are 

used medicinally, also called 

rishe, a twig ; see 7-eshe. 
rishi, n. trotting. 
riske, riski, ruska, to hold, 

to reach, obtain ; cf. rika. 
ritse, ratse, to guard, hold (as 

of a door), possibly rize* is 

another form of this word, 
riwaya (S.), a true story. Ar. 

riya, dissimulation ; see ria, 
riyaya, tiie telling of a story, 
rizbe, ruzbe, to break down ; 

cf. risbawa. 
rize, ruze (Ar. tjj), 1. to 

capture, also to encompass a 

town and capture it ; 2. to 

detect, overtake in a fault, ri- 

:.ewa capturing, etc. ; cf. rusa. 
rizuma, risma (cf. Ar. j^jj), 

a pack tied up, a packet of 

roba, pi. robobi, robuna, a kind 

of grass, sometimes used for 

filling cushions. 
rodi, pi. rode-rode, speckles, 

spots. mairodi speckled, 

roga (S.), a horse-feed, dried 

leaves of wake or geda. 
rogalla-gandi or zogalla- 

gandi, horse-radish tree 

(Meringa pterygosperma, Le- 

rogo (Fulah ragohi), manihot 
utilissima, a tuber like dan- 
kali, edible, with milky juice. 

rogon-daji, the name of a 
poison used for smearing 

roka, conversation, used in 
Zaria for fira. 

roka or roko, Kanuri logo (cf. 

Ar. ft^^j from 3i^j, to bend 
in prayer), 1. to ask, beg, 
pray ; 2, to beg of, ask of. 
maroki.i^xsi. marokiajheggar. 
marokachi begging. 

roko, n. begging ; yin roko to 

roma, to escort. 

romache (S.), a mixture of 
rama leaves and dusa ; see 

romiia (S.), rumua, romo 
(K.), 1. broth, soup; romon 
sariki a feast held by the 
heathen in Hausaland ; fig. 
romo7i ku7ie, lit. ear-broth, 
pleasant words ; 2. a small 
extra payment or present; cf. 
prov. alhaki da romo shiga 
iyakin wuya the proper wage 
with a slight addition brings 
a difficulty to a speedy end. 

rongoda, a swaggering walk. 

rongomi, rangomi, 1. a better 




state of health, convalescence, 
recovery ; shina da rongomi 
he is getting better, yin ron- 
gomi to recover ; Jm rongomi 
to feel better ; 2. an amount 
deducted from the price paid 
for any article ; ka yi ron- 
gomi grant a reduction, ena 
rongomiwhsit discount do you 
allow ? cf. gar a ; 3. mercy, 
discretion as to punishment. 
rongonta ma to let off. ku 
yi rongom,i (addressed to a 
crowd) get back a little. 

rorami, a crooked stick used 
for pulling down fruit from 
a tree ; cf . wurami. 

rore, to glean ; cf . roro. 

roro, V. n. gleaning, esp. of 
beans and ground nuts. 

roshe, roche, rosa, to break 
down, destroy; cf. rotsa. 

roshi, a council, consultation, 
talk, gossip, suna yin roshi = 
suna yin shawora they con- 

roshi, rabshi (q.v.), finely 
ground, e.g. alkamaj ina da 
roshi the corn is ground 

rotel* (Ar. JJ?)), a pound 
of twelve ounces, sometimes 
pronounced rotli. The word 
is little used except by Hausas 
in constant intercourse with 

rotsa, to strike a blow ; cf . roshe. 

rotse, a blow, esp. on the head, 
such as causes a wound or 
swelling, e.g. na yi masa rofs<' 
I gave him a hard blow. 

rowa, stinginess, miserliness ; 
in A 37 7'owa is used as an 
adjective, wanda ya ke roiva 
yana murna nata whoever is 
stingy and rejoices in being 
so, yin rowa to be greedy, 
da rowa stingy, mairowa one 
who is miserly. 

rozo, a species of spider. 

rua, pi. ruaye, ruwaiwai, mas- 
culine, 1. water; rua7i deml 
hot water, man kasa, lit. 
earth water, water as in ;i 
river, I'uan sha drinking 
water, da rua watery, 7ia 
iya rua I can swim ; fig. ya 
sha rua a dunia he has 
enjoyed prosperity in this 
world, ruan ido watery eye, 
i.e. longing eye ; man nama 
soup, man tsami vinegar ; 
2. man sama (lit. sky water) 
and 7'uan allah rain, ana rua 
and yana rua it rains, ma 
yana dama the rain is leav- 
ing off, ruan kankara, and 
rua da kankara hail ; kuna, 
rua pure water ; man gainye 
drippings from trees after 
rain, man rua the water left 
in the leaves after rain : in 




Sokoto rua is regularly used 
as a pi. word, e.g. rua sun 
zo. rigan rua a water-proof 
cape, mairiia a maxim gun 
(so called because it shoots 
continuously) ; 3. care, atten- 
tion, thought, business, con- 
cern, e.g. ba ruana it does 
not concern me, hahu ruana 
gareka I have nothing to do 
with thee, ena ruanha what 
does it matter to thee ? hahu 
komi sai ruan allah it is 
God's concern alone, A 5 kulu 
musihni ha rua alkajiri all 
the Mussulmans, I care not 
for the heathen. 

ruba, pi. ruhobi, empty threat 
{kuri in Sokoto) : a false state- 
ment which causes alarm, r/in 
ruba to alarm, to frighten 

rtiba, riba, rubba, to go bad, 
as meat or fruit ; also to 
be worn out or rotten, of 
material, etc. rubabe, pi. 
rubahu, decayed ; cf. pro v. 
rubaben hakori ya ji baki 
wofi spoilt teeth are better 
than an empty mouth, i.e. 
an indifferent thing is better 
than nothing at all. 

rubachi, to spoil or render 
bad ; see ruba. 

rubda* (cf. Ar. sjal)j, to 
crouch), 7'ubda chiki or rufda | 

chlki to crawl, or be pros- 
trate, F 192 rubda chlki also 
to sleep face downwards ; ya 
fada rubda chlki he fell flat 
on his face. 

rubde, to strike, thrust, pound; 
see ribde. 

rube, ribe, to twist strands 
into a rope. 

rubsa or rufsa, used with kuka, 
to utter a cry ; cf. rapsa. 

rubshi, hot ashes ; cf rufushi. 

rubuche, to write ; see ruhuta, 

rubuchi, writing of any kind ; 
cf. rubuta. 

rubudi, n. a blow, pounding; 
see r 

rubui* (Ar. kjj), a quarter. 

rubushi, to lose; B 141 ka,da 
ka bita ku rubushi gobe follow 
it (the world) not lest you 
lose on the last day. 

rubuta (cf. Ar. ooj, . to 

educate children), to write. 

rubuchi anything written. 

niarubuchi, pi. maruhuta, 

rubutu, n. writing, anything 

written, a document. 
ruchi, to strike a blow ; see 

ruda, to stir. 

rudade, deceived ; see rude. 
rude*, soup, the liquid basis 

of tuo. 




rude, nidi, ruda, to deceive, 
perplex, to be perplexed, ya 
rude he is perplexed or be- 
wildered, ahu duka ya taru 
ya rude the matter is all 
mixed up and confused ; mai- 
7'ude, pi. masurude, decei\er ; 
rudi also to fail to under- 
stand what is said, rudade, 
fem. rudada, pi. rudadu^ de- 
ceived, misled. 

rudi, n. deceit, deceiving; of. 

rudu, a light hut raised on four 
poles, with thatclied roof. 

rududuge, rotten. 

rufa, a dress or cloth used as 
a covering; a6m rw/a clothes, 
an expression used by a 
beggar; cf. rufe. 

rufda-chiki, to crawl; see 

rufe, rufa, rufi, rife, to cover, 
to conceal, to keep secret; 
pass. D 93 kdda arufe kofa 
beware lest the door be closed. 
ya rufa haki he kept quiet. 
rufi to put on a roof, to cover 
in, also verb. n. rufi, mun yi 
rufinsa. mu rufa ma kanmu 
asiri we mustn't give our- 
selves away, marufi cover- 
ing; ym rufi to hide the 
truth, hence to flatter, rufu 
intr., cf . asiri ya rufu ; intens. 
form rurrufe idanunsa ya 

rurrufu his eyes were quite 
closed up. mairufe, pi. ma- 
surufe, one who conceals, 
e.g. the truth, rufafe, fem. 
rufafa, pi. rufafu, covered, 

rufewa (S.), in Kano rafonia. 
a large jar or receptacle made 
of mud for keeping grain, 
etc. inside a house. 

rufogo, abundance, a place for 
storing corn, a corn bin. 

rufushi, rubshi, rabchi* hot 
ashes, a fire which has burnt 

ruga, rugga, a Fulani cattle 

ruga* rauga, 1. to make to 
flee ; 2. to flee ; ruga or 7^ugo 
(according as the motion is 
from or towards), used with 
gudu. ya ruga da gudu he 
ran hard. 

rugba, to become rotten, used 
of fruit, a form of ruha, q.v. 

rugu*, quickly; cf. ruga. 

rugunguza*, to break in 
pieces, to smash. 

ruhu* (Ar.), spirit. 

rujia*, ail edible root like the 
sweet potato dankali but 
larger and with watery sub- 
stance inside. 

rukaso, to pursue ; see rakaso. 

ruku ruku, a pi. n. big ^ main- 
ya Tnaiuya ; cf. ridimi. 




rukuke, a wand or stick carried 
by officials. 

rukuki, wood, forest. 

rukuu (Ar.), the stooping posi- 
tion of prayer with hands on 
knees ; see rakuu. 

riima* (S.), to be quiet or still. 

ruma fada, rima fada, a herb ; 
see riinafada. 

rumache, romache, a mixture 
of onions, flour and water or 
of rama leaves and dusa ; of. 

ruman, pi. rummanhia^ rum- 
manai (Ar. 0^;)' Pome- 

rumana, rimana, a wild gla- 
diolus ; see rimana, 

rumania, a furrow. 

rumbu, 1. a barn, storehouse, 
corn bin ; cf. rufogo ; 2. shed, 
stall in the market ; cf. 

rumbua*, wheel, circlet ; cf. 

rumchi, rumtse, runtse, 
rimtsi, 1. to grasp, squeeze 
in the hand ; 2. to screw up 
the eyes ; cf. rumtsi. 
rumji, rumdawa, a name 

given to Fulani slaves. 
rumpa, runpa, rumfa, pi. 
rumfuna, plank, table, shed, 
booth ; stand on which things 
are exposed for sale, cover 
of a canoe ; cf. rumbu. 

rumtsi, n. tightness, straitness. 
?vui-i ya yi rumtsi the place 
is crowded, ruhutunka ya yi 
rumtsi your writing is crab- 
bed ; cf . rumchi., broth ; see romua. 

rumiuya, a grass used in mak- 
ing ropes ; {X) see ramm.a. 

runduna, a crowd. 

runfuki, n. garden. 

runguma, rungume, bef . pron. 
obj., to embrace, to be fixed 
in (of a stick in a tree). 

rungumie, n. holding in or 
under the arms, shina run- 
gume da haja he was holding 
articles for sale under his 

runhu, cassia goratensis, legu- 
minosae, a bunch of its leaves 
is used for splashing hot 
water in washing a woman 
after childbirth. 

runsa (S.), to blink; cf. 
rumchi 2. 

runsuna, rusuna, to fall down 
before one, to do obeisance. 

rupkarupki, the sound of the 

pounding of food in a mortar. 

rupta, rupto, to snatch with 

violence; cf. seq. 
rupta, quickly ; cf. prec. 
rura, a common shrub (Pari- 
narium curatellaefolium, Ro- 
saceae) from which a red dye 
is made. 




rura*, cf. ina da 

I am 


ruri, to roar, to bellow, used 
of camel, ox, donkey, men, 
A 4; tire, D 72. 

rurimi*, used in phr. mutum 
ya yi ruHmi he is ill or 

rurudi *, a redupl. form of rudi, 
e.g. B 147 tana da rurudi 
don ta yi zamha it practises 
deceit in order that it may 
commit a crime. 

rusa, to give way, break (con- 
nected with rushi), daki ya 
rusa da shi the roof gave 
way under him, rusad-da tr. 
to break up ; cf . roshe. 

rushe (K.), to eat greedily, to 

rushi, to fall into ruin, as a 
house, rushiwa falling into 

rushua* (Ar. 5^j), a bribe 
given to a judge. 

ruska, to comprehend, to ob- 
tain; cf. ahiji da na ruska, 
B 64 ; see riske. 

ruski, to catch ; C 2 zambata 
da ta ruski masugudu nata 
the evil which catches even 
its swift runners ; see riska. 

rusuma, to bow ; see runsuna. 

nitsa, to measure with the 
thumb and middle finger. 

rutsa, to vanish ; cf. ruza. 

rutse, to shut in, keep from 

going out, e.g. by blocking 

the door, 
rututu (Zanf.), many, much, 
ruza, to rush, e.g. out of a 

crowd = rutsa, q.v. 
ruzbe, to break down ; see 

ruzu*. a net basr. 

y^ and ^ja are used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English s. 

sa, pronominal suffix 3rd pers. 
masc. sing., 1. sa or -nsa used 
as inseparable possessive pro- 
noun when the object pos- 
sessed is masculine and the 
possessor is masculine, e.g. 
uhansa his father, mutanensa 
his men, gidansa his house 
(this latter would be in Zaria 
gidanshi, in Sokoto gidanshi 
or gidanai) ; the forms -Isa 
and -rsa are used instead of 
-Tisa where the word to which 
they are attached is feminine, 
thus tafiarsa or tafialsa his 
journey ; 2. as objective pro- 
noun esp. when preceded by 
the prepositions ma and gare, ' 

e.g. masa or garesa' 

to hii 

sa, 1. to lay, put, place, ya sashi 
chikin sari/o he placed it in 
the basket; to put on, to 




wear, used of clothes, etc. ; 
to lay aside, B 83 mu hada 
gaskia mu sa kankanche let 
us give credence, let us put 
aside quarrelling, sa rana to 
lix a day for starting on a 
march or for a marriage, etc., 
hurdin sa kurdi a present 
brought by a prospective 
bridegroom to the bride's 
parents at the time of his 
requesting the fixing of the 
wedding day ; cf. pro v. ahin 
sawa chikin daki ya ji daki 
Why a the things for placing in 
a house exceed the house in 
difficulty, i.e. it is of no use 
having built a fine house, if 
you have nothing to put in- 
side it ; 2. to cause, to make 
do, e.g. shi ya sa na tashi 
it was the cause of my start- 
ing; 3. also to send to do, 
ta sa barorinta she sent her 
servants. sa?vo id. with refer- 
ence to the speaker, ta sawo 
yayan yaki she sent soldiers 
against us. asawo aka^heshi 
let them send to kill him ; 
allah ski sa ' may God grant 
it ' is used in answer to the 
wish sauka lajia. saawa the 
placing of a thing. 

8a, bull, f. sania, cow, pi. shdnu, 
cattle ; cf. sakaza a drake. 

8&, a contraction of sua, a pre- 

fix to denote the third person 
pi. of the future tense, cf. Gr. 
p. 33. 

saa*, friend. 

saa, pi. sddi (Ar. i^U), 1. time, 
season ; also used for time- 
piece, watch, clock ; saa ta 
yi the appointed time has 
come, allah ya haka saa God 
give thee a favourable oppor- 
tunity ; 2. used adverbially 
with nan and da, saanan at 
that time, then ; saanda at 
the time that, when ; wane 
saa when 1 

saada* (Ar. S^bu^), happiness, 
D 79. 

saanan, then ; see saa. 

saanda, when ; see saa. 

saati, foot-soldiers, an expedi- 
tion, raid. 

saawa, placing of a thing ; see 

saba, to be accustomed to, na 
saha da wanan I am accus- 
tomed to or practised in this ; 
ya saba da wuri he frequents 
the place ; cf. sabo. 

saba, ssLbi, to invoke, swear 
by, to place the hand on the 
Koran in taking an oath. 

saba, quarrelling ; see suaba. 

s&ba, 1. to throw cowries in the 
game of chacha, cf . sebi ; 2. to 
sling a thing over the shoulder ; 
asaho lafia a salutation to a 




man going out for a ride = 
konio lajia. 

sSiba, to rub. the cast skin of a serpent; 
see suaha. 

sabS,a, sebS,a (Ar.), seven thou- 
sand, cf. Gr. p. 67. 

sabSibi,, pi. sabilba, 
sahdhai (Ar. w-w), 1. reason, 
cause, habu sababi without 
cause; 2. violent dispute, 
angry words ; 3. accident, 
misfortune, e.g. sababi ya sa- 
meshi an accident happened 
to him ; kdda ka jawo mani 
sababi don't get me into 
trouble ; 4. a fight, mortal 
struggle, suka kama sababi ; 
maisabdbi, pi. masusabdbi 
mischief-maker ; yiii sababi to 
do mischief. 

sabMa, 1. pod of the locust 
tree (doriwa) ; 2. double 
thickness of cloth, e.g. in a 
tobe ; so called from the like- 
ness to the two sides of the 


sabboda* (Ar. ^5-w); 1. bcr 
cause of, sabbada wanan for 
this reason ; 2. in exchange 

sabagi (S.), broken potash. 

saba'in, Ar., seventy; see sebdin. 

sabani, a plant with a long 
narrow leaf. 

sabani, disagreement, breaking 
up of friendship, difference, ^ 
opposition ; sabanin rana 

sabara (cf. (?) Ar. jU-^), 1. a 
small thorny palm ; 2. pliant 
sticks used in roofing : cf. 

sabara, sabura (Ar. j^j.^), a 
place with no trees or houses, 
but grass only, an abandoned 

sabba, a shortened form of 
sabbada, q.v. 

sabbinani, sabbinane, a Ful- 
ani salutation in common use 
in Sokoto ; allah ya sabbinani 
God give you long life — the 
answer is ungwaiya. 

sabche, to smooth ; see i>abta. 

sS,be* ( Ar. wa-»»), to revile, F34. 

sabe, saba, to project, e.g. of I 
a single man in a row., to aftect (from a distance), 
tvuta ta sabeta the heat of the 
tire affected her; iskad doki 
ta sabe tnutmn the rush of air 
made by the horse affected 
him ; cf. sdba to rub. 

sabe*, to choose ; see zabe. 

sabe, of irregular lengths ; used 
also of paper arranged with 
irregular edges ; cf. sasabe. 

sa,bero, s^bro, sauro, samro, 
pi. sabrtma, sabraye, a mos- 




sS,bi, throw cowries ; cf. sdha. 
sdhi to take an oath before 
a judge ; cf. sdha., to clean or prepare raw 
cotton by drawing it out on 
the masdbif q.v.; 2. raw cot- 
ton ; cf . sebi. 

sabili(Ar.), cause, origin,reason 
(cf. dalili); sabili da because 
of; enna sabili what is the 
reason? sabilin mi why? 
sabili da shi for his sake. 

sabira, zabira, saddle-bag, M. 
H. p. 217, wallet. 

sabka, sapka, safka, sauka, 
sauki, 1. to let down, to 
lower, to unload camels ; 
hence, 2. to alight at a place, 
to lodge; masabki or gidan 
sabka a place at which to 
stop ; maimasabki innkeeper, 
host ; sabkas, saukad with da 
to let down ; na sabkas da 
kaya or na sabka kaya I laid 
down the load, sabkeke let 
down, laid down ; sabko, safko 
or sapko to start, to set out ; 
sabko lafia may you finish 
your journey well ! scd)ka and 
sapka are more commonly used 
in Daura, sauka and soka in 
Sokoto, and safka in Kano. 

sabko, safko, n. start, esp. 
used of an early start; yin 
sabko to start early. 

Bftbo, fem. sdbua, pi. sabui, sd- 

R. H. D. 

habij sabobij new, fresh, young 
(possibly from Ar. j-.*_*rf, 
young) ; sabon wata new 
moon ; na sabo again, D 1 8 
maituba ba shi komo ga aiki 
nai na sabo he who repents, 
returns not to his work again. 

sabo, evil ; see suabo. 

s&bo* (K.), because, in order 
that; cf. seq. 

sabo, habit, practice, custom; 
cf . sabo turiken wawa ; cf . 

sSiboda, because ; see sdbada. 

sabra, an abandoned farm ; 
see sabara. 

sabro, mosquito ; see sdbei'o. 

sabta, sabche, sanche, to 
make smooth; ka sabta masu 
fdda stop their quarrelling; 
sabtu, sautu to become smooth. 

sabta, cleanliness, smartness; 
cf. tsabta. 

sabtu, saptu, sotu, sautu 

(cf . Ar. 9-<IuAm> and Fers. 4Jui.»>), 

1. a trust, yin sabtu to entrust, 
e.g. na yi sabtu masa kurdi I 
entrusted the money to him; 

2. a commission to purchase 
or to give something. 

sabua, a term used in chacha 
for money not yet staked ; 
cf. sdha. 

sabua, new, a feminine form of 
sabo^ q.v. 





sabua, guinea-fowl, a feminine 
form of zabo, q.v. 

sabua, sabuwa, fighting. 

sabule, to draw out. 

sabunchi (K.), renewing; cf. 
sabuntaka (S.). 

sabuni (S.), sabulo (K.) (Ar. 
^^jLtf, Gr. o-aTwi/), soap, sa- 
hunin solo a superior soap, 
e.g. that imported via the 
Nupe country, used for wash- 
ing the face. 

sabunta, to renew, restore. 

sabuntaka (S.), renewing; cf. 
sabunchi (K.). 

sabura, a place with no trees ; 
see Sahara. 

sache, to steal ; see safa. 

sada (Ar.), to close, to shut up, 
to put an end to a quarrel 
between two men ; sdchc, 1 . 
to agree with a person ; 2. to 
meet on the road, to meet 
with, E 49 cMkin dadi mu 
sddu da larahawa with joy 
we shall meet with the Arabs. 
sddua, particip. form, 1. con- 
cord ; 2. meeting with. 

s&daberu, magic. 

6 ^ ^ ^ 

sadaka (Ar. iijud), alms, alms- 
giving, A 83 sadaka da baiwa 
du ya bai almajirai he gave 
all offerings and gifts to his 

sadaka (in western districts of 
Hausaland), a gaol ; dan sa- 

daka a convict, hi dan sadaka 
to escort a convict. 

sadaka, pi. saddku (from sa 
and daki), a female slave, a 

sadaka, sadauka, v. to give' 
alms, e.g. A 46 wanan da he 
sadaka da baiwa maiyawa 
one of these gave alms and 
showed much generosity : 
kurdin sadaka the sum paid 
by a bridegroom to the 
parents of the bride. 

sada-kai, to bow or lower the 

sadaki, a gift given by a bride- 
groom to a bride. 

sadare (Ar. jjw), to be con- 
founded, A 8 ; cf. sandare. 

sadauki, invincible warrior 

(Ar. ^j^^jk>>/, to be daunt- 

sadu, to arrive ; see sdda. 
sadua, conciliation ; see sdda. 
saduda, confidence, etc.; cf. 

safa*, spring onions. 
sS,fa (S.), to cheat, defraud. 
safa, quilted mail worn on the 

sS,fa*, to increase, used with 

arziki, D 35 ; cf. sufa. 
safage*, one who scatters his 

enemies in war. 
safara (S.), employment, oc- 




cupation ; yin safara to be 
safe, safia (Ai . ^^^) {safe is 

used as fern., A 11), early 

morning ; safe ya yi morning 

came; da safe in the morning; 

sanu da safe good morning ! 

sai da safe good night ! ko- 

wache safia every morning ; 

safia is used adverbially in 

B 103 en ka ga safia rana if 

thou beholdest the sun in the 

dawn ; sasafe very early in 

the morning. 

safe, 1. a long leathern boot 

reaching about ten inches up 

the leg; 2. a long leather 

sheath or bag. 

S&fi, a horse ; see safe. 

3 - 
safi, safe ( Ar. ^^^^), unalloyed, 

pure, used of metals, e.g. of 

S&fi, sSife, fem. safia, a young 

safia, morning ; see safe. 
safirchi*, an oath, invocation 

of God. 

saf ko, n. starting ; see sahko. 

saftu, commission to purchase ; 

see sautu. 

S - 
sa,fu, saffii (Ar. ous), 1. a line 

or row, e.g. as formed for 

prayer, yin saffu to form 

a line; F 92 atsaida saffu 

'iss(dlas1ie a line is formed. 

prayer is said ; 2. line of 

sagagi, a small bird which runs 

on the top of water vegetation 

sagara, a young virgin, 
s&ge, to become stiff or cramped, 

e.g. with cold. 
sage, to catch or get caught in 

falling (e.g. in branch of a 

sage*, to reproach ; see za^e. 
sago, a medicine which when 

drunk is supposed to ward 

off the blows of an enemy. 
sS.gO, male white ant ; see zdgo. 
sago, a large black snake. 
sahibi* (Ar.), friend, 
sahur, suhur, safur*, a meal 

just before the morning dur- 

ing fast month, Ar. j^a>w ; 
cf. bude baki. 
sai, 1. only, except, unless, but, 
e.g. sai wanan only this ; 2. 
until, e.g. sai ka tsofi, B 115 
(wait) until you grow old; 
cf. sai ambideka (wait) till 
you are sought for ; sai gobe 
until to-morrow ; 3. sai wota 
rana farewell till another 
day ! sai anjima good-bye for 
the present; 3. conjunctively, 
e.g. dag a wanan sai wanan = 
both of them ; 4. quite, used 
with lafia, e.g. sai lafia quite 





well or hail ! cf . saida, saidai, 

saida, except; of. saidai. 

saida, to sell ; see saya. 

saidaba*, to refuse, to with- 

saidai, only, merely, though. 

saifa, sefa, pi. saifofi, spleen ; 
see D 67 chiwon saifa a 
swollen spleen. 

saiko, 1. nevertheless ; A 3 
saiko ka die nevertheless thou 
sayest; 2. unless, except; 
A 49 saiko da tuba zayi sha 
alkauchara only b}^ repent- 
ance shall he drink of the 
water of heaven. 

saiko, sticks used in a roof; 
see tsaiko. 

saiko (S.), sanko (K.), bald- 
ness. Tnaisaiko or vnaisanko 
a bald man. 

sailinun*, used for saanan, 

sainya, securidaca longipedun- 
culata, polygalaceae, a shrub 
with purple flowers. It has 
medicinal uses and in some 
districts is said to form an 
ingredient in arrow poison = 
uwar magunguna or woma- 

sainya, sanya, a lengthened 
form of sa, q.v., to put, to 
place, to cause a thing to be 
done, to send a message. 

sainya, shainya, shanya, 1. 
to cool, e.g. ina sainya ruan 
zafi en sha I cool the hot; 
water, so that I may drink 
it ; 2. to dry, hang up to dry. 
sainyato to put out to dry. 
sainyaye, shainyaye, fem. 
sainyaya, pi. sainyayu, dried, 
aired, also applied to a man 
with a withered arm. 

sainyaya, to calm, comfort, 
allah shi sainyaya zuchia 
may God comfort you. 

sainyi, sanyi, cold, dampness, 
a cold, cold in the head, e.g» 
sainyi ya kamani (lit. a cold 
has caught me) I have caught 
cold; chiwon sainyi, gonor- 
rhoea; metaph. coolness of 
mind, jin sainyi to be com- 
forted, resigned, kafaye dau- 
kan sainyi you are very cool 
(i.e. impudent), sainyin zu- 
chia comfort, consolation^ 
sainyin jiki want of zeal, 
slackness, yaro maisainyin 
jiki a boy with no go in him» 
sainyin hali coolheadedness, 

saishe, to sell ; see sayes. 

saisuwa, n. selling ; see saya. 

saiwa, saiwo, soiya*, a root. 

saiya, to buy ; see saya. 

saiyi, pi. saiyoyi, a temporary 
booth or covering for the 



sajada (Ar. j^a>...>), bowing so 
as to touch the ground with 
the forehead ; D 34 yin sa- 
jada to do obeisance to ; see 
rdka; cf. sujuda. 

saje, pi. sajoji, hair on the 
cheeks, whiskers. 

saje, to flow together, inter- 
mingle, join together. 

saji, Serjeant (adopted from the 

saka, to weave, net, make nets ; 
masdka weaver, also used for 
a shuttle, sakake, fem. sa- 
kakia, pi. sakaku, woven. 

saka, n. plaiting, weaving, 
netting, sakar zdna plaiting 
of mats. 

saka, to avenge, retaliate on; 
cf. sdkamako. 

saka, s^ki, s^ke, to let go, 
give up, release, drop, sdki 
fuska to show an open, smil- 
ing face, saka tuo to take 
the food out of the cooking 
pot, to serve food. v. n. saka 
putting ; ya sake saka faza 
he threw the hook again. 
sdki jikinka make yourself 
easy, ya sdki alkaueli he 
broke his promise, sdke is 
sometimes used intransitive- 
ly, to be at peace, akwia ta 
sartii sdki the goat got loose. 
akwana sdke spending the 
night at large, sau is perhaps 

a contracted form of sdka] 

ya saushi he let him go. 
saka-mako, n. retaliation or 

return of kindness done ; see 

sakache, to draw out; cf. 

sakafchi, 1. forgetf ulness ; 2. 

sS,kai, light, i.e. not heavy. 
sakaina, the fragments of a 

broken pot. 
sakake, woven ; see saka. 
sakake, changed ; see sake. 

sakankanche (Ar. o^)j *o 
trust in, to be quite sure of 
anything ; cf. masakanche. 
sakankanchewa reality. 

sakaraftu, n. trotting. 

sakata, window, a word used 
in Zaria, etc. ; in Kano ta^a 
is used. 

sakata, sakatta, sakache, to 
draw or pull out, sakatta hor- 
kori to pick the teeth ; cf , 

sakatubu, a written charm ; 
the water with which it is 
washed off the writing board 
is drunk. 

sakaye or saye*, to hide. 

sakaza, drake; from sa bull 
and kaza fowl; cf. Eng. bull- 
seal, bull- walrus, etc. 

s&ke (S.), alike; see sakke. 




sake, saki, to change, to alter, 
to do over again, ka sake taji 
go again, ya sake yin chara 
he crowed again, ka sake 
tashi get up again ! ku sake 
tell another story (said by 
one to whom an impossible 
story has been told), gari 
ya sake mini I don't recognise 
the town, sakiwa changing, 
T> bi ku netna shini hakika 
da gaskia ku her sakiwa seek 
after true and correct know- 
ledge, leave off changing, sa- 
kake, fem. sakakia, pi. sakaku, 

s§,ki, to let go ; see sdka., n. freedom, yin sdki to 
set free. 

saki, coarse flour ; see tseki. 

saki, soki, soaki, greyish blue, 
pepper-and-salt cloth ; cf . Gr. 
p. 139, 1. 43, chan fa funtu 
ya yi saki there the naked 
found fine cloth, danda sa- 
ki a roan horse, saki-saki 
striped, fula saki black or 
blue cap, rigan saki a tobe 
of a similar colour. 

sakia, piercing, e.g. of the skin, 
by an arrow ; yin sakia to 
pierce ; also used of probing 
the skin with a hot needle. 

sakiwa, changing, divorce ; cf . 

sakke (S.), alike, equally. 

sSiko, n. putting down, loose- 
ness; D 11 bai sdko ha it 
puts it not down ; cf. sdka. 

s3.ko, to fall, kamin rua ya 
sdko before the rainfall. 

sako, message, also a commis- 
sion, to purchase or give ; 
cf. saftu, sautu. 

sako, a hiding place, a blocked 
or narrow place. 

s&ko-sako, softly, gently; cf. 
lako lako. 

sakoikoiwa, the name of a 

sakot, light of weight. 

S^labi, saliva; yin salahi to 

sSilache, to jump; see tsdl ache.. 

saladaka*, to fall headlong. 

salaha (Ar. ^iJLw), a gown. 

salala, thin gruel {kunu) mixed 
with water. 

salam, salama (Ar. ^S^), 
peace, chiefly used in the 
form of the salutation salam 
alaik peace be upon thee, to 
which the answer is alaikum 
salam upon you be peace. ' 
salmawa particip. greeting, 
F 4 muna salmaiva we greet. 

sS,lS,ina, n. price, M. H, p. 204, 
suna salama alif alif they 
are selling it at a thousand 

saiame (Ar. ^^ ii), to give | 




up, to let go, ya salame rainsa 
he gave up his spirit ; the 
passive is often used in selling 
anything, e.g. asalartieshi you 
can take it, it is yours, na 
salama I leave it, i.e. I will 
not buy on the terms offered. 

salanga (Zanf.), dung-hole; cf. 

s^as^da (S.), to circumcise. 

salashe*, sallashe*, to pray 
for a person or thing ; F 92 
atsaida saffu assallasheka a 
line is formed, prayer is said 
for thee. 

salasuwa (S.), circumcision. 

sale, soale (cf. Ar. rt j^^JLo), 
to peel off, to blister as skin 
when burnt ; cf. tsali. 

saiga, pi. salgagi, 1. cesspit, 
B 105 ; 2. dung-hole, bay an 
gida is used similarly. 

sail, soali, n. blistering. 

salihi*, pi. salihai (Ar. ^sJlo), 

good, true, faithful, e.g. B 8 
shi sashi salihi ha mugu ha 
may He make it good, not 
saliki*, king, for sariki, q.v. 

salka, pi. salkuna (Ar. p-Xl»), a 

bag or bottle made of skin. 
salka, chains, prison ; see sarka. 

salla (Ar. %^), 1. prayer; 2. 
divine worship and so, a 

service, feast, e.g. hahhar 
salla the great Mohammedan 
feast ; sallan laya the feast 
corresponding to the Jewish 
passover ; tana reshin salla 
used of a woman during men- 
struation; 3. yin salla to 
pray, D 22 kuna azumi da 
salla keep the fast and pray. 
sallata festival ; ranan scd- 
lata, id. sallati, 1. prayer; 
2. salutation, blessing, F 3 
muna kuma yin sallati hisa 
Tnuhammad we further salute 
Mohammed, maisallati one 
who habitually prays, sal- 
latu salutation, greeting, C 
50 ; cf . sallashe. 

sallama, title of a royal atten- 

sallama, trade agreement ; see 

sallata, festival ; see salki. 

sallati, prayer ; see salla. 

sallatu, salutation ; see salla. 

salmanda*, mud. 

salmawa, greeting ; see salam. 

s3,lo, cf. sahunin sdlo a superior 
kind of soap. 

sSiina, pi. samania, samomi (Ar. 

|lo-w), sky, heaven; maisama 
a title given to God ; A 2 da 
yerdan maisama with the 
approval of Him who dwells 
in heaven. 




sama*, to befall a person ; see 

sSjsaa, to become ; see zama. 

s3.ina, suma, possibly an ad- 
verbial use of zama to be- 
come, usually found in re- 
duplicated form samma sam- 
ma a little, e.g. ban ji ha sai 
satna sama I heard only a 
little; cf. zama zama after 
some time. 

samachi, a tall plant with pink 
flowers (Tephrosia elongata). 

samagi*, a royal warrior. 

samako, n. an early start ; cf. 
prov. kowa ya yi samako yd 
futa da rana he who starts 
very early must rest at mid- 
day; kayan samako da ma- 
reche akandamreshi the load 
for an early morning start 
should be tied up over-night. 

samame, a slave-raiding ex- 
pedition by foot-soldiers ; if 
horsemen were employed it 
would be called hari ; for 
description of a slave-raid, 
cf. M. H. p. 195 sqq.; cf. 
same to catch. 

samame*, supreme, an epithet 
applied to God, M. H. p. 227 ; 
cf. sama heaven. 

samari, youths; plural of sam- 
rai, q.v. 

samasadowa, white cotton 
brocade of various patterns. 

sS.m.ata, to poison. 

samba*, a pagan form of oath 
or divination. 

sam.bache*, sandals ; see sam- 

samibachi, to boast; cf. 7na- 
zambachi a rogue. 

sambani, trader, shopkeeper. 

sambazai, sandals with red 
leather tops, especially used 
in N. Africa, possibly from 
French savate. 

sam.beru, a tree, the leaves of 
which are poisonous to ani- 

samche, slipperiness ; see 

same, to obtain ; see samu. 

sam.falwa, a blue cylindrical 

bead ; (?) = Ar. j-jA-o, Eng. 

sammu, sammo (Ar. ^), 1. 

a charm written with intent 

to injure someone; 2. poison 

given in food.* for zamna, to sit 

down ; cf. M. H. p. 209. 
sam.o, to find and bring; see 

samrai, sarmayi, samrayi, 

saurayi, pi. samari, a youth 

from fourteen to twentyyears 

of age (cf. Ar. j-w«J), the pi. 
form is used as a vocative 




sing, when speaking to a boy 
whose name is not known, 
e.g. yaka samari. 

samri, haste ; see sauri. 

sajnro, mosquito ; see sdbero. 

samsam (Ar. ^»>.o,.j), sesame, 

a herb from two to four feet 
high ; an oil is obtained from 
its seeds which is esp. valued 
by the Hausas on account of 
its providing a medicine or 
ointment for the eyes; cf. 

• Pliny xxii. 25 'hoc (i.e se- 
sama) amplius oculis impo- 
nitur decocta in vino.' 

samtse, to slip. 

samtsi, santsi, samche, 1. 
smoothness, slipperiness ; Ao- 
inya ta yi samche the road is 
slippery, F 144 da kaiji kua 
da samtsi duk za soka and its 
sharp edge and slipperiness 
shall pierce them ; 2. a slip ; 
yin samtsi to make a slip ; 
kdda sam,tsi ya saw,eka take 
care that thou slip not ; kdda 
doki ya yi samche do not let 
the horse slip. 

samu, n. obtaining, possessing, 
possession, B 106 na duha 
dunia hal samunta I have 
considered the world and its 

samu, sami, sama, samo, 
same (bef. pron. obj.), to 

get, to find, to meet with and 
hence to happen to, e.g. mi 
ya sameka what has happened 
to you? i.e. what is the matter 
with you 1 A 48 komi ya 
samasa whatever befalls him ; 
also na sami kasua I had no 
difficulty in selling my wares, 
lit. I found a market, sami 
is also used of pulling a person 
out of a well; used intr. thus, 
hainya ta samu the road 
is obtained, i.e. there is a 
road. Cf. M. H. p. 204, an- 
sam,i ddm,i nawa ? how many 
bundles (have you) got? sa- 
muwa participial form, B 156 
yala ta samu ko ha ta samu- 
wa ha whether it be obtained 
or cannot be obtained ; samu 
is often used as equivalent to 
iya, e.g. ha ya samu ya shiga 
he could not enter; it also 
denotes spending time, e.g. 
ya samu wata guda he spent 
one month; samu dama or 
samu rongom^i to get better ; 
sam,u sauki to obtain help ; 
samo to arise, spring, result 
from : also trans, to find some- 
thing at a distance or hard 
to come by, to achieve; ya 
samo suna he achieved a 
san, used as a contraction of 
sanni to know 




san, to love ; see so. 
Sanaa (Ar.), occupation, trade. 
sanada, to trouble, molest. 
sanadi, vexation, trouble, 
sanadi, a poisonous snake. 
sanadi, reason, cause (cf. Ar. 

ju*j, support, authority). 

sananche, to harass, trouble, 
distress; cf. sananta. 

sananda, to inform ; cf. sanas. 

sananta, trouble. 

sanas, to learn ; see sdni, 

sanasda, sannasda, sanarda, 
sannarda, sannashe (bef. 
pron. obj.), to inform, ac- 

sanbazai, sandals ; see sam- 

sanche, samche, slipperiness ; 
see samtsL 

san da, pi. sanduna, stick, staff; 
then fig. blow, stripe, D 44 
su kan ribi sanduna maimai 
kaman duatsu they pile up 
blows many in number as 
stones : it is sometimes used 
as a measure of length, i.e. 
about a yard ; dan sanda a 
native policeman. 

sanda*, to teach ; see sanasda. 

sanda, n. stealthy walk as of 
a thief, ya yi sanda he went 
by stealth ; cf. sandua. 

sandalu, d,\f\\\i^hanunriia nut. 

sandare, to feel cold, be stiff. 

sandua, sanda, to creep or 

walk as on tiptoe silently. 
sanduki, pi. sandukai (Ar. 

G J ^ 

O3JLL0), box, drawer. It 
denotes usually a small box, 
e.g. of leather, etc. 

sane, suane, stealing, pocket- 
picking, pretence, malinger- 
ing; ya yi sane he made 
excuse ; maisane crafty ; cf . 
prov. tsofon doki maisane. 
yan sane pick-pockets. 

sanfalwa, a bead ; see samfahva^ 

sanfo, samfo, pi. san f una ^ a 
large basket with handles : 
esp. one made of kahoj leaves. 

sangache, reaped corn tied up 
in bundles ; see sankaclie. 

sangarnia*, ears of corn ; see 

sangaya, a rough grass shelter. 

sango, iron-tipped harpoon 
fired from a gun. 

sS,ni (cf. Ar. iw, knowledge)^ 
to know ; the final i is fre- 
quently omitted, e.g. allak ya 
san kortii God knows every- 
thing ; this is regularly so 
before pron. suffixes, e.g. ban 
sanshi ba I did not know it, 
ansanshi it is known ; ' da 
na sani'' remorse, allah ya 
tsaremu da aikin ^danasanV 
may God keep us from acts 
which will bring rfemorse . 




pass. part, sananej fern, san- 
anya, pi. sananu, known ; ba 
tasanuwait cannot be known. 
Another form of this word is 
shina, e.g. na shina=na sdni; 
sansaitche to understand well; 
sanas to learn ; sanasda to 

sftni, shini, shina, n. know- 
ledge, D 54 ku nema sMni 
kakika da gaskia seek after 
true and correct knowledge. 

sania, saniya, cow ; cf . sa bull. 

saniya*, talkativeness, ka 
chika saniya you are talking 
too much. 

sanji, a heavy load, 

sankache, sangache, reaped 
corn, corn laid in rows before 
the head is cut off. 

sankara, an insect found in 
kola nuts. 

sankare, tr. v. to stiffen, used 
of cold or sickness. 

sanko, baldness on the top of 
the forehead ; see saiko. 

sankuja (K.), a kind of fish- 

sankurmi, the sarikin kasua 
or officer of the market, whose 
right it is to lay hands on 
offenders and to settle trade 
disputes in the market; cf. 

sansama, a mixture of fura 
aud sour milk. 

sansambi, a meal for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

sansS.ini, stereospermum kun- 
thianum, Bignoniaceae, a tree 
with pink flowers, also called 
jiri^ q.v. 

sansami, leaves. 

sansamtsa*, smoothly, an in- 
tensive form of samtsi. 

sansana*, dried wood or leaves, 
M. H. p. 184. 

sansana, to smell; see sun- 

sansanche, to understand 
well ; cf . sdni. 

sansani, 1. camp, circular 
entrenchment, sometimes ap- 
plied to an army ; cf. Gr. 
p. 139, 1. 40, sunka kore san- 
saninku ; 2. camp, encamp- 
ment, esp. applied to a war 

sansanya, cold. 

sansari, santali, a cane used 
for making arrows. 

sansarifa, sasarifa, the stum- 
bling of a horse. 

sanshera, rice before it ia 

sanso, remains of food, e.g. in 
a dirty calabash. 

santsi, smoothness ; see samtsi, 

sanu, 1. slowly, gently; sanu 
sanu very slowly or very 
quietly; Hausa proverb tafi 
sanu ko hainya da nesa go 




' slowly though the way be 
long; 2. sanu is most fre- 
quently used in salutations = 
hail ! It is often repeated a 
dozen or more times in order 
to add emphasis to the greet- 
ing. Its meaning varies 
according to the word with 
v/hich it is used, e.g. sanu da 
rana good morning, sanu da 
dere good night, sanu da aiki 
may you be happy over your 
work, sanu da gajia (lit. 
greetings to weariness) may 
you not be overtired. If a 
man meets another when it 
is raining he will say sanu 
da rua welcome to you amidst 
the rain ! sanu da kewa greet- 
ings to you in your loneliness, 
sanu kadai greetings to you 
(used only in response to 
another greeting), sanu da 
kwana biu a greeting after a 
prolonged absence (lit. greet- 
ings for two days), sanu is 
sometimes used as an expres- 
sion of sympathy = I hope 
that you are not hurt. It is 
joined on to the 2nd personal 
pronouns, sanuku or sanunku 

. greetings to you, sanuki or 
sanunki hail lady ! 

sanya, to dry ; see sainya. 

sanya, to place ; see sainya. 

sanya, a shrub ; see sainya. 

sanyi, n. cold ; see sainyi. 

sapka, to let down ; see sabka. 

sara, a saying, song, proverb, 
akadauki sara a saying was 
made, i.e. it became a pro- 
verb, halinta ya zama sara 
her character became a by- 
word ; also used of the drum- 
ming and singing at a king's 

sara, n. a hole cut in the 
ground, e.g. one made with 
a dig of a hoe for purpose of 
sowing seed, the hole of a 
snake, yin sara to cut crops, 
to reap ; magirhin sdran ya- 
kua the sickle for reaping 
yakua. sdran hisa lopping, 
cutting off branches. 

sara, to sting, wound, bite, esp. 
used of reptiles ; cf . sari. 

sara, to cut in pieces ; see 

sS,ra, sarra, loin. 

saraba*, a gift given to a 
superior to conciliate him. 

sarafa* (Ar. o»j-rf), to rain for 
a long time. 

sS,rafa, sarrafa, to barter 

sS.rafi, sarrafi, n. exchanging 
or bartering goods. 

sS,rai, 1. clear, clean; then, 
exact ; 2. clearly, carefully ; 
kilga sarai to count correctly, 
B 28 duha sarai sarai look 




carefully, na ji sarai I quite 

sarakua, saruka, mother-in- 
law ; cf. sicrki father-in-law. 

saranwaga, a second quality 
of kola nuts, where both 
large and small are included ; 
cf . marsa and minu. 

sarare, cut ; see sdre. 

sS.rari (cf. Ar. tj-a^-o), 1. open 
space, plain, meadow without 
trees ; B 76 wa ya yi tasu 
nan sararin sudan what was 
like unto it in the regions of 
the Sudan? A place where 
people assemble ; fUo sarari 
come out into the open, 
i.e. show yourself; 2. space, 
room ; daki nan yaji wanan 
da sarari this room is larger 
than that. maisarari spa- 
cious; gari ya sarari the 
sky is clear ; cf . gaH yai 
shirin sarari the sky looks 
like clearing, asarari openly. 
3. chance, opportunity, ba 
ni da sararin zua I have 
not had a chance to come, 
idan na samu sarari if I get 
an opportunity. 

sarasara, yin sarasara to let 
in light, lighten. 

saraunia, queen, wife of a 
king; cf. sarkanya. 

sarauta, sarota, kingdom ; 
chin sarauta to gain posses- 

sion of a kingdom or to be- 
come a king ; kurdin sarauta. 
fees paid by Hausas on ad- 
mission to native offices. 

saraya, a fall ; yin saraya — to 

sarbe, to pick up, catch. 

sare, sara, zara* to accuse, 
to report or inform against ; 
maisara, pi. masusara, ac- 
cuser, informer. 

sare, sari, sara, to cut, to 
cut down (da takohi) with a 
sword ; used of cutting down 
wood or trees ; cf. prov. mu- 
gun gatarinka ya fi sari ka 
ha ni a tool that is your own, 
even if it be bad, will cut 
better than a borrowed one ; 
sarare^ fem. sararia, pi. sara- 
ru, cut; intens. form sasare. 

sarewa, a kind of wind-instru- 
ment, a flute, or reed pipe. 

sS,ri, a small beetle which de- 
stroys skins and eats grain. 

sari, maisari a man who sells 
a thing a second time at a 

sari, a bay or dun horse. 

sari, n. bite, sarim machiji bite 
of snake; cf. M. H. p. 185. 

sari-kutub, a small, tree-dwel- 
ling, nocturnal, poisonous 
lizard, like damatsiri but 
black instead of striped yel- 
low and black. 




saria, a head shaven in two 
longitudinal lines, an inch 
wide from front to rear, each 
side of the crown. 

sariki*, to seize; cf. sarkafe. 

sarita, a small leather or grass 
bag, carried on the back. 

sarga, dung-hole, for saiga, q.v. 

sargafe, to hang up, e.g. on a 
stick or forked tree ; cf . sar- 

sarka, salka, surka, sirka, pi. 

sarkuna, sarkoki (Ar. 4ijL;), 
chain, irons, imprisonment, 
prison ; dan sarka prisoner, 
gidan sarka a prison. 

sarkafe, to bind, tie, inter- 
twine : sarkafewa binding. 

sarkakia, a thorny bush, thick- 
et, probably derived from 
sarke to entangle. 

sarkanya, queen, usually ap- 
plied to a queen who reigns 
in her own right; ct saraunia 
the wife of a king. 

sarke, to become entangled, 
applied to string in a knot, 
or to trees in a forest; cf. 
sarka chain. 

sarki, sariki, pi. sarakuna, 
sarakai, sardki, king, chief. 
In Hausaland every town 
and village has its king. The 
title sarki is given not only 
to these but to many of their 
sons and to anyone who pre- 

sides over any special work ; 
B 3 jabaru wahidi sarki allah 
God the one all powerful 
king ; the title sarkin niusul- 
mi is applied to the sultan 
of Sokoto, sarkin sudan (lit. 
king of the Sudan) to the 
king of Birnin Gwari, sarkin 
dunia is used in N. Africa 
for the sultan of Turkey, 
sarkin dawaki master of the 
horse, sarkin kirma a leader 
of infantry, sarkin kasua 
president of the market, sar- 
kin kqfa door-keeper, sarkin 
rua ferryman, sarkin wuta 
cook. In Kano the blind, 
lepers, beggars, etc. each 
have their king (sarki) ; the 
expression ba-sarakin sariki 
is used to denote the officers 
or counsellors of the king's 
court, pi. sarakunan sariki. 
sarki maichi the reigning 
king, Jitachen sarki the de- 
posed king, sardki is some- 
times used as a sing, word = 
prince, shi sardki ne. 

sarmadawa, large common 
cowry shell. 

sarmayi, a youth ; see samrai. 

sarota, kingdom; see sarauta. 

sarr, used of smooth or quick 
motion, e.g.jirigiya taji sarr 
the canoe slid along. 

sarrafa, to barter ; see sdrafa. 




sarsari, manacles ; see sasdri. 

sartse, a splinter, e.g. in the 
skin ; see Jida-sartse. 

saruka, mother-in-law ; see sa- 

sarum, an idiot. 

saruru, a fool ; cf. Gr. p. 137, 
1. 10. 

sisa, sassa, direction, side, 
sassmi nan da sassa chan on 
this side and that, sassa fudu 
the four sides. 

sasabda, sasafta, sasapta, to 
tie loosely, to loosen. 

sSiSabe, 1. to clear ground be- 
fore ploughing ; 2. to cut up 
into small pieces ; cf . sabe. 

sasafe, very early in the morn- 
ing ; see safe. 

sasago*, a saw. 

sftsaka, sassaka, to smooth or 
prepare wood, masasaki car- 
penter, masaka a carpenter's 
shop. sasakan itache the 
stripped bark of a tree. 


sasS,ri (cf. Ar. ilUJLw), chains; 

F 186 asa masu sasari na 

wuta da malwa fetters and 

leg-irons of fire are to be 

placed on them. 
sasasara, a basket used for 

catching fish = te«^sara, q.v. 
sasayi, saisaiyi, seseyi, to 

make a purchase ; cf . M. H. 

p. 203 ; see say a. 

sashe, half ; see shashi. 

sassaka, jog, of a donkey, trot. 

sassarifa, stumbling ; see san- 

sata, open thieving, theft ; cf. 
sane, yin sata to steal, jnai- 
sata a thief, sache, sachi, to 
steal ; B 58 <a rahika ta sa^he 
rai it will part you (from 
this world) it will steal thy 
life. sachiar duka stolen 
goods or the stealing of 
goods, sachi jiki to go off 
by stealth, sato to steal and 
bring home, sachdche, fem. 
sashdchia, stolen. 

sau, SO, prefixed to cardinal 
numerals to form numeral 
adverbs, e.g. sau daia once, 
sau biu twice, sau fudu four 
times, sau tare often. 

sau*, to leave or quit, used of 
a path, e.g. sau hainya to 
leave the track, A. 19 sun 
sau tafarki they left the right 
path ; cf . sdka. 

sau, sauwaiwai, pi. sauwuna, 
1. the sole of the foot ; ijian 
sau ankle; 2. a foot-print; 
kdda ya hi saunsa na da let 
him not go back on his tracks. 

sauka, a present made to a 
person on his arrival. 

sauka, soka, a modified form 
of sahka, q.v., to alight, 
settle down, stay ; F 252 




gidan kua dan bazo anasoka 
ni kua in the house of the 
son of Bazo will I stay, sau- 
keni help me down, or help 
me to put my load down. 

sauki, 1. quick; sauki mutua 
sudden death; 2. used with 
da as adverb, da sauki easily; 
yaji sauki that is easier, ahu 
maisauki an easy matter ; 
gajia da sauki I am feeling 
less tired ; cf. seq. 

sauki, 1. help, assistance, e.g. 
allah ya koro muna sauki 
may God give us help; 2. 
health, e.g. na samu sauki I 

sauki, sauwaka, sauwake, to 
help; aUah shi sauwaka may 
God help, allah shi sauwaka 
dere may God lighten our 
darkness, B 64 kai dai asa- 
wake dayawan guri thou ob- 
tainest much of thy desire. 
sauki karaiu to master or 
succeed in reading. 

saulo, subolo (cf. ("?) Ar. JjL»), 
a large bag for holding rice. 

saumako, early morning; see 

sauna, pity, compassion. 

sauni* for tsauni, a hill; cf. 
M. H. p. 61. 

saura, v. to be over, ahin da ya 
saura that which remained. 

saura* a place to sleep in, e.g. 

in a tree, for fear of wild 

saura, shaura (Ar. jli), 1. re- 
mainder, gleanings in a field ; 
yin saura to glean, ya yi 
saura kadan there is little 
left ; cf . na bashi arhaa shaura 
daia I gave him four thou- 
sand less one (thousand) ; 2. 
fallow land, a disused farm. 

saurara, sorara, saurare, ju- 
rare*, to wonder, to listen 
attentively, e.g. B 22 ku yan 
uwa ku jini ku saurara you, 
my brethren, listen to me 
and pay attention ; cf. seq. 

sauraro, n. attentive listen- 

saurayi, a youth ; see samrni 

sauri, samri (Ar. ^^, haste;, 
e.g. F 29 ka her saurin fushi \ 
give up being hastily angry 
da sauri hastily, masauri 
magana a quick talker. 

sauro, mosquito ; see sabero. j 

sausauchi, sosochi, idleness, 
unwillingness to work. | 

sautare, often ; = sau tare. \. 

sautu, commission, to purchase '■' 
or give ; cf. sako. 

sauuwa, saleableness; see saya. 

sauwaka, to help ; see sauki. 

sauwi (Ar. 4j>-j), equality, aj 




sauya, sawaya, sawoya, 1. 
to change, transform ; 2. to 
be changed, e.g. na sauya da 
arna niusuhni I changed from 
a heathen to a Mussulman. 
sauyaye, fem. sauyaya^ pi. 
sauyayu, altered, translated. 

sauyi, n. changing, alteration, 
yin sauyi to change. 

sawa, placing ; see sa. 

sawaba, sawabe (Ar. >^\^^\ 
that which is fitting, proper ; 
D 4 'niu yi aiki sawaba that 
we may work successfully, 
yin sawabe to work well or 

sawaila, a long-barrelled Arab 
gun ; cf. adakka, 

sawani, n. freedom, setting 
free (slaves). 

sawanta, to set free. 

sawarwara, to trouble, ai.noy. 

sawarwari, 1. trouble, annoy- 
ance ; 2. anything sold in the 
market and returned to the 
seller injured. 

sawo, to sell ; see saya. 

sawo* = tsawo, q.v., F 145 
hawa nasa har sawo nasababu 
wawa its height and its length 
are the same without doubt. 

sawoya, to become ; see sauya. 

saya, v. to do a thing incom- 
pletely, saya kofa to put a 
door ajar. 

saya, seye, saiya (or before a 

R. H. D. 

I personal pronoun saye or 
saiye) ; sayi, saiyi, sai, to 
buy : the form sayi is com- 
monly used when followed 
by an object, e.g. na sayi 
dx)ki I bought a horse, but 
ka saya did you buy one % 
sayu or saiyu to be bought, 
ya saiyu kurdi kaza it was 
bought for (or was worth) so 
much, sa saye^ q.v., to make a 
few purchases, sayes, saiyesy 
saiyar, when followed by 
an object saiyes da, saiyer 
da, saida, sayeshe, or before a 
personal pronoun saishe, to 
sell, sasaiya, saisaya a v. of 
multitude ; cf. suka saisaiya 
each of them bought, sawo 
to sell ; intrans. to be sold. 
sauuwa saleableness, ya ki 
sawo or ya ki sauuwa it is 

sayaya, purchasing, marketing. 
saiyerua or sayerwa on sale, 
saisuwa selling. There is no 
verbal substantive formed 
from saya, thus saya da sa- 
yerua (or sayeswa) buying 
and selling, sayo to buy 
and bring back. 

saye (S.), pi. sayu, root; cf. 

sayes, to sell ; see saya. 

sayi (S.), 1. an old cow, the 
mother of the herd ; 2. a 





rank at Zaria, the chief col- 
lector of the cattle tax. 

sayi, an enclosure. 

sayi, n. buying ; cf . muna sai- 
yin kaji we are buying fowls. 

sebaa, sabS,a, seven thousand; 
see Gr. p. 67. 

sebain, sabain (Ar. jj.,otw), 

seventy ; D 64 nasabain, fem. 

tasahain, seventieth. 
sebi, cotton after it is carded, 
sebi, to clean cotton ; see sdbi. 
sebi, used of the snap of the 

fingers against the hand after 

the cowries are thrown in 

■chacha ; see sdbi. 
sefa, spleen ; see saifa. 

sefi (cf. (?) Ar. <jl^, to plait), 
to comb the hair ; cf. tse/p, 

seki, coarse flour ; see tseki. 

selbi, a crested bird which 
catches snakes (dryotrior- 
chis 1) ] cf. selbi maikazajnari 
chima the selbi is a dirty 

sele, clitoris. 

semiya, a skin disease in 

semu (S.), used up, exhausted 

senaa, occupation ; see sanaa. 

senya, a shrub ; see sainya. 

serkafewa, binding; see sar- 

serre, a plant used in tanning. 

setin, sitin (Ar. ^jJl,), nu- 
meral sixty ; nasettin, fem. 
tasettin ord. num. sixtieth. 

sewa, root ; see saiwa. 

sha, to drink, e.g. bani en sha 
give me to drink ; to drink 
in, e.g. shmi hiska to drink the 
air, i.e. to take an airing or 
to take a walk, cf. similar 
Arabic idiom ; used of earth, 
to absorb ; shan taba to smoke ; 
sha daia to take one sip; 
shdda to give to drink ; sha- 
yasda to irrigate (a farm) ; 
mashaya* water-side, place 
of intoxicating drink, E 1 7 ; 
mashan rua, lit. water-drink- 
er, rainbow; sha lemu to suck 
a lime or lemon ; sha nono 
(used of a child) to suck 
trop. uses, e.g. A 12 kamin 
ka zona zaka sha dadi nata 
when thou sittest down thou 
shalt taste of its sweetness; 
sha wohdla to suffer or ex- 
perience trouble, to enjoy; 
sai anshan wiya akantuna 
allah only when trouble comes 
is God remembered-; D 75 
inu sha enua we enjoy the 
shade ; ya sha kansa he was i 
confused, ya sha kaina he 
caused me distress ; rua ya 
sha kansa he got out of hi 




depth ; ya sha rua he was 
drowned ; ya sha kansa he 
ii^ot more than he bargained 
for ; ya ki shainwa it cannot 
be drunk ; tajia ta sha rua 
the journey is off; sha wuri 
to mark out the site for a 
camp or house ; sha hamhain 
to fall out with ; sha hauji 
used of one who carries every- 
thing in his girdle, i.e. a 
warrior ; sha kuskure to miss, 
sha bara to miss fire, to miss 
the mark, the name of a 
charm drunk in order to ward 
off arrows; shangia,\it. drink- 
ing gia, intoxication ; cf . sha^ 
yada-, shankumbu^ sha-jini, 
sharnikorshanij sha-zumani. 

sha, pi. shaye shaye, n., 1. drink- 
ing ; 2. cutting ; 3. circum- 

sha, a prefix used in forming 
the numerals eleven to nine- 
teen, e.g. ^om«s/ia^aia eleven, 
goma sha biu twelve ; the 
word goma may be omitted, 
e.g. shabokoiseventeen ; bay an 
kwana goma sha between 10 
and 20 days. 

shaair* ( Ar. J-jAw), barley. 

shaani (Ar.), the minding of 
one's own business; ni ta 
shaanina ni ke yi I mind my 
business ; shiga shaaninka 

mind your business : also used 
of a hidden affection, shiiia 
shaani da ita he secretly 
loves her. 

shaawa (Ar. S^^), desire of 
the eyes, prettiness ; Jure da 
ban shaaiva yi ke this flower 
is (lit. with the giving) pretty. 

shache, to comb, to brush ; cf. 

shada, to water, give to drink ; 
see sha. 

shS-da, sheda, chamber-pot, 
latrine; cf. M. H. p. 205. 

shadara, a line of writing. 

shadawa, n. watering, giving 
to drink. 

shaduda, saduda (cf. (?) Ar. 

j^ , to strengthen one's reso- 
lution), 1. confidence, freedom 
from fear, trust in a person ; 
2. to trust or rely upon a 

shafa, n. anointing; yin shafa 
to anoint. 

shafa, shafe, to rub out, erase 

( Ar. s*^)j to smear or anoint 
with oil, also with water; 
yana shafewa it is all gone, 
used of ceremonial ablutions, 
fig. of anointing the face with 
darkness, A 67 ; shaja gashi 
to brush back the hair ; shafa 
masa bay a 'scratch his back,' 
i.e. wheedle him. 





shafe, to rub out ; see shafa. 
shafi, shafe, pi. shafofi^ shafe 

shafe, 1. seam, hem; cf. M. 

H. p. 206 ; a turn in at the 

edge of a garment, a patch 

on clothes ; 2. the page of a 

shafo, kite, hawk, falcon ; cf. 

sh^gala, shagala da to forget ; 

see shagali. 
shagali,shegeli, shugeli, she- 

galla, phsAw^M^a, shugulgula, 

shagaloli (Ar. ji^), work, 
object of desire, business, 
trade, management, diversion, 
distraction, amusement ; na 
yi shegalla har na inanta da 
wanan I was so busy that I 

forefot this ; B 50 


uwa ku her shdgalin dunia 
you, my brethren, abandon 
the business of this world ; 
yin shagali to do business ; 
ina shagali I am busy ; sM- 
gan shagali meddlesomeness ; 
shagalichi* to be so occupied 
with one thing as to forget 
another, to act carelessly, i.e. 
through absence of mind. 

shagalichi, to act carelessly ; 
see prec. 

S . 

shagi*, sagi* (Ar. j^i^), to 

feel pain, esp. that arising 
from sickness. 

shagiri, pi. shagirai, a beard- 
less person. 

shahada (Ar.), martyrdom ; see 

shahada* (Ar. jubU>), a man 

killed in a war (for religion), 

shahawa (Ar. 5^), to covet, 
desire ; also to love, e.g. na 
shahawa abokiria I love my 
friend ; cf. shawa. 

shahu (cf. Ar. ilAli), a kite, 

hawk, falcon ; cf. shafo, id. 
shaida, pi. shaidu and shaidodi 

(Ar. JL^), masc. and fem.; 

1. witness, testimony, shaidan 
ido eye-witness ; maishaida, 
pi. masushaida, a witness ; 2. 
a mark or sign, as e.g. that 
of a witness who cannot write, 
a mark put on animals, also 
a mark on trees to show the 
way ; shaidart zur false wit- 

shaida, to bear witness, to 
mark, e.g. mun shaida tuma- 
kinmu we marked our sheep; 
ya shaida he bore witness, also 
kai and kawo shaida, id. ka 
shaida = are you certain? shai- 
dade, fem. shaidada, pi. shai- 
dadu, attested, certified. 

shaidane, pi. shaidanu, evil 
spirit ; see shaitan. 



shaidani, to know, to have a 
clear knowledge of. 

0^ , 

shaihu (Ar. f^)j Sheikh, 

shaii*, fear (of. Ar. dli>, to 

frighten) ; na ji shaii I was 

shainya, to dry ; see sainya. 
shainya, also v. n. hanging up 

to dry ; ya yi shainya it was 

hung up to dry. 
shainyaye, dried, aired ; see 

shainye, shainya, to drink up 

completely, see sha ; of. use 

of chainye. 
shair (Ar.), barley ; see sha^ir. 
shaitan, shetan, shaitani, pi. 

shaitanai, shaitanu (Ar, 

(jUflu^), Satan, the devil; 
B 132 turuha shaitani the 
path of the evil one. As pi. 
it is used in the sense of evil 
persons, seducers. The word 
shaitan is often used as syn- 
onymous for clever or crafty, 
e.g. shina shaitan he is as 
clever as Satan. 

shajibi, a kind of tobe. 

sha-jini (blood drinker), a small 
plant the heart-shaped leaves 
of which are boiled in water 
to cure headache. 

shaka, to smell, sniff; see sheka. 

shS,ka (Ar. ^ili), n. doubt; 

hahu shdka or hahu shak 
without doubt; yin shdka 
to doubt, 
shakali, fornicator, fern, sha- 
kalia, pi. shakalai, harlot, 
whore ; sltakalichi, shakalchi 
whoredom, fornication (cf. 

Ar. JXw, to use amorous 

shake, shaki, to strangle; of 
water, to engulph; rua ya 
shaki mutum anan it is out 
of a man's depth here. 

shakira, hind quarters, anus, 
a term of abuse. 

shS,kiyi, shekiyi (Ar, ^^), 

wicked, shameless, indecent. 

shakiyanchi shamelessness, 

sh^kua or chiwon shakua, n. 

shakup, 1 . = sdkai light ; 2. in 

phr. abinchi ya yi shakup the 

food is not nice, 
shall, a kind of red cloth, 
shalla, an aquatic plant, 
shallali, slim, slow, lazy, awk- 
shalli, help ; yi7i shalli to help, 

give assistance. 
shalma, thin, lank, 
shaloga (K.), enquiry, 
sham (Ar.), prop. n. Palestine, 
shamache, to cause trouble to. 
shamSiki, pi. shamdkai, shatnor 




koki, 1. a partition; 2. place 
for horses ; 3. a groom. 

shamata, v. to deceive, ridi- 

shamata, n. jealousy. 

shami*, netting-needle ; cf. 

sham.o, shamua, pi. shamuai, 
long-beaked black and white 
hornbill, it nests in towns. 

sham.uke, to disregard, neg- 

shangia, a compound of sha 
and gia, intoxication ; see 

shani, affair ; see shaani. 

sha-nika-shani (pound me and 
drink me), the name of a 
medicinal plant. 

shankumbu, to cut round ; cf . 

sha-nono (drink milk), the 
name of a viper (echis cari- 

shanshando (S.), a spider's 

shanshani, pi. shanshanu, a 
long small-sized flat centipede 
with few legs ; its bite is 
like that of a scorpion. Ac- 
cording to native report it 
only comes out at night and 
emits a light. 'After the 
shanshani has walked over 
your hand, your hand emits 
electric light.' 

shanshere*, perhaps a parti- 
cipial form of shara, cleaned, 
an epithet applied to rice; 
cf. shinkafa. 

shantali, a brass jug with nai- 
row neck ; see shintali. 

shanto, a long, oblong kwo7'ia 
which is blown; maishajito a 

shahu, cows, cattle; pi. of sa 

shanya, to dry, shanyeya dried; 
see sainya. 

shanye, to drink up ; see 

shara, n. 1. sweeping; 2. the 
hundred cowries given on the 
10th of Muharram by a taw- 
hashi on the female side to 
his or her tauhashi on the 
male side ; cf. tauhashi. yin 
shara to sweep; cf. share. 

shara* (Ar. j^\ evil, e.g. D 40 
en shara ka aika if thou hast 
done evil ; cf. sharh'i. 

sharaba, to embroider, to knit. 

sharaba, n. part of the em- 
broidery on a tobe. 

sharaba, the calf of the leg. 

sharadi, agreement ; see she- 

sharafage (S.), a sandpiper. 

sharare, swept; cf. share. 

sharatsa* (Ar. J?j.w), condi 
tion, necessity; B 92 tana da 




fiharatsan tana karewa it is 
subject to the necessity of 
coming to an end ; cf. she- 

share, to sweep ; sharare, fem. 
sharara, pi. shararu, swept ; 
mashari a rake, broom ; cf. 

sharia, judgment ; see sheria. 

Sharif, a holy man ; see sherif. 

sharindo, sharundo, a small 
species of reddish, smooth- 
skinned lizard, smaller than 

shariri, n. (Ar. j-ij^), evil. 

ya yi ahin shariri he did a 

wicked thing ; cf . shara. 
shariri*, infant; for jariri, 

sharkaf, used with jika to be 

very wet. 

sharo (cf . Ar. j^, to brandish 

a sword), a fencing game 

played by the Fulahs with 

two sticks. 
sharundo, lizard ; see sharindo. 
shasanda*, a long ridge of hair 

left by men in shaving their 

shashafe, a reduplicated form 

of sha/e, to blot out. 
shashaka, a little cake made 

with honey. 
shashaki, to gasp for breath, 

D 15 : see shesheka. 

shashaki, n. panting, esp. used 
of the gurgling sound made 
by a goat when its throat is 
cut ; cf. D 15, shina shashaki 
chikin azaha ; cf . shake. 

shashasha, a fool, a born idiot, 
B 107. 

shashe, to surpass a man at 
his trade or profession ; hanza 
ta shasheka you have been 
'let in.' 

shashi, sashi* 1. half; 2. a 
part, a portion, i.e. one out 
of three or more portions. 

shata, 1. open-work cloth; 2. 
the circumference of a circle ; 
yin shata to draw a circle on 
the ground before building a 

shata, shache, 1. to comb, to 
brush, e.g. ta shata gashin 
kai she combed the hair of 
(her) head; 2. (K.) to mark 
out a site. 

shatanni, a facial tribal mark. 

shatsS,ra, n. a line, e.g. of 
writing ; cf. shetara. 

shaura, remainder; see sau- 

shaushauta, to cut tribal 
marks, to tattoo; cf. seq. 

shaushawa, marks cut in the 
face to denote the tribe or 
family to which a person be- 
longs ; cf . shaushauta. 
shawa, eager desire, generally 




in a bad sense, lust ; see 
shawagi, n. hovering of a bird, 
also applied to a man who 
passes quickly, or furtively, 
. by a place without stopping 
to talk. It is also used of 
the circling of a bird, esp. 
of the kite over its prey; 
cf. sura. 
shawarta, shawarche, to con- 
sult with ; cf. shawora. 
shawo*, to draw out; a form 

oijawOf q.v. 
shawo, a form of sha, to drink, 
e.g. F 189 don su shawo ruaii 
zafi that they may drink hot 
shawora, a disease of the eye. 
shawora, shawara, pi. shawa- 
rori, sliawaruna (Ar. jlb in), 
consideration, deliberation, I 
consultation, D 25 ; yin sha- I 
wora to deliberate, consult, | 
saki shawara to change one's 
mind, yafi shawara da wane 
he relied mostly on so-and-so 
for advice, wurin shawora 
. place of deliberation, court, 
hall of public audience ; chi- 
nikin shawora a sale on ap- 
shawul (S.), a white ass- 
shay a, a bird about the size of 
a starling, with bright blue- \ 
purple metallic colouring. ! 

shaya, a kind of shirt worn by 

shaya, to mark out, e.g. a 
path ; cf. sha. 

shayada, shayasda, to give 
to drink. 

shaye, a verb. n. from sha, 

sha-zumami, a species of ant, 
semi-transparent, non-biting, 
black or reddish, which lives 
on honey. 

sheda, pi. shedodi, sigh, heavy 
breathing; yin sheda to sigh, 
breathe heavily, pant for 

sheda, witness ; see shaida. 

sheda, chamber-pot ; see shada. 

shefe, tlie empty husks of rice. 

shegantaka, worthlessness, vil- 
lainy ; cf. seq. 

shege, pi. shegu, 1. bastard, 
A 60, dan shege id., shegia 
fern, bastard; 2. villainy; cf. 
M. H. p. 220, habu shegen 
da ka fisheni by no villainy 
could you get me out. 

shegeli, business ; see shdgali. 

shegia, fem. of shege, a bastard 
girl, a profligate. 

shegifa, a porch, or hut ; see 

shehu, teacher ; see shaihu. 

sheji, fem. shejia, pi. shejoji, 
black and white, esp. applied 
to a horse. 




sheka, pi. shekuna, shekoki, a 

sheka, to spring up, run away 
quickly, sheka da gudu to 
run quickly ; sheko to come 

sheka, to remember, think of. 

sheka, shaka, to sniff up or 
smell ; sheka hiska to snort ; 
cf. shesheka to pant, mai- 
shako (S.) a man with a cold 
in the head, shekawa taking 

sheka, shika, shake, to win- 
now, mashekia one who win- 

shekara, pi. shekaru, a year; 
shekara da shekaru for years 
and years, shekara shekara 
year after year, da wani 
shekara a day or two after ; 
see shekaranjia ; with nume- 
rals the sing, is commonly 
found, e.g. shekarashi tokos 
da wata shida his time was 
eight years and six months ; 
used as a verb G 2, 1. 14 ya 
shekara uku chiki sarota zaria 
he lived three years in the 
kingdom of Zavia,, shekarunka 
nawa or shekara nawa kana 
da rai or shekara nawa tun 
haifuanka how old are you ? 

shekaranjia, the day before 
yesterday ; watan shekaranjia 
the month before last, wan 

shekaranjia three days ago. 
shekaranjia sometimes de- 
notes some time ago ; in 
Sokoto and Gando the day 
before yesterday is often 
expressed by shekaranjia ba- 

shekare, to be dry; A 76 kam 
ha rua kwahe kasanka ya she- 
kare if there is no water to 
mix with it, your earth is 
dry ; see mashekare. 

shekarekki, stumbling. 

shekiyi, shameless ; see sha- 

sheko, to come quickly ; see 

shela, a proclamation, e.g. one 
issued by a king. 

shema, to hoe ; see shima. 

shema or shima, another form 
of jemi to tan ; cf. mashenii 
or jnajemi a tanner or a tan- 
ning block ; itachen shema a 
tanning block ; dan mashemi 
a scraping knife used in tan- 

sheme, a reed used for making 

sheppa, dauke sheppa to revolt. 

sheradi (Ar. LjJit), 1. an agree- 
ment, esp. one to do work 
for a certain payment; 2. 
conditional (in grammar) ; cf . 

shere*, line ; a form oijere, q. v. 




sheria, sharia, pi. shei^iai (Ar. 

4juj-w), judgment, sentence, 

ordinance; ^«(^on-sAerm judg- 
ment seat ; yin sheria to 
judge, give judgment, E 10 
dct alkalai da masuzua sheria 
both the judges and those 
who come to receive judg- 
sherif, sharif, pi. sheri/ai (Ar. 

vjUj^), a holy man, properly 

a descendant of the Prophet. 

Most of those who have been 

on the pilgrimage (cf. haji) 

claim this title afterwards. 
sherinia, the name of a para- 
sitic tree which eventually 

kills its host, 
sherufta, sherubta, the 

powers accredited to the 

sherifs ; cf . sherif. 
sheshawa, tribal marks; see 

sheshe (K.), a kind of flute, 
sheshegi*, interference, evil 

shesheka, to pant; cf. sha- 

shaki, sheka. 
shetambua, hair tied in knots 

with a ridge in the middle, 
shetan, Satan ; see shaitan. 
shetara, shatara, shetsara, 

a line of writing or print, 
shewa, whistling, shouting, the 

cackling, giggling of women: 
see sowa. 
shi (cf. Kanuri shi or shima, 
pi. so), pronominal particle, 
3rd pers. masc. sing, he, it, 
1. shi followed by ya is used 
as the emphatic form of the 
personal pron. shi ya yi hal' 
he did so, or, it was he who 
did so ; cf . shi ke nan there 
is, or, it is so ; 2. used as 
prefix to verbs in the sense 
of subjunctive, e.g. ina roko 
shi bafii wanan I ask him to 
give me that, ya ki shi ji he 
refused to listen; cf. use of 
ya; 3. used to express a wish, 
allah shi dedi ranka may God 
lengthen your life ; B 46 a^ 
lah shi bamu kivana lafafa 
may God grant us days of 
prosperity; 4. as objective 
pron. suffixed to verbs and 
prepositions, e.g. ya ganshi 
he saw him, gareshi to him, 
etc. ; 5. -shi or -nshi an in- 
separable possessive some- 
times found for -sa or -nsa^ 
e.g. G 1, 1. 11 motsinshi his 
movement. This last use is 
especially common in the 
southern part of Hausaland; 
'his 'house' in Zaria would 
usually be gidanshi, in Kano 
gidansa, in Sokoto gidanai. 
shl, a contraction of shia used 




as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular of the 
future tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

shia, cf. prec. 

shia, a quarter or division of a 
town ; see shiya. 

shiba*, arrow, sheaf of arrows; 
cf. chibia, kibia. 

shiba, to clean and prepare raw 
cotton, —sdbi^ q.v. 

shibche, shipche, arranging 
grass for thatching. 

shibi, n. the cleaning and pre- 
paring of the raw cotton. 

shibta*, dictation, writing from 

shiche, shida, to turn upside 
down, see jiche ; cf . zomo en 
ya shida ba shi jin gangan 
far aula, i.e. he who is not on 
his guard will easily be taken 
by surprise. 

shida, shide, 1. to descend; 
used with da to let down, 
e.g. na shida da t\du a kasa 
I put down the pitcher on 
the ground; 2. to take down, 
to unload ; su shida gishiri 
they unloaded the salt ; 3. 
to alight, encamp, sojourn ; 
4. shide to receive as a guest ; 
ya shidenriu chikin gida he 
received us into the house ; 
raashidi lodging place, shidi* 
followed by da, to bear, to 
carry, e.g. 7ia shidi da abu 

zua kasua I carried some- 
thing to the market, shi- 
dasda to take away, to take 
down, shido to take away. 
shidda (cf. (?) Ar. Ow), card. 

num., six ; the corresponding 
ordinal is masc. nashida, fem. 
tashida. {shidda is the only 
one of the lower Hausa nu- 
merals which at all resembles 
the Arabic; if, which seems 
otherwise improbable, the 
Hausa numerals were origin- 
ally formed on a basis of five, 
shida would be for sha daia ; 
cf. sha.) 
shide, to put away, finish, read 

shidi and shido ; see shida. 
shiera* line, M. H. p. 39; 

see jera. 
shifchi, a kind of grass. 
shif ka, to sow ; see shipka. 
shifta, shifche, to cut. 
Shiga, shige, pi. shiguna, a 
patch of cloth ; cf. M. H. 
p. 206 ; esp. used of a tri- 
angular piece of cloth inserted 
at the bottom of a tobe, etc., 
to make the bottom broader 
than the top. 
Shiga, shige, to go in, to enter 
shiga da followed by a sub- 
stantive, to carry anything 
in, cf. use of tafi da ; shig a 




nema to begin to seek ; shiga 
bauchi to become a slave ; 
shiga bashi to get into debt ; 
shige is frequently used in 
the sense of entering a hole 
or retreat in order to obtain 
concealment, thus, shiga rami 
to go just inside a hole, but 
shige rami to pass right in, go 
to the end of ; mashiga a hole 
to go into and stop in (e.g. a 
rat hole) ; mashigi a place to 
enter by, a passage : shige 
when used with expression of 
time = to have passed, ba ya 
shige shekara goma he has not 
passed his tenth year, tunda 
kwanaJci ba su shige gom,a 
before ten days have elapsed ; 
ku shige (addressed to people 
on the road) =pass on ; shigege 
an interloper, immigrant ; 
matar shige a woman who 
presents herself unbidden ; 
sabon shiga a learner, a new 
hand ; shiga kafUo an idiom 
used in arranging a marriage 
= go home and come back 
with the dowry sadaka ; shi- 
gasda to cause to enter, to 
take in ; shishiga to go con- 
stantly to a place ; shigo to 
come in, to enter in to where 
the speaker is. 

shige*, like; shigensu like them. 

shigifa, shegifa, pi. shigifu 

and shigifofi, house, porch, 
dwelling ; usually a house 
built of mud ; shigifa is the 
Sokoto equivalent for soro, a 
flat-roofed, as opposed to a 
thatched house. 

shigo, to come in ; see shiga. 

shigoro, keeping watch, spying : 
yin shigoro to keep watch. 

shika, tr. to let go, divorce; 
intr. to be open, to be free, 
anshika hainya the way is 
open ; cf. shiki, sdki. 

shika, particle prefixed to 3rd 
pers. sing, to form the nar- 
rative or historic tense, see 
H. Gr. p. 28. 

shika, V. to winnow ; see sheka. 

shikashiki, pi. shikashikai, 
poles used to support a tent. 

shiki, n. divorce, act of aban- 
doning ; cf . sdki. 

shikiki, fem. shikikia, brother, 

shikin*, in, i.q. chikin, A 9. 

shillalo, a hopping game played 
by children. 

shillu, n. 1. swinging, waving; 
2. V. to shake, e.g. na shillu 
magani da magani I shook 
up two medicines together. 

shima*, to injure ; iorjima, q.v. 

shima*, to tan ; see shema and 

shima, shema, 

to hoe, to 

plough ; mashemi a hoe. 




shimfida, shimfada, to extend, 
enlarge; to spread out, ex- 
plain, e.g. shimfida taherma 
to spread out a mat ; abin 
shimfida a mat ; 'inashimfi^^li, 
q.v,, anything spread out, e.g. 
a saddle cloth, or anything 
for sale ; yan shimfida huck- 
sters, retailers. 

shimge, shimgi, shinge, pi. 
shimgaye, a fence made of 
stalks or thorns. 

shimkake, a crow ; cf. han- 

shina, verb. pron. prefix of the 
pres. tense 3rd pers. sing, 
masc, e.g. shina so he wishes. 
The pronominal forms ending 
in na, e.g. shina, yana may 
be followed by substantives 
orparticipial forms, thus yaria 
tafi^ he is going, shina zua 
he is coming. 

shina, to know ; cf . sdni. 

shinadari, soldier ; see sind- 

shinfida, to spread out ; see 

shinge, the white ant in the 
winged stage. 

shinge, hedge ; see shimge. 

shingi (K.), remainder; cf. 

shini, shina, knowledge ; see 

shinkafa, rice in the husk ; 

shinka/a shanshere (or sur- 
fofie) cleaned rice ; shinkafan- 
talaka a kind of guinea-corn 
with a long grain-like wheat. 

shinkai, kindness, good or evil 
deed ; see jinkai. 

shinkaya, to go near to. 

shinkinkimi* a lunatic, less 
mad than mahaukachi. 

shintali, sintali, shantali, pi. 
shintalai (possibly from Ar. 


^J.Jbuj, a vessel with a handle), 
a large brass jug with a nar- 
row neck, specially used for 
ceremonial ablutions before 

shipche, arranging grass for 
thatching ; see shihche. 

shipka, shibka, pi. shipkoki, 
small plants ; cf . seq. 

shipka, shibka, shuka, suka, 
to sow, plant; cf.prov. abinda 
akashuka shi kan tsira that 
which has been sown is that 
which will come up, i.e. as a 
man sows so shall he reap. 

shir a, to dig with a fatainya^ 
to hoe ; cf. chira. 

shirache, to wait for ; see ji- 

shirai, shirayi, a small porch 
or verandah, a hut used for 
storing grain in. 

shirbache, n. confusion. 

shirbata, to confuse, bring into 




shirga, 1. to increase, overdo, 
used with tsada to charge 
much money ; yana shirga 
tsada he overcharges ; cf. M. 
H. p. 196, SI* kan shirga masu 
kurdi dayawa they would 
charge them a high price ; 2. 
to place one thing on top of 



m arran 



shirgi, n. the piling up or 
stacking of one thing on 

shirgia, a stone wall, sangar. 

shiri, preparation ; yin shiri to 
prepare, make ready, D 59 
zaashiri hukumchi judgment 
shall be prepared. 

shiria, shiriya, n. good under- 
standing, friendship, guid- 
ance, courtship. 

shiria, shiriya, to guide, lead, 
settle, e.g. a quarrel ; cf. suka 
yi fada na shiriarsu ; shir- 
yarwa improvement ; cf. seq. 

shiria, shirya, to prepare, make 
ready, e.g. D 89 haleku shiria 
still less that you should make 
preparation ; B 55 idan ha 
ashiria ha if you are unpre- 
pared ; D 50 masushiria those 
who are prepared ; shiryawa, 
shiriwa preparation ; shiri- 
yaye^ fem. shiriyaya, pi. shiri- 
yayu, ordered, arranged, pre- 
pared ; shirshiria, shishiria, 

intensive form to make much 

shirinya, a parasitic tree ; see 

shiririta, yin-shiririta to spoil 
a person's business, to act in 
such a way that the work 
entrusted to you goes wrong, 
also to be idle, wander aim- 

shirku (Ar. ^jjj iv), anything 

unlawful, idolatry, witchcraft, 

shiru, shiriu, shurum, shiu, 

silence ; da shiru silently ; ka 

yi shiru be silent ? cf . jurum, 
shirua, shirwa, pi. shirtvoyi, 

shishiga, to go constantly to 

a place: see shiga. 
shishige, disobedience to orders, 

obstinacy, ya kara shishigi 

he became more obstinate; 

also used for interference, 

yin shishige to interrupt, 
shishike (S.), stake, post, 
shishinya (S.), shushinya 

(K.), a forked stick, post. 
shishiria, to make much pre- i 

paration, an intensive form ' 

of shiria, q.v. 
shishita, hissing, sh ! sh ! 

shiwaka (cf. Ar. A^a^, in the 
names of several medicines), 
a bitter herb from which a 




medicine is made, esp. one used 
by women after childbirth. 

shiya, shia, pi. shiyoyi, quarter 
or division of a town, a part 
or section of anything. 

shiyaki, a wild ass. 

shu, shin, silence ; see shiru. 

shuda, shiuda, to dye blue. 

shude, shuda or shudi, shut- 
se*, to pass away, also used 
as a transitive verb, to pass 
by ; A 62 Jcowa ya her lotu 
ya shude ya hata whoever 
omits the times (of prayer) 
passes away and is destroyed ; 
F 154 wonsu kan shutse wa 
iska some will pass like wind. 

shudi, shiudi, fem. shudia, pi. 
shudodi, blue ; shudi-shudi 
(cf. kore kore) light blue ; 
cf. shuda. 

shu^aba, pi. shugabai, leader, 
esp. applied to Mohammed ; 
cf . jagaba. 

shugeli, business ; see shdgali. 

shuka, to sow ; see shipka. 

shuka, shukakke, anything 
grown from seed, a seedling. 

shukra (Ar. jXw), 1. to praise, 
give thanks; 2. praise; D 100 
muna shukra muna godia zua 
ga allah we give thanks and 
are grateful to God. 

shuni, shiuni, juni* (cf. Ar. 


^3»., red, white, etc.), blue 
colour, indigo. 

shunim-biri, a tree with pur- 
ple flowers (Lonchocarpus 
laxiflora, Leguminosae). 

shura, shure, jure*, to kick, 
knock backwards; cf. man- 

shurfe*, to shed tears. 

shuri, n. kick, blow. 

shushuniya (K.), see shi- 

shusia, a small piece of twisted 

shutse*, shushe*, to pass 
away ; see shude. 

shuuri, something unlucky. 

shuwaki, hovering, etc. ; see 

sidi* (Ar. ju-^), lord, esp. ap- 
plied to Mohammed, B 20 
alharkachinka sidi mu samu 
cheto blessed art thou, O lord, 
may we obtain salvation 
(through thee) ; ya sidi is a 
common form of polite ad- 

sifa (cf. Ar. oto), sketch, draw- 
ing, likeness. 

sifata, sifache, to draw, paint. 

sihiri (Ar. j.a*-w), witchcraft, 

siko (Ar. *iJU), a large needle 
or spike ; see tsiko. 

silia or siliya, pi. siliyu, sili- 
yoyi (cf. Ar. itJU), silk cord, 
string; F 216 siliyoyi ado 




su ka ratayawa beautiful 
chains shall they hang upon 
themselves ; also used to de- 
note the smooth upper end 
of a guinea-corn stalk. 

silili (S.), thinness. 

silli, a small fish. 

Sin*, China. 

sinadari (S.), shinadari (K.), 
sunadari, 1. a sort of solder 
used for joining metals, white 
like salt, salammonia ; 2*. 
tin, copper. 

sinche*, to loose ; see sunche. 

sinihi (Ar. ^*L>), 1. to render 

miserable ; 2. to sigh, to be 

sinishi, to sigh ; cf. prec. 

sinke, to break ; see tsinke. 

sintali, large brass jug with 
narrow neck ; see shintali. 

sira (S.), a brown horse. 

sirati* (Ar. l^lj-^), a bridge 
over hell to be crossed by 
all after death ; its length is 
a thousand years' journey, its 
breadth as fine as a thread ; 
cf. F 143ya ankafa kua sirati 
chikin jahima the bridge was 
set up in the fire ; F 154. 

sirdi, saddle ; see surdi. 

siri*, to prepare, F 238; see 

siriki, a wind musical instru- 
ment used by children. 

siriri, fern, siriria, thin, slim; 

zare siriri kamar gashi a 

thread as fine as a hair. 
sirkakia, a thorny bush ; see 

sirki, silki, silk. 
sirkia, tsirkia, chirkia, sur- 

kia, bowstring. 
sisita, a species of finch witli 

grey-blue plumage and red 

sissika, sussuka, to thresh ; 

masissika or wurin sissika 

sita, sitta, six thousand ; see 

Gr. p. 67. 
sitaka, tsitaka, hatchet, axe, 

with broad blade similar to 

that of barandemi, q.v. 
sitin, sixty ; see seti7i. 
sitira, covering ; see sutura. 
sitirta, sutirta, suturi, to 

cover up, deck. 

so (cf. (?) rare modern Ar. y^, 
to desire, a contraction of 

" * ' 
«^^-j), 1. to love, to like, ina 

sonka I love you ; hence 7na- 
sowa, friends, lovers ; F 79 
masowa duka enna maitaima- 
kawa of all who love thee 
where is one who will help 1 
2. to wish, desire, hope, con- 
sent ; A 29 anso ta kass 
muria let her be willing to 
lower her voice. The word 




is sometimes pronounced san, 
e.g. na smisa I love him ; see 

SO, a prefix to numerals; see 

so, n. love ; cf. the saying so 
du so ne amma sonkai ya Ji 
to love all is love but self- 
love is best : cf. soyeya. 

soale, soache, to peel ; see sale. 

soborodo, the fruit of a tree, 
with a red flower ; soup is 
made from it. 

sof&ni, sofilne, blemish, e.g. 
white or black spot on an 
animal, or a piece of material 
not of uniform colour on 
anything = surfani. 

sofofua, small bees. 

soinya, a bush, with white 
flowers, from which a scent 
is obtained. 

soisoya, to cut, shear; see 

soiya, root ; see saiwa. 

soiya, soya, to cook without 
water, fry in fat, also to 
roast, burn, D 67 ta soiya 
sefa it shall burn the spleen ; 
F 230 ahin soiya ga kotva 
there shall be cooked food 
for all. soiyaye, soiyeye, fern. 
soiyaya, pi, soiyayu, parched, 
broiled, fried, cooked without 
water ; see suya, n. frying. 

soka, to alight ; see sauka. 

R. H. D. 

soka, soke, soki, soki before 
n., soke before pron., soka 
or suka when not followed 
by obj., to pierce, to prick, 
e.g. F 144 da kaifi kua da 
samtsi duk za soka and its. 
sharp edge and slipperiness- 
shall pierce all. sosoke to 
prick or pierce through ; cf . 

soka, suka, pi. soke-soke, n. 

sokara, a yam cooked and 
beaten up. 

sokara*, lesser bustard. 

soke, to pierce ; see soka. 

soko*, worthless. 

sololua, a kind of fish. 

soma (K.), to begin, ha shi 
somuwa it cannot be begun. 

soma*, to dip ; see tsoma. 

somi, n. beginning. 

somu, a poison put in wells, 
etc., M. H. p. 214. 

sonche, to loosen ; see sunche. 

sonsona, to smell ; see sun- 

sonsoni, a kind of centipede. 

sorara, to listen ; see saurara. 

soraye, see soro. 

soro, pi. soraye (K.), a flat- 
roofed house (cf. Ar. jy^, a 
layer of stones in a wall) ; 
cf. prov. kwana huka ya ji 
kwana soro da ha kurdi, i.e. 
to sleep in a tent (with plenty 




of money) is better than to 
sleep in a house without any. 
soron bene a flat-roofed, or 
two-storeyed house ; cf . shi- 
•gifa (used in Sokoto). 

sosa, to scratch ; see susa. 

sosai, straight, correct, proper, 
level, equal ; ya yi sosai it is 
level, hainya sosai a straight 
path ; na ji sosai I under- 
stand perfectly ; dere ya yi 
sosai the night was very dark. 

sosaiya, soisoya, to cut, shear. 

sosaiye, cutting with scissors, 
shearing ; yin sosaiye to cut, 
to shear. 

soshia, chaff from wheat or 
other grains, stalk or stem 
of corn. 

SOSO, ZOZO, a plant of the con- 
volvulus family, the fibrous 
pod of which is used in scrub- 

SOSOChi, idleness ; see sau- 

sosoke, intensive form of soke, 
q.v., to pierce or prick much. 

soto, a cake made of bean-flour 
and oil. 

sotn*, a trust; see sabtu. 

sowa, suwa, shouting, crying 
out, (tiiasotva there was shout- 
ing, suka dauki sowa, they 
raised a sfiout. suwa suwa 
outcry ; see shewa. 

soya, to fry ; see soiya. 

soyeya*, soaya, so way a, so- 
yuwa (S.), love, esp. recipro- 
cal love ; yin soyeya, or soy 
to love ; rauna soyeya do 
junanrauwQ love one another. 

su (Kanuri so), 3rd pers. pi. 
pron., 1. as a separate pron. 
it expresses the subject 
' they ' ; 2. prefixed to verbs 
as subj., e.g. su gudu let 
them flee ; 3. suffixed to verbs 
as obj. ; 4. -su or -7isu when 
the object possessed is mas- 
culine, and -rsu or -Isu when 
the object possessed is femi- 
nine, suffixed to nouns as an 
inseparable possessive pron., 
e.g. datvakifisu their horses. 

su, n. fishing, esp. with hand- 
nets, also groping for any- 
thing in the water, yin su 
to fish ; cf. masusu, sunta. 

sua, often contracted to sa, a \ 
prefix to denote the third 
person plural of the future 
tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

sua, pi. of wa; used with 7ie, 
suane a pi. of wane ; 1. used 
with reference to what is 
previously known, e.g. sune • 
sna these are they; 2. witli 
ne, as interrogative, e.g. suor 
lie ne who are they? suane 
ne su ke zo who are they that 
are coming? 3. suasua wiio 
are they ? For further ex- 




planation of the use of sua^ 
cf. Gr. p. 14 sq. 

suaba, to cross over ; see swaba. 

suaba, saba, suabe, to husk 
grain, flay, zaka sabe mani 
hanu will you pull the skin 
off my hand? kaja ya saba 
my foot is chafed, 

suaba, siba, swaba, the cast 
skin or slough of a serpent, 
ya yi suaba he comes out of 
his skin. 

suabo, swabo or sabo (cf. Ar. 
rt w^3-o IV, ruined, harmed), 
evil, e.g. D 81 en suabo ka 
ka7i yi shi kaika yidan azaba 
if you do evil He will bring 
you to the abode of pain; 
maisuabo evil-doer, D 21. 
ya yi suabon allah he blas- 

suane, swane, to steal; see 

sua-sua (cf. Ar. \y^ l^-^), they 
are all alike, it is all the 
same ; cf. duka dai ne, id. 

subabi, reason, cause ; see sa- 

subde for zubda, to pour out ; 
cf. M. H. p. 200, sun subde 
kaya they threw away their 

subolo, a rice- bag ; see saulo. 

subuche, subiche, to escape, 
slip out of. 

subui* (Ar. tuw), fractional 
numeral, one-seventh, the 
seventh part. 

suda, to lick up, e.g. what 
remains on a plate ; cf. sCali. 

suda (cf. Ar. Aj^I^.^, sparrow), 

a small brown bird ; its call 
is said to be ominous of war. 
suda maiyawan labari fadi 
ba atambayeka ba O sparrow, 
you are full of information 
though no one asks you for 

Sudan (Ar. 0^^^\ Sudan, B 
76 sarat'in sudan the regions 
of the Sudan. The word su- 
dan which means the blacks, 
i.e. the country of the blacks, 
is applied by the natives to 
all Africa N. of the equator 
and S. of the Sahara Desert, 
reaching from Senegal to the 
Red Sea. In Hausaland the 
king of Kwontagora bears 
the title sarikin sudan, i.e. 
king of the Sudan. 

sudi, suddi, that which is left, 
e.g. the scrapings of a plate 
or dish, sude to scrape out 
a dish ; cf . akoshin baba Jas- 
kara sudewa the great man's 
basin leaves no remains. 

9 i J 

sudusi* (Ar. ^ju-), fractional 
numeral, one-sixth. 




sufa, to increase ; see sdfa. 
sufadu, pi. sufadai, small light 

shoes worn inside boots. 
sufe, pi. sufofi (S.), lungs. 

sufi (Ar. s^ya), wool from 

sufi* (Ar. i^^w), one who 

dresses in herbs and lives in 

the bush for religion. 
sufili, see sufuri. 
sufurchi, sufurche, sufurta, 

to hire, engage for hire, rent, 
sufuri and sufurchi (cf. (?) 

Ar. 5i 



journey), money paid to car- 
riers, hire, rent ; yin sufuri 
to work for hire. 
sufuri, sufurchi* or sufili 


(Ar. jAw), a large thick book; 

anything bound up tight. 
suga (S.), the point of an axe- 
head which projects through 

the handle, 
sugwaigwa, i.q. gwaiwa, q.v. 
suhur (Ar.), the meal before 

sunrise during the fast; see 

sujuda*, F 132 shina stijuda 

he does obeisance ; see sajada. 
suka, piercing ; see soka. 
suka, pi. sukaikai, a gallop ; 

see sukua. 
sukani, to gallop ; see sukua. 

sukar* {Av. jSLj), sugar. 

sukua ( K. ), suka (S. ), sukay a, 
sukani, to gallop, flee away ; 
asukwane at a gallop, su- 
kaya ma to fall upon, in- 
vade, sukay o to gallop to 
where the speaker is. masu- 
kwani a place for galloping. 

sukuki, a bush with thick 
foliage, its food ground and 

sukun-sukun, the rustling of 

sukuni (S.), leisure, opportu- 

sukurua, sukurwa, corner 
sukuruan hanu elbow ; also 
the subsidiary points of the 
compass. Another form of 
the word is kusu7'ua from 
which it is formed by meta- 

sulSiki, pad at the back of •■ 
camel's saddle. 

sulala (cf. Ar. '^), to cook j! 

meat with hot stones. 
sulale, white cotton for sew 

ing ; cf. under silia. j: 

sulba, agreement ; see sulha. 
sulbi, slipperiness, e.g. of fish, r 
sulha, sulhu, sulfu, sulba 

(Ar. ?»Jlo), agreement, recon- j 


sulke (Ar. 9-*^), Kanuri .sw 

luge, iron armour, chain j 




sulkumi or surukumi, leather 

bag with narrow mouth, 

smaller than taiki. 
suUai, tip of corn stalk ; cf. silia. 
sulle, to hide, conceal (e.g. in 

the hand), sullum steaXthily. 
suUi, suUia, foreskin, 
sultan, king, sultan; sultan 

/tiusulmi a title given to the 

king of Sokoto. 
sulu (S.), a hank of yarn, 
sulusi*, one-third, Ar. s^Jo, 

sidusani two-thirds, 
suma, a little ; see sama. 
suma, hair of a man's head, 
suma, rags ; see tsuma. 
suma (S.), to be wet. 
sum.a, V. to be faint, sumame 

faint ; cf . sumanche. 

suma, zuma* (cf. (?) Ar.j^^, 
abstinence)^ faintness ; jin 
suma to feel faint ; cf . seq. 

sumanche or sunanche, to 
cause to choke. 

sumanjia, sumajia, tsuman- 
jia, a thin bending branch 
uf a tree, a stick, a whip. 

sumaya (K,), minaret; cf. su- 
iiiiya (S.). 

sumba, sunba, kiss, kissing 
hands to ; B 1 64 mu yi kewoye 
iiiuna sicmban dutsi we make 
the circuit, we kiss the stone. 

sumbula, to shoot, of young 
com ; cf . seq. 

sumbule, to slip, e.g. of a knot ; 
suiiihulewa slipping out, slip- 
ping down. 

sumbunta, sumbunche, to 

sumdiya, needle ; see sundiya. 

sumiya (S.), minaret; cf. su- 
maya (K.). 

sumj ia, a large leather worker's 
needle ; cf. sundiya. 

9 J J 

sumuni (Ar. ,j-o->), fractional 
numeral, one-eighth. 

sumya, a spider's web. 

sun, used as 3rd pers. pron. pi. 
as prefix in the perfect tense; 
sun tafi they went; see Gr. 
p. 27. 

suna, pi. sunaye and sunanaki, 
name ; sunan wa^a a nick- 
name (lit. a name of play) ; 
yin suna to perform the 
naming ceremony on the 
eighth day ; ransuna the day 
on which a child receives its 
name. Used in buying and 
selling, e.g. ha shi suna, lit. 
give it a name, i.e. name its 

suna, grain which has been 
long kept, applied to any 
grain more than a year old. 

suna, law ; see sunna. 

sunadari, solder ; see sinddari. 

sunanche, to cause to choke ; 
see sumanche. 




sunba, kiss ; see sumba. 

sunche, sinche, to loosen. 

sundiya, sumdiya, a needle 
for working in leather, also 
used by women to put in 
their hair ; cf. sumjia. 

sunduki, box ; see sanduki. 

sunena* an edible fruit. 

sunguma, to lift up a weight, 
to take away. 

sungumi, a long-handled hoe 
for making holes in ground 
for sowing seed, a dibble. 

sunke, to wrap or veil ; pass. 
F 91 asa niaka dan likafani 
kuma asunke a shroud is 
placed for thee, thou art 
wrapped therein. 

sunkuni, overgrown bush, or 
long grass. 

sunkuru*, a warrior without 
a load, i.e. carrying only arms. 

sunkuya, to bend ; see seq. 

sunkwia, sunkwiya, sun- 
kwiyi, sunkuya, 1. to bow 
down, to stoop ; s. da kai 
(K.) to hang one's head ; mai- 
sunkwi da kai a man with a 
hang-dog look ; fig. 2. to 
work uselessly, e.g. to till and 
reap no harvest; C 4 kowa 
yi aiki ha sani ya sunkwia 
whoever works without know- 
ledge works uselessly. 

sunna ( Ar. iiw), law, tradition ; 
C 42 en sun hi sunna wanda 

yaiwo addunia if they follow 
the law of him who made the 
world; cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 22, 
kun tafo don kauda sunna ye 
came in order to turn aside 
the right way : also a re- 
ligious sect. 

sunna, lawful intercourse of 
man with wife. 

sunsuna, sonsona, sansana*, 
to smell, esp. to smell a sweet 
scent, also to hold anything 
up to test whether it has any 

sunta, sunche, to catch, e.g. 

sunta, n. fishing; masunta a 
place for fishing; inasunchi 
a fisherman ; cf. su, 

sununu, much, a quantity of 

supa*, form, likeness; supa-stt 
data they are alike, supansa 
= kama7isa his likeness. 

sura* (S.), a head of hair. 

sura, the pounce of the kite, or 
swoop of the hawk ; kawo 
sura to swoop or pounce ; cf. 

rj, J 

sura, pi. surofi, Ar. Sj^-rf, 
chapter, e.g. of the Koran. 

surachi, steam ; yin surache to 
steam anything. 

surdi, sirdi (cf. (?) >^, to 
sew together), pi. suradij 




fiurdodi, sui'adda, surduna, 
pack-saddle, saddle, e.g. sur- 
(tdi kua na zinaria ga kowa 
there shall be golden saddles 
for everyone ; yin surdi to 
saddle up. 

sure, a soup like yakua. 

sure, to kick ; see shure. 

surfa, surfe, surifa, surufa, 
to beat or husk grain in a 
mortar ; sttrfafe an epithet 
applied to rice when husked 
and cleaned. 

surfani, spots on a skin, em- 
broidery ; inaisurfani used of 
embroidered trousers ; cf. so- 

surfe, grain after it has been 
husked and cleaned. 

suri, shuri, pi. sura^ suvmra, 

surikia, bowstrings, M. H. 
p. 186 ; see tsarkia. 

surka, to mix one thing with 

surka, chain ; see sarka. 

surki, suriki, pi. surukai, 
father-in-law, or elder brother- 
in-law, used of wife's family 
in general ; cf. sarakua 

surki, n. mixing, intermingling. 

surkia, bowstring ; see tsarkia. 

surkunta, affinity by marriage 
as opposed to consanguinity ; 
see surki. 

surmuka, to push forcibly, 
force an entrance, entangle 
or become entangled, to come 
to blows. 

sum, a large basket like a 
lobster-pot, used in fishing. 

surufa, to husk ; see surfa. 

surufi, depth ; see zurufi. 

suruki, surki, a name given 
to fura after the balls have 
been broken up and mixed 
with water: in Sokoto the 
name given to these balls is 

surukumi, a leather bag ; see 

sururi (S.), talkativeness ; cf. 

surutu (K.), talkativeness, idle 

susa, sosa, zuza, to scratch, 
e.g. to rub an itching place. 

susa, n. scratching ; yin susa 
to scratch. 

susa, pi. susoki, a caterpillar ; 
see tsiitsa. 

sussuka, threshing ; see sis- 

susuwa, a worm or insect which 
destroys clothes. 

sutu, yin sutit to pull out cotton 
in order to clean or thin it. 

sutura, sitira (Ar. jil), n. 
covering, fine clothing ; yiii 
sutura or sutura to cover, 
preserve, from allah shi muna 




sutura da aikokin ehliz may 
God preserve us from the 
works of the devil ; suturta 
to cover, deck. 

suwa, an internal swelling or 

suwa, shouting ; see soiva. 

suwa*, them, a lengthened 
form of su, M. H. p. 223. 

suwa, pi. suwane, who? Beesua. 

suwaka, sand-grouse ; cf . kwan- 
tatoiy ladin rogo. 

suya, n. frying ; see soiya to 

swaba, suaba, sS-ba, to over- 
step, cross over ; s^in swaba 
juna they changed sides. 

swabani, n. missing, e.g. on a 
road ; yiii swabani to miss 
or fail to meet anyone. 

swabo, evil ; see suabo. 

swane, to steal ; see sane. 

The letter O used by the Hausas 
may be represented by the 
English t. In the case of 
words either borrowed or 
adapted from the Arabic, the 
Arabic letter ]» is frequently 
represented in Hausa by O, 
and pronounced like the En- 

glish t, e.g. tudu, Ar. ^^. 
As a general rule y is used 
by the Hausas to express the 

sound of the English ts. The 
Arabic >t» is sometimes chang- 
ed by the Hausas into O t, 
e.g. talata U*^, Ar. ^*)U. 
ta, feminine pronominal par- 
ticle, 1. 3rd pers. sing, per 
sonal pron. she, it ; it is pre- 
fixed to the simplest form of 
the verb and suffixed to the 
future auxiliary form, e.g. 
ta tafi she went, or she has 
gone away, zata tafi she will 
go ; 2. it is used as an objec- 
tive pronoun and suffixed to 
verbs and prepositions, e.g. 
gata behold her, gareta to 
her ; 3. -nta is used as an 
inseparable possessive pro- 
noun for the third person, 
and is suffixed when the ob- 
ject possessed is masculine 
and the possessor is feminine ; 
-rta or -Ita is similarly used 
when the object possessed is 
feminine and the possessor 
also feminine, e.g. dokinta 
her horse, iyayenta her 
parents, but gottalta or go- 
narta her farm, dukialta or 
dukiarta her possessions; 4. 
-ta is also used an an in- 
separable possessive pronoun 
for the first person, and is 
suffixed when the object 
possessed is feminine ; for 
further explanation of this 




use of ta see H. Gr. p. 24 ; 
of. tatva, lata, taka, etc. ta 
is used idiomatically, especi- 
ally after yi, e.g. ku yi ta yi 
'j^o on with what you are 
doing ; ku yi ta tafia march ! 
kit yi ta tuba repent, yi ta 
'tiki accomplish the work, 
M. H. p. 198, ku yi ta kaiikit 
do that which appertains to 
you, B 90, or do as you like ; 
it is also sometimes used 
in the sense of sauve qui 
peut. dari uku ta kurdi de 
(in reply to question What 
did you pay?) Its price was 
indeed 300. 

ta, related to prec, used as a 
feminine prefix, 1. to form 
the adjectives tagari (masc. 
iiagari) good, takivarai(m3i.iic. 
nakwarai) proper, correct ; 2. 
to form ordinal from cardi- 
nal numerals, e.g. uku three, 
bokoi seven, taiiku third, ta- 
bokoi seventh. For other 
uses of ta as a prefix, cf. 
taberma, taderishi, takanda. 

ta, a contraction of taa, used 
as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular femi- 
nine of the future tense ; cf. 
Gr. p. 32. 

ta, for idiomatic use in expres- 
sion ta mana da hankali see 
tada. ta is apparently the 

root from which tada^ tashi, 
etc., are derived. 

ta'ada, Ar. S^Ip, from ada 
custom with ta (the fem. form 
of na) ; like, A 2 1 kaka su ke 
aiki ta^ada malamai how men 
can act like mallams ; see 

ta'adi*, ta'ada (cf. Ar. jJLj), 

loss, destruction ; mischief, 
wantonness ; yin ta'adi to 
suffer loss, maita^adi a tease, 
ta'ala*, Ar. id., exalted, an 
epithet applied to God, F 2. 

ta'aziya* (Ar. ^jJju), condol- 
ence in bereavement. 

taba, tobacco ; tuku7iian tdba 
a pipe ; shan tdba to smoke, 
lit. to drink tobacco ; sandan 
taba a stick of rolled tobacco. 
gdrin taba snuff. 


ta'ba* (Ar. w^ju), toil, trouble, 
F 68. 

t^ba, tSibi, 1 . to touch, handle ; 
2. used of snakes, etc., to 
sting, bite ; 3. to do or have 
done a thing once or to a 
slight extent, to touch upon, 
e.g. na tdba tafia I went but 
a little way ; na tdba chin 
tuo I ate but a little; ka 
tdba je sokoto have you ever 
been to Sokoto 1 ka tdba 
ganinsa have you ever seen 

tab a 'a 



him *? na tdha ganinsa I saw 
him once, I have seen him ; 
ban tdha yin haka I never 
acted thus ; 4. to try, e.g. 
A 2 zan tdha kokari I will 
endeavour to make the at- 
tempt ; 5. metaph. to afflict, 
drive mad. karatu ya taha- 
shi learning has made him 
mad. <a6a66e crazy, inspired ; 
cf . tahu. ahin tdharva money, 

taba'a (cf. Ar. *ii, to stamp), 
found in the comp. taha^al 
takarda sheet of paper, page 
of a book. 

tababbe, lunatic ; see taha. 

t3,bache, to continue ; see td- 

tabaibai, a short hobbling- 

tabaka, a page of a book ; cf . 
taha'-al takarda. 

tabakune, a great grandchild. 

tabani, beans ground up ; see 

taba-ni-ka-samu (Ficus Vo- 
geli, Urticaceae), a rubber 
tree ; so called because of 
its stickiness. Its juice is 
one of the commercial sources 
of rubber. 

tabaria, pi. tahare (cf. (?) Ar. 

j^, to smash), a large wooden 
pestle for pounding up rice, 
etc. in a turumi. 

tabarma, a mat ; see taherma, 
tS.bas, tabbas, n. assurance, 

proving ; yin tabbas to tnake 

certain, demonstrate. 
t^bat, tabbat, always, for ever. 
tS,bata or t^bbetta, tabache 

(Ar. C-^), to continue to 
exist, to be sure, to be as- 
sured, to make sure, confirm; 
ya tdbata he had no doubt, 
he felt sure, ka tdbata are 
you certain 1 hence used like 
English, surely, certainly, 
e.g. ya tdbata nan he is cer- 
tainly there ; cf. D 24 kotva 
ya ki salla ka tdbata kajiri ue 
he who refuses to pray you 
may be quite sure that he 
is a heathen. 

tdbata, n. continuance, perma- 
nence, e.g. B 106 ni ban ya 
tdhata ha ga mulkinta I have 
seen no continuance to its 
dominion ; D 79 gidan dor- 
wama gidan tdbata the house 
of constant abode, the house 
in which to remain. 

tS,batawa, continuing, F 62 
muka tdbatawa we shall con- 

tinue ; 


q.v., en- 

during ; tdbatache, fem. tdha- 
tachia established, approved, 
certain ; mag ana tdbatachia 
true words, 
tabe, to be without, to fail to 
get ; B 67 roki ubangiji ba 




ka tabe ha ask the Lord, thou 
wilt not fail to get it. 

fcabe, tabi, to draw out, pull 
out; tabe baka to draw out 
a bow ; tabe kada to draw 
cotton out of its pod. 

taberma, pi. tabermi, mascu- 
line, a mat made of reeds or 
grass ; probably derived from 

Av.jujj, to twist into a rope, 
with Hausa prefix as in tade- 

taberman-zomo (hare's mat), 
a plant with four fleshy leaves 
which lie flat on the ground 
with a yellow flower in the 
middle, the leaves are rubbed 
on the feet to cure kushe 

tabi*, a shortened form of tam- 
baya to question, D 45. 

bdibi, lunatic ; see tabu. 

t&bi, to touch, sting, etc. ; see 

t&bi, n. striking, e.g. striking 
the hands together. 

tabki, tapki, tafki, feminine 

(Ar. yft ; h, rain over the 

whole country), flowing water, 

river, pool. 
tabo, pi. tabmia (cf. Ar. %^, 

soil, dirt), mud, slush, a spot 

or mark, 
itabo, ripe; dabino ya yi taho 
I the date is ripe or soft. 

tabo, the scar of a healed 
wound ; cf. tambo. 

tabo*, to meet with a person, 
to relieve another of his load, 
na taboshi I took his load., a lunatic ; see tabu. 

tabri, tabre, a castrated goat. 

tabsa, dyeing, yin tabsa to 

tabshi, softness ; see tapshi. 

t^bu,, fem. tahuwa, a 
lunatic ; see tdba. 

tabuwa, n. madness. 

tache, to purify water by 
straining, filter. tachachey 
pi. tachatUy bright. 

tachewa or tata, n. filtering. 

tachi* to milk ; see tatsa. 

tachi, n. clearness ; sania da 
tachi the sky is clear. 

tada (S.), pi. tddodi, a shorten- 
ed form of ta'ada, q.v., cus- 
tom, habit, matter, subject, 
thing, e.g. tadansu ke nan 
that^is their custom ; cf. adn. 

tada, tashe before a pers. pron., 
to lift up, t6 straighten, e.g. 
a bent stick ; tada hainya to 
mend the road; tada some- 
times denotes ' to choose ' : 
cf. Gr. p. 137, 1. 17. tada 
hankalin wani or ta ma ivani 
da hankali to upset, annoy 
anyone, tada gaba to start 
a tight, ba ta tada wanan 
zanche she found nothin« to 




quarrel about in this speech. 
magana ha ta tadua the word 
will not fail ; to start or send, 
na tada rtianzo I sent a mes- 
senger; cf. the related form 
tashi. tashi, tayes, tada are 
all derived from a root ta ; 
cf. bashi, bayes, bada from 
root ha. 

tad^li, a bag made from tuku- 
rua leaves, for holding cow- 
ries or for packing cotton; 
cf. kwororo. 

tadawa, ink; see adawa. 

tade, to trip a person up. 

taderishi (cf. Ar. from Pers. 

ij!ij\^, black leather, with 

Hausa prefix), boards or stiff 
covers for binding books. 

taderishi (cf. (?) Ar. ^ji), 
bluntness of a knife. 

tadi, loss ; see ta^adi. 

tadi, conversation ; yin tddi to 

tadilisi (Ar.), the concealment 
of defects in articles on sale. 

tadowa, raising up ; see tada. 

tafa, to clap the hands ; see 

tafarfara, taferfera, a four- 
cornered thatched house. 

tafarki, tafariki, pi. tafarkoki, 
tafarku, way, road, path. 
tafarki is often used of the 
path of religion, A 71 ita che 

tafarki da ke hi ita daia th( 
path for thee to follow is one 
tafarki is generally used foi 
a smaller or less defined patl 
or track than hainya, q.v. 

tafamua, pi. tafamai, garlic 
see taparnua. 

tS,fS,sa, tS,fesa (Cassia tora 
Leguminosae), a shrub wit! 
yellow flowers ; the seed 
mixed with kaskaijl are use 
as a preventive medicint 
against cuts and scratches. 

tafasa, tafesa, tr. ; tafasu (>\ 
tafashe intr., to boil ; tafa 
sashin rua boiled water, ta 
fasashe, f. tafasashia, pi. tafa 
sashii, boiling, boiled, rui 
ya tafasa the water boiled 
atafasashi it is boiling. Fig 
zuchiata ta tafasa my hear"' 
boils, i.e. it is vexed. 

tafashe (S.), a kind of drum. 

tafashia, a shrub with rexi 
edible fruit (Sarcocephaluf 
Russeggeri, Rubiaceae); als( 
called tuon-biri (monke} 
food). There is obtainec 
from it a vegetable poisor 
which is used for smearin* 
arrows ; cf . deji. 

tafasua, needle ; see tamfasua, 

tafe, to be without ; see tdhe. 

tafe, pi. ^<xy^c«, travelling; mum 
tafe we are trekking ; cf 





taferfera, a four-cornered 

house ; see tafarfara. 
baferko, tafarko, 1. beginning, 
e.g. taferko da takarshe the 
first and last of a thing, also 
= dunia da lahira this world 
and the next ; 2. used as an 
adjective as the feminine of 
nnferko^ q.v. 
tafesa, to boil ; see tafasa. 
tafife, a hut made with mats., a tlat surface, e.g. the 
hand spread out flat, tdfin 
lianu the palm of the hand, 
tdfin kdfa the sole of the 
foot ; tdfin giwa {a) a round 
mat, only used by a king, 
(h) salt spread out. 
tafi, clapping of hands, beating 
of wings, yin tdfi to clap 
the hands; cf. tdfa. 
itafi, to be without ; see tdhe. 
tafi, often pronounced tefiH, to 
go, to travel ; an abbreviated 
form tai is sometimes used 
especially in Sokoto ; to form 
the pres. tense the noun tafia 
must be employed with the 
pronominal forms ending in 
na, e.g. suna tafia they are 
going ; tafi followed by da to 
take away, tafiawa partic. 
form of tafi, journeying, tafo 
or taho* to come, tafo kusa 
come near ; suna tafowa they 
are coming here, tafi ga rana 

(lit. go to the sun), is the name 
given to a small brown harm- 
less snake which comes out 
at daylight. 

tafia, n., pi. tafifia, going, jour- 
ney, travelling; tafiankwana 
biu two days' journey, yin 
tafia to travel ; cf . tafe. uban 
tafia leader of an expedition, 
M. H. p. 238. 

tafida, a title given to the son 
of a king ; cf. yerima. 

tafkeke, broad, extensive. 

tafki, pi. tafuka, a pool ; see 

tafo, to come ; see tafi. 

tafowa, coming ; see tafi. 

tafshi, tapshi, n. softness, 
ripeness, tenderness, the state 
of being well-cooked ; da taf- 
shi soft, ripe, well-cooked ; 
yin tafshi to make soft. 

taga, pi. tagatgai (Ar. 45 lb, 
window), a hole to look out 
at ; esp. applied to the small 
triangular holes which serve 
the purpose of windows. 

t^ga, tagga, to attempt. 

tagajan, poor people without 
horse, arms or slaves. 

tagang^na, to sit with out- 
spread legs, to pull up 
one's skirts in order to sit 

tS,gara, a proclamation of 




tagari, good, a fem. form of 
nagari, q.v. 

tagia, a white cap, usually 
worn by the Hausas under- 
neath the large straw hat, 
malafa ; cf. fulandara. 

t3.gO, pi. tagogi (in Sokoto), 
tci^ua, pi. taguoyi (in Kano), 
a shirt made like a tobe, 
with short sleeves ; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 37, ya gudcmo ma- 
sutago he fled from the men 
with short shirts. 

tagode, beads worn round the 
neck by women. 

tagomas, tamogashi, tamga, 
a sword with a double sharp 

tagomashi*, n. love. 

tagua, a shirt ; see tdgo. 

tagua, pi. taguai, taguwoyi, 1. 
female camel ; 2. the constel- 
lation of the camel which 
rises at the beginning of the 
dry season, taguan hindiga 
a double-barrelled gun. 

tagua*, heavy rain ; see tugua. 

tagiii, pi. taguaye, twins. 

tagula, tugula, tagura, pi. 
tagulai, 1. bracelet; 2. a 
girdle made of copper ; 3. a 
charm against sickness and 
death worn by yan wahi and 
consisting of a continuous 
string worn round the neck 
and waist which passes 

through metal rings, it i> 

discarded when the wearei 

grows up. 
tagumi, n. leaning the heni 

on the hand in token of dis 

tahalita* (Zanf.), to create 

see halita. 
taho*, to come; a form ot 

tafo, C 18. 
tai, an abbreviated form ( t 

tasa his ; cf . use of nai f < 

taia, to make an offer in bai 

gaining for anything ; cf 

taiba, fatness ; da taiha fat. 
taiki, pi. taika, tayuka, taikuu , 

" ^' i 

[cf. Ar. ^a'S IV, to fill a skin 

bag], a large bag made ofj 
skin, a bundle ; cf. pro v. en 
kana awo auna ga maitaiki \ 
if you want to measure oui 
anything, go to the man wl 
has the bag and measurt 
i.e. if you want anything, | 
ask the owner for it, do nor ' 
ask his servant. 

taimaka, taimaki, taimake 
to help ; see taimako. 

taimako, help, assistance, A i' 
ka yi taimako gareni do thou 
help me. taimakawa help, 
assistance ; F 79 masowa did 
enna maitaimakawaoi all wlu > 




love thee where is one that 
can help ? 

taimama (cf. Ar. ^»j v), cere- 
monial ablutions made with 
sand ; A 54 wanayi da kan 
rika taimama kam babu huja 
the man who performed his 
ablutions with sand though 
there was no reason for his 
doing so (i.e. when water 
was available). 

tainya, tainye, tainyo and 
tainyona, secondary forms 
of lay a to help, q.v. 

taitai, pi. taitaye, a plate made 
of plaited grass. 

taiyo, ahokin taiyo a friend to 
help, M. H. p. 226 ; see taya. 

tajawankai, light kind of san- 
dals, more highly decorated 
than sambazai, q.v. 

tajini, a large drum such as 
would be used by a king. 

tajirchi, wealth. 

tajiri, fem. tdjira (Ar. jj^-U), 

merchant, trader, a rich man. 

tajirta, to be rich. 

taka, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing, 'thy,' used 
when possessor is masc. and 
object possessed is fem. ; cf. 
7taka and taki. 

t3.ka, to measure lengths with 
the hand. 

taka, n. trampling down ; cf. 

Gr. p. 138, 1. 32; suyi ta- 
kamu ; used with wache = 
kwana da. 

taka, taki, take, to tread, 
trample upon, to mount up, 
to put one's foot on, to hold 
down under foot, ya take 
gafia he put his foot on the 
rat. taka sheria to break the 
law, taka addini to violate 
the rules of religion, mai- 
taki one who treads out corn. 
mataki steps, ladder, mai- 
takin biri lit. one who steps 
like a monkey, used of a horse 
that walks with its pasterns 
touching the ground ; cf. ta- 

t3.kaba, n., 1. taking off gar- 
ments as a sign of grief ; 
mourning, lamentation, esp. 
of women ; 2. a widow dur- 
ing her time of retreat. 

takabodo, a white bird with 
reddish feet, somewhat re- 
sembling a dotterel. 

takai, a kind of fencing game 
played with short sticks, the 
players go round in a circle, 
if the players be women they 
clap their hands. 

takaichi, hatred, anger, irrita- 
tion, annoyance ; ina jin 
takaichi I am angry with. 
debe takaichin wane to pay 
someone back in his own 




coin, lit. to take out the 
annoyance of anyone. 

takaita, to be angry, to excite 
to anger. 

takake, fem. takaka, pi. ta- 
kaku, particip. form from 
take, trodden down, mashed. 

takala, the round pole of the 
loom on which the woven 
cloth is wound. It is re- 
volved by a handle (matuki) 
fixed into one end of it, and 
secured by two peg ropes 
(ja-haya) one on either side 
of the weaver. 

takalmi, pi. takalitia^ shoe, 
sandal, used to express the 
number of persons, i.e. tra- 
ders, in a caravan, the sandal 
being typical of trader, ta- 
kaVmi divhu ya yaniu a thou- 
sand traders were collected. 

takama, n. a proud walk, also 
the amble of a horse, doki 
maitakaTna a horse which has 
been taught to amble ; cf . mai- 
takama one who walks proud- 
ly, ya7ia takama he swaggers. 

takan, a form of akan above. 

takanda, takanta, Sorghum 
saccharatum, sugar-cane ; cf. 

rike (Ar. 5 jL^i, English ' can- 
dy *) ; with Hausa prefix ta 
as in takarda. It resembles 
guinea-corn in appearance 

and is reaped before the 
guinea-corn is planted, ta- 
kandar nama the saddle of 
meat, supposed to contain 
the sweetest meat. 

takandar giwa, a tree with 
fragrant blossoms and black 
plum-like fruit, = gwafsa. 

takanta, to manure ; cf . tdki. 

takar* (K.), indeed, certainly. 

takarda, pi. takardu, some- 
times used as masc, Kanuri 

tayarda (cf. (?) Ar. ^^lfc>Ji, 
Gk. x^P^^^)' paper, letter, 
book, anything with writing 
on, e.g. F 140 ajefo har ta- 
kardun aiku iiamu we shall 
be placed according to the 
lists of our deeds. 

takarkari, pi. takarkarai, an 
ox used for carrying loads. 

takama, a kind of hard potash. 

takarra, competition, over- bid- 

takarshe, last ; see karshe, 

takas [cf. Ar. j^,-»a»j and j^^i.^, 
which have been variously 
interpreted dolphin, sea-cow, 
hyena and badger, Lat. taxus, 
taxo (Augustine), It. tasso, 
Germ. Dachs], badger. 


grass covering appen- 

dage worn by certain pagan 
takawa, steps ; cf. tdka. 




take, to tread ; see tdka. 
take (K.), killing outright; 
(ikayi maaa take he was killed 


taki, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. sing., thine, used 
when possessor and object 
possessed are both feminine ; 
cf. taka and naki. 

taki, dung ; yin taki or takanta 
to manure. 

taki, pi. tdke-tdke^ taki-taki, a 
foot regarded as a measure 
of length, a pace, course, 
tendency ; C 1 7 taki-takin 
dunia the course of this 

taki, to tread down with the 
feet ; see tdka. 

taki, pi. takoki, an insect like 
a locust, with long legs. 

taki, teki, a span, the distance 
from the tip of the thumb to 
the end of the middle finger ; 
see tdkcc. 

takichi, a fee paid for bringing 
a present ; see tukuichi. 

takidi (Ar. j^t, confirmed, 
strengthened), repetition, the 
doing over again of some- 
thing already done, 

takobi, takwobi, pi. takuha, 
sword, cutlass, zare takobi to 
draw a sword ; C 38 su ne 
takuhan mumini na shirin 

R. H. D. 

fada they are as swords to 
the believers, a preparation 
for fighting. 

takoko, an old man with bent 

t3.kos, seven ; see tokos. 

takrur*, Hausaland ; takruriy 
tukruru, Sudanese negro, 

taku, separable possessive pron. 
2nd pers. pi. 'your,' used 
when the object possessed is 
feminine ; cf. naku. 

takuba, pi. of takobi, sword, q.v. 

takumkumi, a muzzle for a 
goat or a donkey; see kukumi. 

takura, takure, to fold, crease, 
double up ; maitakura fuska 
a man who frowns, takure is 
used as intrans. v. to be 
curled up in a heap, used of 
a man or a snake ; dari ya 
takuraka zmcri daia the cold 
makes you sit crouched up, 
used of clothes, to shrink • 
pass, anatakura he is bowed 

takurua, a species of palm ; 
see tukurua. 

takwoshi, lameness ; see tar- 

taia, talla (cf. Ar. rt ^ iv, 
to press for payment), n. 
haggling, exposing for sale, 
crying wares in the street ; 
cf. M. H. p. 223, shina talla 





hmva he exposed a slave for 

sale, also talla da to expose 

for sale ; see tdlata. 
tS,laba, tallaba, to support 

anything with the hand spread 

out ; cf . tdlahe. 
tS,labe, tallabe, to support a 

person or thing, to prevent 

from falling. 
tSilafa, tallafa, tolafa, to bring 

upachildor animal the parent 

of which is dead, to feed, to 

liand over the care of anyone 

to another. 
talafi, tallafi, n. 1. step-parent; 

2. the over-sight or care of 

talagi, to stir about in the pot 

while cooking ; cf. taiga. 
talaka (Kanuri talaga), poor, 

a poor person, a dependent ; 

maitalaka a poor or humble 

talaki*, indigo, 
talala, talaala, tying with a 

long tether ; ya yi masu ta- 
lala he watched them from a 

talalabia, slipperiness ; yin ta- 

laldbia to slip. 

talashi* (Ar. ,^,JIJ*I, satin, 
whence Germ. Atlass), satin ; 
ja talashi red satin. 

tSilata, tallata, to ask the price 
of, haggle, cry wares, babble. 

talata ( Ar. ^^), the numeral 
three ; talata is frequently 
used, esp. in counting cowries, 
for three thousand. 

talatalu, talotalo, tolotolo, 
turkey, onomatopoeic ; cf . 

talatin*, Ar. o^*^' ^^''^• 
num. thirty. 

talauchi, n. poverty, humble- 
ness ; C 53 ?/a dau talauchi 
ya fiya masa dukia he took 
upon himself poverty, it was 
better to him than wealth; 
matalauchi, pi. matalauta one 
who is very poor. 

talauta, to be poor ; see tal- 
auchi, talaka. 

tale, a small drum made of a 

taiga, to stir up or mix in hot 

talha, a kind of saddle em- 
broidered in gold or silver, 
brought from the north. 

talhatina, pi. talhatinu, a stone 
pendant worn by women, a 
brooch of agate. 

talia*, 1. flour mixed with water: 
in N. African macaroni; 2. a 
meal prepared for a bride- 
groom and his friends. 

talibambam, 1. a small frog, 
with large belly, and two line> 
across it ; 2. fish with belly 
like that of this frog. 




talikai* (Ar. oi^JLa^.!? ii), things 
■fc created, animate and inani- 
"■ mate, F 137. 

talili, an amulet. 

talita*, to create ; cf. halita*. 
. tally o, step-child. 

talji* (Ar. *-JJ), snow. 

talla, n. haggling ; see tdla. 

tallaba, to support anything in 
the open hand ; see tdlaha. 

talolo (K.), penis. 

talonia, talaunia, the name 
of a vegetable poison used for 
smearing arrows ; cf. defi. 

talotalo, turkey ; see talatalu. 

taltali* (Ar.), B 72, prepara- 
tion ; cf . tatali, id. 

tain or taman-taman, taut, 

tS-ma, tamma (S.), to take 
hold of, strike, of a snake to 
bite, to owe, to lay hands 

tdjna lis, 1. the ore of iron; 

2. iron smelting ; 3. a sword 

of cheap rough workmanship ; 

cf. kdshin-tdma and mata- 

tama*, pride ; cf . tamania. 
ta-mache, adj. female; cf. 

tamagi, a rope made of rdma. 

tamaha (cf. (?) Ar. jO*, to 

covet, and Kauuri tartia ex- 

pectation), hope, expectation, 
thought ; cf. prov. tamaha 
wada ta liana malam noma 
sabhoda hatsiii zdka it is ex- 
pectation that hinders the 
mallam from farming because 
of (his hope for) tithe corn ; 
cf. Gr. p. 106 ; yin tamaha to 
think, imagine, hope, expect ; 
tamaha is sometimes used as 
a verb, e.g. ahind.a ha ator- 
maha the unexpected. 

tamalaulo, a sword with only 
one cutting edge ; cf. tam^. 

tamamana, a disease of horses 
and dogs. 

tSiinani (Ar. jj>o^), price, value; 

tdmaninsa its price is. . .; tdm- 

ani is actual price paid, kima 

is price as valued, 
tamania, Ar., eight thousand, 
tamania, n. defiance, pride ; cf. 


tamanin, Ar. o^s^^-^^j ^^^^• 
num. eighty. 

tamantaka (used in colloquial 
Arabic and in Asben), girdle ; 
cf. Gr. p. 138, 1. 26. 

tamaya, tamaye, to help, as- 
sist ; cf . taya. 

tamayi, help, assistance. 

tamba, a dark red species of 
rice, when mixed with mddi 
it is used as a drink. 

tambaba, doubt, uncertainty ; 




yin tamhaba to be in doubt 
or uncertainty, habu tamhaba 
there is no doubt. 

tambaia, to ask ; see tamhaya. 

tambari, pi. tambura (cf . j^Jj, 
used in Barbary for drum, 
and which comes through the 
Spanish tambor), 1. a kind 
of drum, the bottom of which 
is pointed, often carried on a 
camel, sometimes in pairs, in 
front of a royal procession; 
2. part of the embroidery on 
atobe; maitambari drummer. 

tambaya, tambaia, 1. ques- 
tion, enquiry; F 146 /« su 
duka tambaya bambam ga 
kowa and the questions asked 
at each are all different ; yin 
tambaya to ask, A 27 ta yi 
tambaya let her ask; cf. M. 
H. p. 200, suka kawo goro na 
tambaya they brought kola 
nuts as a greeting of enquir}' ; 
na zo tambayarka 7ie I have 
come to ask you a question. 

tambaya, tambaye, v., 1. to 
question a person ; ya tam- 
bayeshi he enquired of him ; 
2. to enquire concerning any- 
thing; ya tamhaya abu he 
asked about a matter; mai- 
tambayawa one who asks, 
F 19. 

tambo, 1. a scar of a wound; 
2. a ruin; cf. tabo. 

tamifasua, tafasua, tanfasua, 

needle, used in Katsena for 
alura., a sword ; see tagomas. 

tamgaram, tangaram, a glass 
dish, any small white vessel. 

tamka, tanka, tamkar, tam- 
kan, tamkat, like; wanan 
shine tamkat wonchan this is 
like that; usually followed 
by c?« = like to or like as; 
tamkarda su che just as they 
said ; cf . kamada. 

tamka, to converse ; see tanka. 

tamka, red pepper ; see tankwa. 

tammat*, Ar. id., lit. it is 
finished ; it is often placed at 
the end of compositions, C 55, 
G7., n. chewing., 1. to chew, e.g. mutane 
suna tamna goro the people 
chew the kola nut ; 2. tamna 
hakori to gnash the teeth ; 3. 
to hurt; tafmnane^ fem. tam- 
nana^ pi. tam,nanu, chewed ; 
cf. tona, tauna. 

tam.ogashi, a sword; see /" 

tamraro, tauraro, T^\.tamrdr>'. 
taurdrai, star ; zuba tam,rarai 
to divine, act as an astrologer. 

tamu, separable possessive 
pron. 1st pers. pi. 'our,' used 
when the object possessed is 
fem. ; cf. use of namu. 




tana, pers. pron. 3rd pers. fern, 
pies, tense; cf. shina (masc). 

tana, pi. tanu, an earth-worm. 

tanadi (S.), foresight, prepara- 

tS-nawara (K.), a small bag 
made of leather. 

tanchia, the name of a tree 
(like a lime tree), women 
make masabi for cotton with 

tanda, to lick the fingers; part. 
tandewa, tundewa licking. 

tanda (S.), tandem (K.), pi. 
tandodi, a pit for cooking 
bread in, oven, large earthen 
pot used as an oven. 

tandabara, pigeon ; see tanta- 

tandara, a large spotted snake. 

tandawara, a small goat-skin 
bag used for holding water, 
etc.; cf. tanda. 

tanderu (K.), oven; see tanda. 

tandewa, licking ; see tanda. 

tandu, Kanuri id., 1. a vessel 
made of skin ; tandun tozali 
a small skin bottle for hold- 
ing antimony ; 2. a narrow- 
necked leather bottle.*, to say, speak, ya tcine 
— ya che. 

tanfari, tamfari*, like, A 76 
tanfari kasa che ka kana so 
kai gini it is like earth when 
you desire to build. 

tanfasua, needle; see tam- 

tangadi* (K.), stumbling; yin 
tangadi to stumble. 

tangam, tangas, level, equal, 
alike. sun yi tangam da 
juna they are alike, ahoki 
da ni mu ne ta7igas my friend 
and I, we agree exactly. 

tangana*, to lean against, ya 
tangana ga itache he leaned 
against a tree ; cf. dangana^ 

tangara*, cf. Kanuri tungur, 
to feel trouble, 7ia tangara 
— na ji wohala. 

tangarai, tangaran, bright, 
clear, sound ; tangarai ke nan 
the sky is unclouded. 

tangaram, a glass dish ; see 

tangaran, clear; see tangarai. 

tangas, alike ; see tangam. 

tangori, a large wooden pin 
used in winding the thread on 
the wooden cylinder {kwar- 
kwaro) which is then fixed 
in the shuttle ; the operation 
is called taria. 

tanka, roof, the horizontal ties 
of grass binding the slop- 
ing rafters ; karan tanka 
the cross pieces tied to the 
sloping sticks (tsaiko), for 
the grass of the roof to 
rest upon ; cf. under jinka, 




mafiadi, tsaiko^ dirka and 

tanka, tamka, 1. to converse, 
to reply, tankaiva conversa- 
tion ; 2. to talk much, D 87 
idan ka tanka if thou talkest 
much, tankiyo^ tenkia much 
talking, quarrelling. 

tanka, tanke, to bind tight, 
to tie or stretch, e.g. a bow- 

tankada, 1. to winnow, to 
shake; 2. to knock down, 
to overturn. 

tankade, n. winnowing; yin 
tankade to winnow, pass 
through a sieve. 

tankare, to prop, support. 

tankari, prop, support, e.g. 
tent-pole ; sariki shi ne tan- 
karin dunia the king sup- 
ports the world. 

tankat, like ; see tamka. 

tai).kawa, conversation ; see 

tanke, to bind ; see tanka. 

tankerike, tankarki, a kind 
of hawk. 

tankiya, much talking, quar- 
relling; see tanka. 

tanko*, a name given to a bo}^ 
who is the third or fourth 
child of his mother, the pre- 
vious children being all girls. 

tankosa, tankwasa, 1. to 
bend, compel, hinder, e.g. 

yasana ta gage ba na iya ha 
en tankosata my finger is stiif, 
I cannot bend it ; na tankosa 
zuchianka I prevent you from 
obtaining your wish; ha shi 
tankosawa it cannot be bent ; 
see seq. 

tankoshe, intr. to turn, tp re- 
bound, used of a spear thrown 
back ; see tankosa^ also lanko- 

tankura, crouch down, D 16 ; 
cf. takura, 

tankwa, twankua, a red pep- 
per of medium size between 
tatasai and tsidifi. 

tankwasa, to bend; see fo,.' 

tankwasa, humility, maitan- 
kwasa a humble person ; see 

tantabara, tandabara, pi. 
tantaharu, tandaharu (Fulali 
tantabararu), 1. atamepigeon, 
cf. hasbia; 2. used tig. of a 
young girl. 

tantakoshi, marrow bone. 

tantala, tantala da gudu to 
run very hard. 

tantama, doubt, uncertainty, 
prob. an intensive form from 
tamaha. yin tantama to be 
in doubt. 

tantana, n. squatting witli 
outspread legs. 

tantana, v. to spread out. 




tanura, a small bag for carry- 
ing provisions for a journey ; 
cf. tanawara. 

tanya (S. Zanf.), to help, a 
form of taycty q.v. 

tanyo, n. (Zanf.) help, assis- 

tapamua, tafamua, a small 
edible plant like an onion 
used as a medicine for colds, 
also for snake bites : garlic. 

tapki, pool ; see tabki, 

tappa (S.), lint made from 

tapshi^ n. softness ; see tafshi. 

tara, card. num. nine, the 
corresponding ordinal is m. 
nata7'a, f. tatara ninth. 

tara, to care about, ha shi taran 
kauri he does not mind the 
smell of burning; 7ia damre 
ha shi tara aiki the bound 
can't choose their task, shina 
da taran ahinchi he is dainty 
over his food. 

t3.ra, to meet ; see tare. 

tara, to put together, gather, 
collect, assemble; A 17 ka- 
dadai ka tara hanuka don 
tsoron heri although thou put 
both thy hands on it for fear 
of losing it ; E 23 su tara 
gida they share the same 
abode; cf. M. H. p. 198 ha 
mu tara enua daia we do not 
share the same shade ; tarda 

to collect, gather (distinct 
from tarda to meet, see 

tara da to lie with. 
tare (used without obj.) of a 
bride, to collect her belong- 
ings and go to her husband's 
house, akaclaura au7'e ta tcire^ 
i.e. the marriage was com- 
pleted, tarare^ fem. tar aria, 
pi. tararu, collected together. 
taruwa meeting, tatara^ q.v., 
to pile up, etc. tdru is used 
as intr. of tara to be as- 
sembled, gathered together, 
to be full ; tarshe to collect, 
bring together, intens. form 
tatara to pile up. 

tara, taro, tribute, but paid 
only by heathen, also a fine ; 
cf. prov. ha7i ji ha han gani 
ha ta rc(ha ka da zauren tara 
I did not hear, I did not see 
separates you from the place 
of fines ; i.e. keep clear of 
mischief and you will not be 
liable to punishment; za^u 
chin tara they will have to 
pay fines. 

tarabulus, tarabus, the town 
of Tripoli. 

taraia*, a girdle made of cloth. 

tarairaiya, to coax a person 
who is vexed to come back, 
to welcome. 

taraiya (K.), tarewa (S.), n. 
sharing, possessing in com- 




jiion with others. dakin 
taraiya a room shared with 
another, allah ha shi taraiya 
da kowa God has nothing in 
common with any other. 
abokin taraiya a partner. 

taramnia (Combretuni verticil- 
latum, Combretaceae), a tree 
with fragrant white flowers, 
and a four-angled fruit. 

tarara, tSiraro, to be poured 
out Uke wheat through a 
sieve, or Uke water, to leak, 
to trickle. 

tS,rare, to strain out. 

tarare, fem. tarara, pi. tararti, 
gathered, collected, alto- 
gether; see tdra. 

tS,ras, without object, to meet, 
to reach to ; see tare. 

tS,rasda, to overtake ; see tare. 

tarba (S.), to go to meet. 

tarbache, subscription, contri- 
bution of food, etc. 

tarbata (S.), to gather food, 
etc. for the poor. 

tarbe (S.), n. going to meet 

tarbe (S.), v. to detain. 

tarda, to meet with ; see tare. 

tare, together, tare da ni to- 
gether with me ; mu taji tare 
let us go together; tare da 
wanan*, lit. together with 
this, nevertheless (an imita- 
tion of Ar.). 

ta,re, tS-rie, tS,ra, 1. to stop, 
tdreshi da hanu stop it with 
your hand, tdra hanit put 
your hand in the way. tdra 
nan stay here and stop him ; 
2. to go out to meet, to 
welcome, tdria meeting, wel- 
come, tar as (without obj.), 
tdrasda, tarda, tdradda, to 
meet, come up with, overtake, 
find, ku tare ku ta,re the 
usual outcry for stopping a 
runaway thief, horse, etc. 
ya tdra he stopped it. tdri 
hiska to stand so as to take 
advantage of the wind in 
winnowing, niatarian hainya 
a brigand. 

t^reo*, to meet with, to take 
and bring, to relieve another 
of his load : see tdre. 

tarewa (S.), possessing in com- 
mon ; see taraiya. 

tarfa (Ar. o^j-l^), to pour out 
drop b}^ drop, to pour out 

tarfi, a drop of water, a small 
piece of anything (cf. Ar. 


targade, a bruise or sprain. 

tari, abundance, plenty, as adv. 
much, plentifully; cf. M. H, 
p. 217, akoi masalachi tari 
there are many mosques, used 
sometimes with pronouns 
tarinku all of you. 

I tari 



tari, cough ; see toari. 

taria, an operation in weaving; 
see tangori. 

tS,ria, from tdra to meet, etc. 

taria, from tdra to assemble, 
i , meeting, yin taria to meet ; 
tnasutaria crowd. 

tarika (cf. Ar. Aijj-b, mode of 
acting, habit), to have a cer- 
tain character, e.g. ya tarika 
dede he is a dawdler, ya tarika 
facia he is quarrelsome. 

tariki* (cf. (?) Ar. Jji, to 
foul water by throwing stones 
into it), small stones or sand 
mixed with grain. 

tario (Ar. ^jU), history, le- 
gend, tradition. 

tariti* squeezing, D 68. 

tarkache, terkache, tarika- 
che, property, possessions, 

tarki*, a Sokoto word used to 
denote an impossible task ; 
cf. Gr. p. 136. sun yi tarki 
the task was beyond their 

tarkoshi, takwoshi, lameness. 
yana tafia tarkoshi he walks 
on one side of his instep, he 
goes lame. 

tama, blood-feud, revenge., a rope used to hobble 
a horse by tying one front 
leg to one hind leg. 

taro, a shrub ; see taru. 

taro, a tax ; see tara. 

taro, taru, pi. tarori, D 71 
multitude, company, heap ; 
used adverbially B 158=^ to- 
gether; cf. tara. 

tarsa* to help, D 70; see 

tarsasa*, to reproach, despise; 
see tersa. 

tarsashi, tasashi, all, alto- 

tarshe, to collect, bring to- 
gether ; cf. tdra. 

tarshi, tarshe, to help, D 78 
ka tarshimu ji dadi help us 
to feel happy. 

tarsoa, lit. grouping, the con- 
stellation Pleiades. 

tartso, to spurt out, spit, as of 
sparks or liquids, tartsatsi 
spurting, sparks. 

taru, to assemble ; cf . tdra. 

taru, pi. tar una J tarurua, a 
large net, e.g. one stretched 
across a river; cf. konna small 

taru, taro (Combretum spino- 
sum), a low undershrub used 

taruku, trap for wild animals 
made with a rope ; cf. turko. 

taruwa, meeting ; cf. tdra. 

tarwada, a kind of mud-fish, 
sometimes called sarikin kifi ; 
wankan tarwada a colour 




between black and red, i.e. 
the colour of the tarwcida 
when it has been washed. 

tas for tai or tasa, his. 

tasa, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. sing, 'his,' used 
when the possessor is masc. 
and the object possessed is 
fern. ; cf. taia and nasa, 

tasa, pi. tasoshi (Ar. il^), 
Kanuri id., Nupe id., a cup, 
bottle, also used of a large 
bowl or bath. 

tasdida, to raise up, to cause a 
thing to be done, to send 
forth (a messenger), to a- 
waken; cf. tashi. 

tasamma, to seize with the 

tasari, misfortune, loss, na yi 
tasari I have a misfortune ; 
na yi tasarinsu I have lost 
them, tasari and asara are 
apparently both forms of the 
Ar. Oj.***^, cf. hasara. 

tasashi, altogether; see tar- 

tasawa, rising, B 56 tasawal 
hantsi the rising of the sun. 

tasbaha* Ar. *..w ii, praise, 

I) 26 kuna tasbaha offer up 
tasbi, pi. iasbai (cf. Ar. Aa^^w, 
rosary), beads, esp. as used 
for counting prayers. 

! (Daura), loss ; cf. tas- 

tashe, to raise up ; see seq. 

tashi, n. rising, starting, rais- 
ing up, tashi daga matatu 
resurrection, ya saki tashi he 
prepared to start. tashii 
fari the first onslaught. tasM 
V. to rise, arise, go forth, 
start from a place; cf. mc 
sutashi nomadic people ; 
raise, to send forth, kasua 
fa tashi the market breaks 
up, hindigata hai tashi ha 
my gun missed fire. ya. tashi 
manzonsa he sent his messen- 
ger. Other forms are tasa 
to arise, tasa ma to start, e.g. 
na tasa 7na zna gari I started 
to go to the town, tada^ 
q.v., to raise up, lift up, 
straighten ; tada salla to 
stand up in readiness for 
prayer, tashe to cause to 
rise, to set free a prisoner, 
to erect, to wake one up ; 
tdyes to wake one up, to set 
up ; tdyesda to raise up, to 
send away ; tdyesua rising, 
resurrection ; taso to rise 
up, to boil, to come up; cf. 

tS,shi, brightness, light, clear- 
ness ; cf . tachi. 

tashi, etc., a kind of pepper; 
see twas/ii. 




tashinkai, pride, lit. raising 
up the head. 

tasinia, a small thorny plant. 

tasiri (S.), bravery, endurance. 

, taska, to mount up, to increase, 
used of sun or moon, wata 
ya taska the moon is well up, 
Jiantsi ya taska the morning 
was well advanced. 

taska, pi. iaskaki, store-room, 
treasury, a round mud re- 
ceptacle for grain, etc., hence 
meton. treasure. 

taskache, to lay up treasure. 

taskS,ro (S.), loss, damage. 

;taskira, tazkira, 1. a small 
basket in which women keep 
string or spinning materials ; 
2. a trap for ostriches which 
consists of a hole in the 
ground with rope noose at- 
tached ; 3. a present given 
by a man when he sends for 
his wife to be brought home 
on marriage. 

itaso, 1. to rise, i.e. to boil ; to 
rise and come ; 2. to remind; 
see tashi. 

Etasoma (S.), to seize with the 
mouth ; see tasamma. 

tasu, used for joining cardinal 
points of compass in order to 
denote intermediate points; 
gahaz tasii arewa = gabaz ku- 
surua arewa = East towards 

tasu, separable possessive pron. 
third pers. pi. * their,' used 
when the object possessed is 
fem. ; cf. iiasit. 

tasunia, pi. tasunioy% story, 

taswa, boiling; a verbal noun 
from taso. 

tata, tachewa, n. filtering. 

tata, separable possessive pron. 
used both for the first and 
third persons, i.e. *my' and 
' her,' when the possessor and 
object possessed are both 
feminine, tawa is however 
frequently used for the first 
and tasa for the third person ; 
cf. Gr. p. 24. 

tat3.ka, stalks of grass, used for 
horses' food, hay. 

tataka tatake, an intensive 
form of tdka to tread down, 
trample under foot, also fig. 
B 40 kada mu tatakeshi muna 
hannalet us not vainly trample 
it (knowledge) under foot. 

t§.tali, preparation, D 86 ya yi 
tdtali he makes preparation ; 
cf. taltali*, id. 

tatapara, a bat. 

tatara, an intensive form of 
tdra, q.v., to squeeze, pile up 
together, A 28 pass, atatare 
sitting crouching with arms 
tightly folded, D 61 rana 

' chart akatataramu on that 




day when we have been 
gathered together; E 19 sz^ 
tatara hankalinsu zua ga 
mata they pay all their at- 
tention to women. 

tatasai, twashshi, or tushi, 
species of large green pepper 
pod, not very hot; cf. tankwa. 

tataura, fem. tatauria, pi. ta- 
taura, hard ; see tauri. 

tatengi, dan tatengi pet, favour- 

tatsa, tatse, twatsa, twache, 
to milk, to squeeze out juice, 

tatsunia, pi. tatsuniai^ star. 

taubashi, a play companion, 
said to be used of those 
brought up together as chil- 
dren, but in Sokoto it is only 
applied to the children of a 
brother and sister and not of 
two brothers ; one taubashi 
may greet another with abuse 
at which no offence is taken ; 
see shara. 

tauga, a pool. 

taula, a pole which a carrier 
places across his shoulder, a 
load being suspended at either 

taulafa (S.), to hand over the 
care of anyone to another ; 
see talafa. 

tauna, to chew ; see tamna. 

taura, a tree, Detarium Senega- 

lense, a gum used as inceii- 
is obtained from its roots. 

taura (Fulani id. = turned down 
horns of a cow), curls, or locks 
of hair at the side of a wo 
man's face. 

tauraro (Daura), star ; see ta^i^ 

taurata, to harden ; see taurl. 

taureta (Ar.), the Books of 

tauri*, he-goat. 

tauri, hardness, stubbornness ; 
da tauri strong, hard ; taurin 
zuchia hardness of heart ; yin 
tauri to harden, to become 
hard; taurin kai obstinacy; 
taurin ido sauciness, bold- 
ness; dan tauri invulnerable; 
tauri is applied to castrated 
rams or goats. 

tauria, a form of tauri, barren- 
ness ; matauria barren. 

tausa, 1. to squeeze; 2. to im- 
merse ; cf. taushe. 

tausai, tausaye, pity, com- 
passion ; yin tausai and jin 
tausai to have or feel pity, 
to be sorry; abin tausay 
what a pity ! 

tausaye, pity ; see prec. 

taushe, n. fondling. 

taushe (S.), tausa (K.), to 
press, squeeze; taushe rami 
to block up a hole ; to nibble, 
eat through, e.g. of white; 




ants ; to hold oft* or back, to 
keep one off; tausashe, fern. 
tausashia, pi. tausasu, pressed, 
squeezed ; gianduma tausa- 
shia a water-gourd with the 
mouth closed; taiLshewaipres&- 
ing, squeezing. 

taushi, fineness, softness ; mai- 
taushi or da taushi soft ; cf. 
laushi, tapshi. 

taushi, taushe, onions cooked 
in soup. 

tautau, spider ; see toto. 

tautauchi, tautau, cobweb, 
M. H. p. 200 ; see toto. 

tauwi, to lessen ; see tawaya. 

tawa, separable possessive pron 
first pers. sing., used when 
possessor is masc. and object 
possessed is fem. See Gr. 
p. 24 ; cf. nawa. 

tawada, for adawa or tadawa, 

tawaga, running away, especi- 
ally used of a crowd. 

tawai, rebellion, the pi. form 
tawaye, rebellious, is used of 
towns or peoples which refuse 
to pay tribute, etc. ; used of 
Borgu, Abuja, northern half 
of Gobir, Ningiand Argungu ; 
tawaye a revolution ; yin ta- 
waye to revolt. 

tawai. tawaye, twins ; cf . tag Hi. 
tawaliyu*, humility (cf. Ar. 

tawatsa, tawasa, a tree with 
jointed pods, a poison for 
smearing arrows is obtained 
from it, from its bark are 
made ropes (Albizzia moluc- 
cana, Leguminosae). 

tawaya, tauwi, 1. to decrease, 
to lessen, e.g. rana ta tawaya 
the day declines ; 2. to press 
down ; 3. to hem. 

tawaye, twins ; see tawai. 

t&ya, to bargain, to make an 
offer in bartering, to ask the 
price of ; nawa antaya what 
is the price 1 nawa nawa su ke 
how much are they each? 
Ans. aa ba7i tayasu ha I don't 
know, I have not enquired 
their price ; yin tdyi, id. 

taya, to help, to assist, constr. 
1. with direct obj. ; 2. with 
ma, e.g. na taya maka I help 
thee; 3. with an inf., e.g. wane 
shina tayani chin kiji nan 
who will help me to eat this 
fish ? tainya, tainye, tainyo, 
to help ; tainyona*, n. help ; 
cf. tamaya, tanya. 

tayas, tayar ma wani da han- 
kali to upset, annoy. 

tayasda, tayesda, to raise up ; 
see tashi. 

tayaz, to refuse, disobey, trans, 
and intrans. ya tayaz mai he 
disobeyed him ; tayazua dis- 




tayesua, rising, resurrection; 

see tashi. 
tS,yi, n., 1. offering a price, 

bargaining; 2, invitation to 

join in partaking of food. 
tayi, foetus of animals. 
tayo, n. help; cf. M. H. p. 226, 

ahokin tayo a friend to help. 
tazanko, an expression of pity, 
tazargadi*, a bitter medicine 

made from herbs used as an 

tazkira, a small basket iu which 

women keep string or spinning 

materials ; see taskira. 
te, tai, to go ; apparently an 

abbreviated form of taji. 
teddas, to blow water out of 

the mouth ; teddaswa the 

action of blowing water out 

of the mouth ; see tuda. 
tenkia, dispute, quarrel ; see 

tental*, civet, 
terere, n. ofiFering or exposing 

for sale, 
terga, pi. tergai (cf. Ar. wJJi 

VIII, to have weak knees and 

fall), disease of joints ; ya yi 

terinia, fatness ; ya yi terinia 

he is fat. 
terkache, possessions ; see tar- 

terko, a trap or snare ; see 


temaki, hobble of a horse ; see 

tersa* (cf. Ar. J^ji v), to 
despise; cf. tarsasa. 

terwada, mud-fish ; seetao-wada. 

tesa, to say a thing over again, 

teyi, invitation; see tdyi. 

tibbu, love charms. 

tihu, tifu, a hanging mat. 

tijo, a disease on horses' legs. 

tika, a blow, e.g. with the fist. 

tike, a fibre or grass rope. 

tilalabia*, soft, slippery mud. 

tllas, fern, tilas ha ta rasa dakin 
kwana^ i.e. necessity knows 
no law, force; da tilas by 
force, perforce, yui tilas to 
use force, to compel ; tila^a 
(K.) and tilasda, tilasta (S.) 
to use force with, to constrain, 
e.g. na tilasa rtiuttim, I use 
force to compel the man. 

tilasda, to constrain ; see prec 

tilli* (Ar. Jj), a heap or largt 
store of anything ; see tidli. 

tindumi, sewing or embroidery 
at edge of a garment. 

tingama, to beat or grind rice, 
wheat, etc. j 

tinia, a cactus ; see tumia. \ 

tinjere, tunjere, syphilis, sy- 
philitic sore. 

tinjim, plenty. 

tinzera, perplexity, fear; no 




yi tinzera I am afraid ; see 

tir, woe ! alas ! may God curse 

you ! ti7' da wanan woe to 

this man ! 
tira, a leathern charm, 
tirare, scent ; see turare. 
tirka, n. a tax, esp. a tax upon 

an inheritance or legacy. 
tirkata, to tax an inheritance, 
tirmani, a small black stinging 



tisain (Ar. ,j-ou^), id., card. 

num. ninet} . 

to, well! so! yes! indeed! good! 
when a native does not quite 
understand what is said he 
will frequently reply to. 

toari, tari, twari, cough ; yin 
toari to cough. 

tofa, sharp-edged grass or bush 
such as grows especially on 
abandoned farms, and which 
is used for thatching, etc.; 
. cf. gonan tofa kewoya daga 
nesa go a long way round to 
avoid a field of tofa (lest 
you get the prickles in your 

tofa, tofi, to breathe out, to 
spit; <q/b to inspire, tofarda 
to spit out. 

tofi, n. spitting. 

tofo, toho, pi. tofuna, leaf, 
sprout; yin tofo to shoot 

forth as plants ; itatua su yi 
tofo the trees sprout ; tofu = 
yin tofo ; itache ya tofu the 
tree sprouts. 

toge ma, to shrink from, with- 
draw from. 

toi, to burn, F 114 ; see toy a. 

toka, pi. tokuna^ ashes, dust. 

tok^ra, to uphold, to support 
as a pole supports a tent; 
atokareshi prop up the roof 
with a forked stick, also to 
jam, stick; kayar kifi ta tsaya 
awuya ta tokareshi a fish-bone 
stuck in his throat. 

tokochi, a fee for bringing a 
present ; see tukuichi. 

tokos, card. num. eight ; the 
corresp, ordinal is masc. 
natokos, fem. tatokos. 

tolafa, to hand over the care 
of anyone to another; see 

tolahi, a security for good con- 

toliya, a hair tuft of a young 

tolma, to pledge, mortgage. 

tolotolo, turke}' ; see talatalu. 

toma*, pride; iTia tomansa I 
speak haughtily to him ; see 
foma, id. 

tombo, a scar or scab which 
has healed up ; see tambo. 

tomo, haughty, mighty ; see 




tona, tauna, to chew, masti- 
cate ; see tamna. 
tona, tone, 1. to pull out, tear 
out, scrape up, to dig for 
metals, mine ; to expose a 
secret, to lay open, D 63 rana 
chan akanto7ia loloki asiri on 
that day the secret place shall 
be laid open; to take off gar- 
ments ; 2. to stir up, e.g. a 
fire or a liquid ; na tone kurdi 
I rake cowries towards me; 
fig. tonafada to pick a quarrel ; 
tona magana to search out a 
story; tona (ma wani) asiri 
to do a bad turn to anyone ; 
tonowa capable of being ex- 
posed ; tonu pass, kada asi- 
rinsu ya tonu let not their 
secret be exposed; tono in- 
trans. asiri ya tono the secret 
is out. 

tonka, pepper ; see tamka. 

tono, pi. tonaki, trouble, op- 

toro, pi. torone (Ar.^^), large 
male of any animal; toron 
giwa or simply toro bull ele- 
phant, toron zaki male lion. 

toroso, dung. 

toshe, to stop a leak, mend, 
sew a patch on. 

toshi, a present, or monetary 
inducement, esp. a bride- 
groom's present to his bride. 

tosuwa (S.), deafness. 

toto, tautau, Kanuri id., 1. a 
dry scale, a lichen, dandruff; 
2. spider ; 3. totuar masara 
husk of a maize cob. 

totsia, a basket full of corn. 

totua, shavings of wood. 

towi, to lessen ; see tawaya. 

towi, to burn ; cf. tdi^ toy a. 

toya, tuya, toye, to burn, tr. 
and intr. to bake ; toy ay e^ 
tuyaye, f. toyayia, pi. toyayuy 
baked ; hakori toy or aye de- 
cayed teeth. 

tozali, antimony, used for 
rubbing on the eyelids ; tan- 
dun tozali a small skin bottle 
for holding antimony ; cf. 
koli; tumkiamaitozali a sheep 
with rust-coloured markings 
on the ears and round the 

tozari, uncleanness. 

tozarta, tozerta, 1. to annoy: 
2. to fail, lack. 

tozo, the hump on a bull, 
camel, etc.; dan tozo a large 
pitcher with narrow mouth. 

tsa, tswa, a slender, small- 
leaved shrub (Phyllanthus 
spinosus, Euphorbiaceae). 
tsaba, pi. tsabobi, threshed and 
winnowed corn ; used in So- 
koto for dawa guinea-corn. 
tsaba, tsala*, 1. a lump, a 
mass ; 2. that which is pure 
= that and nothing else, e.g. 




fxaban kurdi simply cowries, 
nothing but cowries ; see zaba. 

tsabaa, tsahaal takarda a sheet 
of paper ; i.q. taba^a, q.v. 

tsabia, dabia (Ar. djuJb), 

tsabore, zabore, reeds such as 
are used for making doors, etc. 

tsabta, tsapta, tsauta, n. 
purity, cleanliness ; da tsabta 
pure, yin tsabta to be pure ; 
cf. sabta. 

tsachi, to think, suppose, medi- 
tate ; B 1 4 guba shina tsachi 
alkaki che he would think that 
a poisonous plant was wheat, 
B 1 20 ; see zache. 

tsada, 1. dearness, expensive- 
ness j da tsadadear, expensive, 
yin tsada to be costly; 2. a 
bargain, a contract ; sun yi 
tsada da shi they made a 
bargain with him. 

tsada (Ximenia Americana), a 
bush with small yellow plum- 
like fruit with a bitter taste ; 
namijin tsada (Gymnosporia 
Senegalense, Celastraceae) a 
shrub with spines and white 
flowers, also called kurun 

tsada, a bird like the baiwan 
allah, which frequents the 
guinea-corn plantations. 

tsada or ruan tsada, the river 

R. H. D. 

Benu^ which joins the R. 
Niger at Lokqja. (Lake) Chad 
from the neighbourhood of 
which the Tsada flows is a 
corruption of this word. 

tsadanta, to be dear ; cf. tsada. 

tsada-raki, a very venomous 
yellow viper, = injihau. 

tsaderi, bad, rotten, used of 
corn that has been kept too 
long and has become useless. 

tsafi, pi. tsafuna, tsafoki, tsafa- 
fuka, idol : idolatry, fetish 
worship, also used of a bundle 
of rags placed on a stick in 
a field as a charm against 

tsaga, n. tearing, rending. 

tsaga, 1. to drop down, to let 
drop ; 2. to bleed, tsagia 
sickness accompanied by 
bleeding ; cf . matsatsaka a 

tsaga, tsage, chage*, to tear, 
split, rend ; kdra akatsaga ' a 
corn-stalk was split in two ' ; 
said of two people or things 
which exactly resemble each 
other ; tsa^u to be rent or 
cracked, kago ya tsagu the 
wall is cracked ; tsatsaga, 1. 
to tear to pieces ; 2. to beat 
down loose earth, etc. ; cf. cha- 
chagi. tsatsagawa a ramrod. 

ts2,gagi, a water goose with 
white breast. 





tsagan goshi, a vertical tribal 
mark in centre of forehead, 
the Beriberi mark. 

tsagaru, water in which husked 
grain has been washed after 
it has settled ; cf. tsdri. 

tsage, tiger fish (hydrocyon 

tsagi, n. tearing, a half torn 
off, a split; cf. tsdga. 

tsagia, a sickness ; see tsaga. 

tsagia, the tail hairs of an 
animal, e.g. those used in 
making stringed musical in- 
struments ; cf. tsegia. 

tsahiri (Ar, jAlii), adv. or adj. 

clear, manifest; A 65 loto 

ya shude tsahiri the time is 

obviously past. 
tsai, length, height; cf. tsayi. 
tsaida, to lift up, hold back, 

remit (a law), allow to grow 

(e.g. a beard) ; see tsaya. 
tsaidau (S.), a thorny herb 

with small leaves, eaten by 

camels ; see tsidau. 
tsaijewa, a swallow; see tsai- 

tsaiko, 1. the sticks which 

slope from the upright poles 

(dirkoki) of a roof to the cross 

piece (majiadi) ; 2. dawdling, 

yin tsaiko to dawdle. 
tsainya, tsany a, a small species 

of cricket. 

tsaishe, to cause to stand still ; 
cf. M. H. p. 221, ba ta tsai- 
sheka ba it should not detain 
you ; cf. tsaya. 

tsaitsaye, a form of multitude; 
zaiigo ya tashi tsaitsaye, a 
hundred rose up together. 

tsaitse, intens. form from tsayi, 
q.v., to prevent, to anticipate 

tsaitsewa, tsaijewa, cheche- 
wa, tsetsewa, a house swal- 

tsaiwa, tsawa, plaited grass, 
palm leaves, straw, fibre, from 
which are made 1. ropes, 2. 
a medicine, 3. a curtain to 
hang doM^n in front of a door- 

tsaiyi, to stand, etc. ; see tsaya. 

tsaka, a small brown lizard 
with black markings, 2| in, 
long. It is not poisonous 
but is condemned by the 
Hadithi (traditions) to be 
killed at sight becauvse of an 
offence against Abraham. 

tsa,ka (cf. Fulah jakka), n. 
midst, middle, tsdkan rana 
south, noon ; prep, between, 
within, A 23 anche su kintsa 
tsaka gidansu it has been 
said that men should gather 
within the house, tsdkia, the 
midst, centre of anything; 
tsdkani a space between two 

n i 




places or things; tsdkanin^ 

prep, between, fsdkaita to 

be in the middle, tsdkatsdka 

average, medium. tsakan- 

kani differences. 
tsakakari, a hut in a compound 

reserved for grinding corn or 

for domestic work, 
tsftkani, a space between ; see 

tsakara, tsakura, to pinch, 

then to take a pinch of, i.e. 

a very little of. 
tsakare, n. giving short weight 

or measure. 
ts3,ki, husks from wheat or 

guinea-corn; see tseki. 
tsaki, contempt shown by a 

noise made with the lips ; a 

chirping or sucking noise. 
ts§.kia, midst, the centre; see 

tsSko, tsiako, chiako*, dan 

tsako or dan chiako^, pi. 

yan tsako, chicken ; for story 

of the dan chiako see M. H. 

p. 169 sqq. 
tsS-kua, 1. little stones, gravel ; 

2. beads worn round the 

waist l»y women. 
tsakura, to take a pinch ; see 

tsaia, tswala, a kind of cake, 

used in Sokoto; cf. waina (in 

Kano) and indsa (in Zaria). 
tsftlache, to jump, to jump 

over, leave out words in read- 
ing ; cf. tsdli. 

ts&le, n. jumping, ya yi tsdle 
he jumped. 

tsSleleko*, shooting or throw- 
ing up something into the air. 

tsaleta, a small money-bag 
made of skin or cloth. 

tsalga (S.), to spit out from 
between the teeth. 

tsali (cf. Ar. i^^JLo, to roast), 
to scald with hot water, e.^. 
the hand ; cf. sale., tsuli, to jump, to dance, 
tsalache, q.v., to jump over. 

tsalimchi, see seq. 

tsalimi, tsalumi, zalimi (cf. 

Ar. Jli, fraud, Jjli, unjust), 

oppression, wrong, grasping 
disposition ; tsalumchi, za- 
lumchi, tsalimchi deceit, ex- 
tortion ; maitsalumchi a de- 
ceitful or grasping person ; 
yin tsalumchi to be avaricious 
or importunate, or to treat 
unjustly; da tsalimchi de- 
ceitfully, A 50 sarki da ke 
kwache da tsalimchi duka the 
king who seized everything 
by oppression. 

tsalkaka, to be pure ; see tsar- 

tsalki (S.), purity; see tsarki. 

tsalla, chaste ; cf. tsari. 

tsalte, to spit ; see tsarta. 




tsalumchi, deceit, oppression ; 
see tsalinii. 

tsama, a small red, white 
and black, edible caterpillar ; 
(?) cf. tsamia, 

tsamama, to make bitter, to 
be bitter. 

tsamani, tsumani, to think, 
suppose, minene kana tsa- 
mani chikin hankalinka ? 
what is your own opinion'? 
atsamanina as far as I know. 

tsamba, floating grass, sudd. 

tsami, sourness, acidity; da 
tsami sour, shina da tsami it 
is bitter, e.g. of a lemon, fura 
ta chika da tsami the fura 
is quite sour, jiki ya yi tsami 
my body feels sore (after 
a beating), tsamia acidity, 
sourness, da tsamia sour. 

tsami, tsam.e, bef. pron. obj., 
to take out of a vessel, e.g. 
to take moist food out of a 
pot in the hand, also to take 
a bucket out of a well. 

tsam.ia (Tamarindus Indica, 
Leguminosae), 1. tamarind 
tree ; its fruit is sometimes 
cooked in fura ; 2. the acid 
pulp of tamarind which is 
used as leaven, leaven ; 3. a 
sort of silkworm, cf. rig a 
tsamia a cloak worked with 
silk from this silkworm. 

tsamka, tsum.ka, to pinch, 

squeeze, to strike a blow, to 
have gripes ; cf. tsamuka. 

tsamiki, n., 1. a blow ; cf. Gr. 
p. 138, 1. 27, mun kashesu 
hahu tsamki we have taken 
them without a blow ; 2. 
gripes, colic. 

tsamo, to draw out, e.g. from 
water, to save. 

tsamuka (Daura), to pinch; 
see tsa^nka. 

tsamuki, n. pinching ; see 

tsana*, the skin of a snake., tsanna (S.), a kind of 

tsanan* (Ar. J)i), doubt, con- 

tsananche, to worry, torment, 
M. H. p. 221 ; cf. tsane. 

tsanani, torment, violence, abin 
tsana7ii, id. ; maitsanani a 
violent person, jin tsananta 
to suffer torment ; cf . tsane, 

tsananta, to torment, molest, 
trouble ; tsananta ma to 

tsanda* (K.), nausea. 

tsandauri, hard, barren, earth 
or soil. 

tsando, large biting fly ; cf 

tsane, tsani, to oppress, tor 
ment ; cf. tsananche. 

tsangaya, grass hut ; see san- 




tsangoma, to dislike, distrust. 

tsani, tsane, ladder. 

tsanji (Zanf.), a large %. 

tsantsama, tobe wetted by rain . 

tsantsani, n. loathing, asceti- 
cism, yin tsantsani to loathe. 

tsantsanta, terror, fear. 

tsanwa, chanwa, green. 

tsanya, a cricket ; see tsainya. 

tsapta, cleanliness ; see tsahta. 

tsara, tsare, to lay out in 
rows, to tie together layers 
of grass in thatching. 

tsSra, tsa,ri, tsa,re, tsS-ro, 
tsarima*, to guard, protect, 
guard against, watch, ward 
off ; na tsare kasua I watched 
the market; allah shi tsaremu 
God save us from ; C 41 ka 
tsara uwana do Thou guard 
my mother; C 41 akatsar da 
dengimu my relations were 
guarded ; C iO ka tsarima 
(Ian bawanka Thou guardest 
the son of Thy slave. 

ts3ra, pi. tsar are, n. a match, 
equal, fellow, nema tsaranka 
look for your match ; tsa- 
rare friends ; cf. tsdranchi. 

tsaraba* (cf. Ar. o»ji iv, to 
give), a present. 

tsarafi* ( Ar. sJ»ji, to be skilled 
or versed in), skill, oppor- 
tunity ; ina da tsarafi = na 
samu dama I have opportu- 

nity to, am ready to, know 
how to do anything. 

tsar&ka, charm, medicine, esp. 
a charm or medicine for 
traders to promote a success- 
ful deal. 

tsaranchi, 1. companionship, 
cuddling, not necessarily used 
in evil sense ; 2. adultery ; 
cf. tsara. 

tsararauka, milk and water. 

tsarari, a little, e.g. yin kwana 
tsarari to sleep a little, Tnu- 
tane sun zo tsarari the men 
came a few at a time. 

tsarda- (K.), to save, set free ; 
cf. tsira, tsirada, tsirasda. 

tsare, tsari, a large lizard, 
monitor (?). 

tsare, to lay out in rows ; see 
tsara., to guard ; see tsara. 

tsari, a race ; see tseri. 

tsari, a religious song. 

tsa.ri*, to stay at home, A 23 ; 
cf. seq. 

ts^ri, to guard ; see tsara. 

ts3,ri, n. guard ; ka nema tsari 
take heed against ; yin tsari 
to hold back. 

tsari, chart (Ar. ^j^), pure, 

clear ; clean , used of wheat, 
ts&ri or man tsS.ri, water in 
which husked grain has been 
washed, given to horses. 




tsaria*, the opening under a 
mud bed in which a fire is 

tsS,riina, to guard ; see tsara. 

tsarin maganganu, verses ; 
cf. tsdri. 

tsarki, tsaki (S.), purity, esp. 
ceremonial purity, da tsarki 
pure, tsarkaka to be pure ; 
tsarkake, tsarkaka to purify, 
sanctify, e.g. E 30 mu tsar- 
kaka zuchiarmu let us cleanse 
our hearts ; hence tsarkake, 
fem. tsarkakia, pi. tsarkaku, 
purified, holy ; cf. tsatsalka. 

tsarkia, surkia*, 1 . bow-string ; 
cf. matsirkia ; 2. the rope 
tied round the neck of a 
grazing horse; cf. azirka. 

tsarkiar kusa or wutsiar 
kusa, a weed with a long 
narrow spike of pale blue 
flowers (Stachytarpheta Ja- 
maicensis, Verbenaceae). 

tsarkiar zomo, a kind of grass., to watch, guard ; a7ia6- 
saronta agida she is kept at 
home ; see tsdra. 

tsarre, to overtake ; yan fashi 
S2in tsar r eta the brigands 
overtook her ; cf. tsere. 

tsarshe, tsarsha, to save ; C 1 
dotnin ka tsarshani ga zanha 
dunia that Thou wouldest 
save me from the evil of the 
world ; cf . tsarda. 

tsarta, tsalte, to spit out. 

tsartsatsi, sparks. 

tsartua, tsertua, spitting. 

tsatsa, dross, rust ; yin tsatsa 
to have dross mixed with it, 
to rust. 

tsatsS,fa, to well out, used of 

tsatsafa, 1. a cake made of oil, 
honey, and rice or wheat 
flour; 2. light rain. 

tsatsaga, 1 . to tear into strips ; 
3. to beat down, as of loose 
earth; an intensive form of 
tsflga, q.v. 

tsatsagawa, a ramrod ; see 

tsatsagi*, the name of a small 

tsatsalka (S.), tsatsarka, fem. 
tsatsalkia, pi. tsatsalku, pure, 
clean ; see tsarki. 

tsatsara, sasasara, wicker- 
work snares about 10 feet in 
diameter which are built up 
in the bed of a river to catch 
fish ; fish- catching baskets. 

tsatse (S.), green grass which 
has recently sprung up. 

tsatseku (Zanf.), a leech ; of. 
(?) tsetseku. 

tsatsewa, swallow ; see tsetsewa. 

tsatso, earwig ; cf. tsutsa. 

tsatso, tsotso, backbone, spine. 

tsatstsawo, length ; see tsa?vo. 

tsauni, sauni*, dauni*, pi. 




tsaunoni, tsaunaye, tsau7iuna, 
a hill, or hillock. 

tsaurata, to harden ; see 

tsaure, a tall grass with fra- 
grant leaves, sometimes used 
in flavouring food : it is also 
used in making mats (Andro- 
pogon giganteus, Gramineae). 

tsauri (Zanf.), hardness, an- 
other form of tauri, q.v. 

tsauria, tsawuria (S.), cata- 
ract in the eye : white specks 
in the eyes of a blind man ; 
cf. hakia. 

tsaushi, to rebuke, a form of 
tsawa, q.v, 

tsauta, cleanliness ; see tsapta. 

tsautseyi, fate ; tsautseyi ne it 
is fate. 

tsawa, a grass rope ; see tsai- 

tsawa, 1. roar of thunder, 
thunder ; 2. blame, censure ; 
3. a cry, roar ; huga masa 
tsawa (or da tsaiva) to shout 
at someone. 

tsawa, tsawo, n. length, 
height, length of time, da 
tsawo long ; tsawan zama 
long continuance, allah ya 
haka tsawan rai or allah ski 
tsawonta ranka may God 
prolong your life. 

tsawaita, to lengthen, to be 
long ; cf . seq. 

tsawanta, n. length, continu- 
ance ; also V. to lengthen. 

tsawarwara, a large bush cat 
or small leopard. 

tsawata da, to rebuke ; cf. 

tsawaya, a door curtain made 
of hanging strings or grasses; 
see tsaiwa 3. 

tsawela, a flint-lock gun ; see 

tsawo, tsawoita, tsatsawo, 
length ; see tsawa. 

tsawu, the grass band with 
which bundles of corn are 
tied up. 

tsawuria (S.), a disease of the 
eye ; see tsauria. 

tsaya, tsai, 1. to stand, stand 
up ; 7ia tsaya daidai I stand 
upright ; 2. to stop, to come 
to an end, e.g. ya tsaya it is 
finished ; 3. to fall in with, 
meet with ; ya tsaya da biri 
he fell in with a monkey ; 
used with ga, ni na tsaya 
ga litafi nan I lit upon this 
book, wata ya tsaya the new 
moon appeared. matsayi 
place, e.g. shi koma matsayin 
woni let him take the place 
of another, tsaida, q.v., to 
lift up, to detain ; tsaida 
7nagana to stay proceedings ; 
F 92 atsaida saffu a line (of 
men) is made to stand up^ 




i.e. is formed, F 188 malaiku 
su tsaida zugazuganta the 
angels lift up the bellows. 
tsaitse to go in front of, to 
anticipate ; na tsaitseshi I got 
before him. tsaishe to make, 
or cause, to stand still, to 
stop ; also to raise from a 
sick bed, to cure, tsayesda 
to detain, make to halt. 

tsayam bembe (Coreopsis Gui- 
neensis, Compositae), a yellow 
flower like a sunflower. 

tsayaya, stubbornness, da tsa- 
yaya stubborn. 

tsayesda, to detain ; cf. tsayi. 

tsayi, n. standing, halting, 

tsayi, tseyi, tsai, length ; da 
tsayi long. 

tse*5 fem. substantive verb =cAe. 

tsebebe, a small bird, the sight 
of which brings bad luck. 

tsedia, a tree with milky sap ; 
see chedia. 

tsefe, to comb hair, to pull 
grains one by one from a 
stalk, to pull out a hair. 
suka tsetsefe kawunansu they 
combed their heads, mat- 
saifata tweezers ; see tsifa. 

tsegia, 1. hair of the tail of a 
horse, elephant, etc.; 2. neck- 
band made of such hair ; cf. 

tsegumi, pi. tsegunguma, trea- 

chery, false reports, malice; 
maitsegumi or maifsegunchi 
backbiter, spreader of scan- 

tseki,, seki, s&ki, the 
coarse flour which is sepa- 
rated from the finer flour of 
wheat, guinea- corn, etc. ; da 
tseki — roughly (ground). 

tseko, a room built of mud and 
thatched with reeds. 

tsele, vagina. 

tserada (K.), tserasda (Dau- 
ra), to save, set free; cf. 
tsarda^ tsirasda. 

tsere, a lizard with orange and 
black bars (scincopus fasci- 
atus), said to be poisonous, 
it buries itself in sand. 

tsere, tserre, to detain, re- 

tsSre, to trouble about, care 
about; ina tsere girimansa 
ba ya roke abu ha he is mind- 
ful of his position and begs 
of no man ; cf . toata ta tsere 
da kankanchin gar a does the 
moon trouble about the wor- 
ries of an ant 1 

tsere, to outrun, surpass ; kune 
ya tsere wa kaka tradition 
goes back beyond your grand- 
father ; see tser% tsire. 

tsereria, a red, edible bean. 

tseri, tseraya, tsari (Ar. jli), 
a foot or horse race. 




tsertua, spitting out water 

from the mouth ; see tsar- 

tseto,, thought, expec- 
tation ; see zdto. 
tsetseku, a disease of cattle, 
tsetsewa, house swallow ; see 

tsia, tsiya (cf. (?) Ar. rt \^^, 

to suffer hunger), poverty, 

bad luck, lack of goods. 

da tsia poor, allah ya kan sa 

tsia God can cause poverty ; 

cf. chia. maitsia or maitsi- 

achi, matsiachi one who is 

tsiako, chicken ; see tsako. 
tsiaya, to leak, run out. 
tsiayi, tsiaye, to scatter, pour 

tsiayi, n. peelings of a fruit, 

tsibara*, to roll up ; see chi- 

tsibi, subi*, a large collection 

of anything, much. 
tslbiri, island, etc. ; see cht- 

tsidau (in Kano), tsaidau (in 

Sokoto), a thorny shrub eaten 

by camels. 
tsidifi, a small, hot, red pepper. 
tslfa, V. n. brushing, combing, 

treading water ; cf. tsefe. 
tslge, to pluck (a blade of 

grass), intens. form tsitsige. 

tsigi, a small crested bird. 

tsika, shrinking, shuddering. 

tsika, a form of chika to fill, ful- 
fil, e.g. C 22 en ta yi alkaueli 
da kai fa ba ta tsikashi ha 
if she make an agreement 
with thee, she will not fulfil 

tsikara, to tickle. 

tsikari, n. tickling. 

tsiko, siko, pi. tsikuna, a large 
needle, a boy's arrow, a spike 
for making holes in skin, etc. 

tsiko* (K.), chewing. 

tslla, white intestinal thread- 

tsima, to steep in water. 

tsime, tsinai, n. steeping in 

tsimi, n. 1. understanding, in- 
telligence, da tshni or mai- 
tsimi intelligent ; yin tsimi 
to understand; 2. stinginess. 

tsimi (da), to hoard, lay by. 

tsina, tsine, tsinche, tsun- 
che, tsinta, to pick up, to 
pick out pieces of dirt from 
cotton, etc. tsine albarka 
to take away good fortune ; 
allah ya tsine maka albarka 
a curse. tsintua, tsuntua^ 
suntua picking up, finding 
by accident ; yin tsintuan 
chiaiva to weed, tsintsinta 
or tsintsinche to pick up a 
little of a language, to speak 




a smattering of. tsintsiya 
brush; cf. (?) zimtsia. 

tsinche, see tslna. 

tsindum, noise of splashing 
water ; cf . inachitsuridiiin. 

tsingaro (S.), a sherd, frag- 

tsini, zini, point, e.g. of a 
needle; da tshii pointed, 

tsinkaki, hawk. 

tsinkaya, tsinkayi, tsinkaye, 
chinkaya, to see from afar, 
as in war ; cf. M. H. p. 225, 
ya chinkayeshi he saw him 
from a distance. 

tsinke, sinke, to break, e.g. 
a rope, to break loose ; see 

tsinki, zinke or zinka, a small 
piece of chaff, an iron nail 
or spike, a woman's hairpin ; 
tsinken nama a skewer ; soke 
atsinke to skewer, spit; a 
pin, see under abduga. 

tsinki, to break, pluck; see 

tsinta, to pick ; see tsina. 

tsintsiya, 1. a grass with 
spreading roots, from which 
brooms are made; 2. a broom; 
tsintsiyar hanu, wrist; see 

tsintua, picking up ; see tsu7i- 

tsira, tsiro, tsiri, chira, to 

spring up out of the ground, 
used of seeds, etc. ; A 77 ya 
ke tsira it grows up. tunda 
akatsiri dunia H, Gram, 
p. 156, since the world began. 

tsira, n. deliverance, salvation ; 
istraro deliverance. 

tsiraichi, nakedness; da tsi- 
raichi or maitsiraichi naked, 

tsirara, naked ; A 81 kowa 
tsirara zayi tashi everyone 
shall rise naked; cf. chirara^ 

tsiraria, adulteration : also ap- 
plied to the counterfeiting 
of coins. 

tsiraro, deliverance. 

tsirasda, tsirada, to deliver, 
save; cf. tsarda. 

tsire, to out-run; B 25 shi 
do guda guda ta tsire mai 
let him try to take one, the 
other flees away from him ; 
pass, atsira, B 143 kai dai 
atsira tun ba akoma ba llee 
thou then until there be no 
return ; see tsere. 

tsire*, to transfix (e.g. to 
skewer meat in front of \- 

tsire, tsiri, pi. tsirare, a small 
piece of meat such as is soldi 
in the market impaled on a 

tsirga, tsirgo, to jump down. 




tsirgagia, guinea-corn pod. 
tsiriri, tine, slender, thin ; cf. 

(1) Uarari. 
tsiriya, a parakeet, the West 

African love-bird (agapornis 

tsirka or dirka, q.v. (cf. Ar. 

^ji), n. beating; F 187 
suna tsirkar jama^a alkafira- 
wa they beat all the heathen. 

tsirkia, sirkia, a bow-string; 
see tsarkia. 

t^O, to sprout ; see tsira. 

tsitaka, an axe with a broad 
blade ; see sitaka. 

tsitsigge, a small stump. 

tsiwa, tsewa, insolence, im- 
pertinence ; maitsiwa, matsi- 
wachi insolent, kwanantsiwa 
is used to denote the night 
preceding the consummation 
of a marriage, during which 
the bride and her friends are 
allowed special licence. 

tsiya, poverty ; see tsia. 

tsiyache, to be poor. 

tsiyaya, to leak ; see tsiaya. 

tsofa, tsufa, tsofe (cf. (?) Ar. 

\jJo IV, to be exhausted, to 
become effete), to grow old ; 
tsofe is more commonly used 
in a transitive sense, i.e. 
to make old, to wear out 
(clothes) ; and tsufa in an 
intrans. sense, to be or be- 

come old ; C 7 dada mun 
tsufa wait till we grow old. 
tsufa, n. old age, yin tsufa to 
grow old. tsofo, fern, tsofua, 
pi. tsoffi, tsofaji, tsofofi, old; 
A 14 dunia nan tsofua che 
this world is old. tsofo and 
tsofua are frequently used 
for father and mother. 

tsoka, pi. tsokoki (S.), masc. a 
small piece of meat ; cf . ad- 
dress to an old woman, mai- 
kashe pal kwando tsoka denki 
you have bones enough to 
till a basket but only a 
handful of flesh. 

tsokachi, sight, attentive gaze ; 
A 77 ya yi tsokachi da achi 
akass da ya ke tsira let him 
consider how the grain that 
is in the ground grows up. 
matsokachi or masokachi look- 

tsokali, wooden spoon ; see 

tsokana, tsokane, to prick 
(e.g. the eyes); cf. prov. 
chiawa da ka rena ita ta 
kan tsokane tnaka idanu, i.e. 
despise not little things ; cf. 

tsokua, gravel used to make 
concrete floors of houses, 
small stones. 

tsolmi, dispute, quarrel. 

tsololo, tsororo, pi. tsololuwa. 




summit, top, applied to men, 
trees, etc.; cf. tuluwa. 

tsoma, zoma*, to dip, im- 

tsomi, V. n. dipping, e.g. of 
meat in a dish of vegetable 

tsorata, to be afraid ; cf . tsoro. 

tsorchi*, to fear ; see seq. 

tsoro (Ar. j^3), fear, terror; 
jin tsoro to fear ; bada tsoro 
to cause fear, to frighten ; 
other less correct forms are 
choro*, D 8 kit ji choro ; 
zoro*, D 43 ; also the second- 
ary forms : tsorchi*, C 24 ; 
tsorshi*, F 6. tsorata da to 
frighten, or, to be afraid of ; 
tsorata to be afraid. 

tsoro, pi. tsoraye, the comb of 
a cock. 

tsoro, to spring up ; ya soma 
tsorowa it l)egan to grow up ; 
cf. tsiro. 

tsoro, n. a storey of a house; 
see soro. 

tsororo, pi. tsororuwa^ top, 
point; see tsololo. 

tsorshi*, to fear ; see tsoro. 

tsotsa, tsotse, tsosa, tsosi, 
to suck, to absorb as cloth 
does water, to kiss, to suck 
out, hence to destroy ; C 5 
ya tsotsi kai nasa he destroys 
himself ; tsotsatse, tsotsatsel 
lemu a sucked lime. 

tsotso, tsotse, sucking, kissing, 
esp. the sucking or licking of 
the fingers after eating. 

tsubu, dabu (Ar. ^), medi- 
cine, magic, incantation, to 
write charms ; maitsuhu a 
writer of charms. 

tsufa, to grow old ; see tsofa. 

tsufa, masc. old age; cf. tsufa 
haban chiwo ; see tsofa. 

tsugau or tsugwaigwai, tes- 

tsuguna, tsugana, to stoop, 
to incline the head, to squat 
down on the ground ; cf. M. 
H. p. 207 ya tsugana garin 
wonka he stooped down in 
order to wash. 

tsTigunu, tsuguna, n. squat- 
ting ; cf . zugum. 

tsuhu, a plant with white 
flower and grey leaves which 
mixed with those of the go- 
shin hauna make a medicine 
for scorpion bites. 

tsuke, to bind fast. 

tsuke, draw together, to chew, 
masticate ; cf . tuka. 

tsuku, n. gnashing; tsukun 
hakora gnashing of teeth. 

tsula, a small monkey with 
reddish skin ; probably de- 
rived from tsuli to jump ; cf. 
similar derivation of hiri. 

tsulama*, B 109 ^a dan tsulama 




it is the child of wrong ; see 

tsuli, to jump, dance ; see tsali. 

tsulia, anus. 

tsulumi, deceit ; see tsalimi. 

tsiiina, tsununa, suma, pi. 
tsummoka, tstimmokarai, rags, 
M. H. p. 203 : another form 
is chuna, M. H. p. 206 ; tsuin- 
man zane a ragged cover ; cf . 
prov. f until ya yi darial mait- 
suma the naked man laughs 
at the man in rags, i.e. he 
fails to see that even a ragged 
man is better off than him- 

tsumanjia, tsumajia, a thin 
bending branch of a tree, a 
twig, a whip ; see sumanjia. 

tsumaya* (K.), to wait for. 

tsumi, the name of a medi- 

tsumulmula (K.), covetous- 

tsunche, to pick up ; see tsina. 

tsungule, to pinch. 

tsunjia, a large hole or pit for 
storing corn. 

tsunke, tsunka, tsinke, tsum- 
ke (S.), tr. and intr. to break 
(a rope), to break loose (of a 
horse), to be broken ; igia ta 
tsunke the rope is broken, 
metaph. zuchia ta tsunke ; 
tsinke da gudu to run very 
hard ; kunu ya tsinke the 

broth is too liquid; tsun- 
tsunke to keep breaking. 

tsunkuna (K.), to pinch. 

tsuntsu, zunzu, fem. tsuntsua, 
zunzua*^ pi. tsuntsaye, a bird. 

tsuntua, tsintua, finding, a 
tind ; na yi tsuntua I found 
something ; tsintua ha sata 
ha finding is not stealing ; cf . 

tsura, tsula (S.), dung. 

tsurara, to pour water in a jet. 

tsuraria ( K. ), a kind of red bean. 

tsurfa*, work, profession ; cf. 
(?) tsarafi. 

tsururi, diligent search for, 
toil for; B 157 tsururin da 
ya fi ga mailura the search 
for that which excels in the 
eyes of the diligent man. 

tsurutu (S.), evil talk, non- 

tsut, tsulut, a descriptive ex- 
clamation, splash ! 

tsutsa, susa, a general name 
for caterpillar or maggot, not 
correctly used of a winged 
insect ; cf. tsatso. 

tsuwa, scream, hiss, grunt ; cf . 
(?) sowa ; yin tsuwa to cry 

tswa, a shrub ; see tsa. 

tswala, a cake ; see tsala. 

tuba, n. repentance; yin tuha 
to repent, maituba one who 




tuba (Ar. w^U), to repent, pass. 
atuha repent! e.g. D 10 atuha 
hakika ahoki my friend, re- 
pent truly. 
tub all, a ball or brick made of 
mud yimbu; yin tuhali to 
make bricks. 
tubani, tabani, tubuni, beans 
ground up and cooked in 
tubas (of. (?) Ar. rt OsJ), surely, 

tube, to take oif, garments, to 
depose a king; tiihahe deposed, 
to strip; suka tuheshi they 
stripped him ; tuho to take 
off and give to. 
tubka, to plait ; see tufka. 
tubo, a healed up scar on the 

skin ; see taho. 
tuburkuma, tumburkuma, 1. 
the part of the stomach con- 
taining the cud ; 2. the large 
tuda, n. tribute, e.g. that form- 
erly paid to Sultan of Sokoto. 
tuda, tude, to run over, to 
pour away; tudas, tuddas, 
tudda^ tr. to pour over, to 
spill; cf. teddas. 

tudu, pi. tudodi (Ar. V^\ 
mountain, mound, hill, any 
low elevation or rising ground. 
tudu is often used to denote 
Africa as opposed to the white 

man's country which is sup- 
posed to be a fertile place, or 
it may refer to the lower level 
of the sea whence he disem- 
tufa, tufua, pi. tufafi, tufoji, 
tufawa (cf. Ar. J>^), a shirt, 
worn under or instead of the 
large flowing gown {riga) ; the 
plural and sometimes the 
singular is used for clothes 
generally ; C 35 saiko tufa 
ka bida ga dakin dunia thou 
must seek for nothing in this 
world but clothing 
tufania, tufanya, a mat made 
of woven grass, e.g. one let 
down in front of a doorway ; 
cf. Mauri. 
tufata, to clothe 
tufka, tubka, tupka, tumka. 
to plait, twist, braid, 
muna tubka igia we are 
making rope, 
tufua, clothing ; see tufa. 
tuge, to pluck, pull out (e.g. a 
plant from the soil), intens. 
form tuttige ; cf. tumbuke. 
tugu, dan tugu a professional 
receiver of stolen property, a 
sharp dealer, 
tugua, pi. tuguna, a shirt like 

a tobe ; see tagua. 
tugua, the shaking of milk in 
a calabash in order to make 
butter; cf. seq. 



tugua, tagua, heavy rain ; ya 
i/l tugua it is tempestuous. 

tugufa, a raised mud bed, dais. 

tugili.tagiii, pi. tnguaye, twins. 

tugula*, a l)racelet ; see tagula. 

tuhuma, to suspect (Ar.^^). 

tiija, a disease of horses ; cf. tijo. 

tuje, to tan, to scrape hair from 
a skin, intens. form tutuje ; 
cf. tuge. 

tuj i, 1 . Paaw or greater Bustard ; 
2. a tough grass. 

tiika, to push, to stir in cooking ; 
cf. M. H. p. 207 matansa na 
tnka tuo his wife prepared 
food ; tiika jirigi to paddle a 
canoe, jnatuki a paddle used 
as a rudder ; cf . tunhuda ; 
tukawa pushing, paddling. 

tuka, tuke, to finish ; matuka 
boundary ; tukewa ending. 

tiika, tukka, n. chewing the 
cud : cf. tsuke. 

tiika, tiikka, the twisting of 
strands into thread ; tukke 
a rope made of grass, used in 
Zaria for binding on the roof 
of a house. 

tukane, pots ; see tukunia. 

tukatukai (K.), calf of leg. 

tuke, to end ; see tuka. 

tuke, goat-pen, a shortened 
form of turike, q.v, 

tiike, tukke, to mash, chew, 
sania tana tukke the cow is 
chewing the cud : cf. tsuke. 

tuku, tukuwa, pi. tuk<mi, a 
tuft of hair on tlie head, the 
crest of a bird, the top to a 
dish-cover made of plaited 

tukuichi, takichi, tokochi, 
tukwichi, the fee paid to the 
bearer of a present from a 
king, etc. It varies from 
about 5 to 10 p.c. of the value 
of the present : a tip or 'dash.' 

tukumya, see tukunia. 

tukuna, tukun, first, at first, 
before, since ; ba tukuna not 
as yet ; tukunanshi presently 
(used in answer to question, 
When will it take place ?). 

tukunia, pi. tukwane, tukane, 
an earthen or iron pot, pitcher, 
vessel ; tukunyar hdha a dye 
pit ; tukuniar taha tobacco 
pipe ; maitukunia or maitu- 
kane a potter. 

tiikuri*, the all night reading 
(by mallam after mallam) 
which celebrates the first 
completion of the reading of 
the Koran by a youth. 

tukurua, a palm; the intoxi- 
cating drink ham is obtained 
from incisions in its bark, its 
stalks are esp. used as poles 
for supporting the thatch of 
a roof, also as canoe poles. 

tukuwa, a tuft of hair; see 




tula, to pile up ; cf . tilli. 

tula-tuki, a children's game in 
which a stone is wrapped in 
cloth, thrown in the air and 
scrambled for, whoever seizes 
the stone is entitled to push or 
strike the thrower ; cf. tuka. 

tulawa* (cf. Ar. ^, to read 
the Koran), saying by rote; 
yin tulawa to say off by heart, 
e.s. the Koran. 

O 5 

tulli, tilli, pi. tuloli (Ar. JJ), 
a heap or large store of any- 
thing ; tullin duatsu a heap 
of stones ; tululu abundance. 

tulu, pi. tuluna, 1. water-pot, 
bottle, pitcher, esp. one used 
by a woman, e.g. A 26 kan ha 
ha yaro zaya dau tulu nata if 
thou hast not a boy to take 
her pitcher ; 2. a small cowry 
shell with a hole in the back 
used in gambling, so called 
from its resemblance to a 
miniature pot. 

tululu, abundance ; see tulli. 

tuluwa (K.), the top of a hill ; 
cf. tsololo. 

tuma, tumi, n. jumping, hop- 
ping; tuma da murna to 
jump with joy, to start, of 
horses to be restive ; tuma da 
gaya a name given to the 
chinaka ant. 

tumaki, sheep ; see tumkia. 

tumaye, to spring up, spring 

tumbar*, a naked person. 

tumbe, to bring back, take back. 

tumbi, pi. tumbuna, stomach, 
pouch ; maitumbi a fat man. 

tumbin-jaki (donkey's sto- 
mach), a grass eaten by 
horses (Paspalum scrobicu- 
latum, Gramineae). 

tumbudi, to vomit; tumhudu 
to flow quickly; rua ya tum- 
hudu the river flows fast. 

tumbudi, the 'puking' of a i 
baby. I 

tumbuke, to pluck, pull out by 
the roots ; atumhuke chiawa 
pull out the grass. 

tumburkuma, the large in- 
testine ; see tuburkuma. 

tumfafia, tunfafia, pi. tumfafi 
(Calotropsis procera, Asilepi- 
adeae). A hoary-leaved shrub 
with milky juice and bladder- 
like capsules. It has medi- 
cinal uses. 

tumi, n. jump ; see tuma. 

tumia, tinia, 1. a cactus with 
a milky juice, from which i- 
made a poison for arrows 
2. an ingredient in making 
snuff (Euphorbiaceae). 

tumka, tumpka, to plait ; see 

tumkia,*, pi. tumdki, 




tumnia, a deep well. 

tumpake, to pluck, pull out; 
cf. tuge. 

tumseri, syphilis ; see tirijere. 

tumu, the first ripe heads of 
(/ero and maiwa before the 
general crop is ripe ; they are 
roasted for eating. 

tumukUj a small edible root 
somewhat resembling a yam. 

tumukun-suri, an erect club- 
shaped fungus which grows 
on ant heaps. 

tun, also with da^ tunda as far 
as, till, e.g. tunda safe since 
the morning; while, e.g. tunda 
suna yin magana while they 
were speaking; from, since, 
e.g. tun haifuanka since your 
birth, tunda da dere since 
last night, tu7iyaushe since 
when % tunda or tun followed 
by a negative means 'before' ; 
tuni or tuntuni long ago, for 
a long time past, tundade, 
tundadeiva long since, tun- 
yaushe how long? how long 
since? tunda with negatives 
-before, e.g. tunda ha shi 
tsira ha before it springs up, 
C 6 tun bai mutu even before 
he is dead. 

tuna, frequently constr. with 

da, to think of, pay attention 

to, to remember, to come to 

remember; tuna ma to re- 

R. a. D. 

mind ; tunane, fem. tunana^ 
pi. tuna7iu, what is contrived 
or thought of, then as n, 
thought, reflection, medita- 
tion, consciousness, remem- 
brance ; cf. habu laifi hahu 
tunane where there is no 
wrong, there is no remorse. 
tu7iawa remembrance, recol- 
lection; intens.form tuntuna. 

tunane, see tuna. 

tunari*, a leader, chief. 

tunawa, remembrance ; see 

tunda, as far as ; see tun. 

tundade, tundadewa, long 
since ; see tu7i. 

tundewa, licking ; see tandewa. 

ttlne, to pierce, to gore. 

tunfafia, a bush ; see tumfafia. 

tunga, pi. tungaigai, a small 

tunguma, tungume, to lift a 
heavy load, to add to a load. 

tuni, n. butting of an animal. 

tuni, long since ; see tun. 

tunka, jan tunka a red pug- 

tunku, 1. a covering of skins; 
2. a species of wild cat which 
lives in holes (in Sokoto iva- 

tunkuda, to push aside, to 
butt, toss, gore; used with 
jirigi to paddle ; cf. tuka, 





tunkui, tunkuwi, butting like 

a goat, 
tunkushe, 1. to close the fist; 

2. to be worthless or unsale- 
tunkuya, to butt, to toss. 
tunkwiyo, flea, 
tuntsure, 1. to be upset, trip, 

stumble ; 2. tr. to upset, 
tuntu, tassel on edge of mat, 

tuft on top of maize cob. 
tuntube, n., 1. stumbling, yin 

Imituhe to stumble ; 2. the 

ground just below the brow 

of a hill. 
tuntumi, a black and white 

tuntuni, tunituni or tuni, for 

a long time past ; see tuna. 
tunturum, corpulent, 
tuny a*, a cactus ; see tumia. 
tunyaushe, how long? see 


tunzura, to flee. 

tunzurua, tinzera, panic, 

tuo, food, victuals, esp. applied 
to a mixture made with 
guinea-corn, oil, etc. ; cf. don 
titon gobe akewanke tukunia 
the pot must be washed for 
to-morrow's meal; tuon suna 
a meal in connection with 
the naming of a child, which 
usually takes place seven 
days after its birth, also used 

as a V. n., tana tuo = tana yin 

tuon-biri, a shrub; see tafd 

tupka, to plait ; see tufka. 

tura, a swelling on the body. 

tiira, to dye ; turare, fern. 
turara, pi. turaru, dyed, 
coloured; cf. turi. 

tura, to mend (?) ; cf. M. H. 
p. 211. 

tura, the rebound of an arrow, 
ya yi halbi ya chi tura he hit 
but the arrow bounced off. 

tura, turi, ture, to push, push 
forwards, tura inagana to in- 
terrupt in conversation, to 
push up, used of the steam 
which pushes up the lid of 
a pot : also to throw (earth), 
7ia tura musu kasa ; the form 
tura appears to be used when 
the direct object is qualified 
by some subsidiary clause, 
e.g. 7ia ture mutum I pushed 
the man out, but na tura 
mutum a rua I pushed the 
man into the water ; cf . Gr. 
p. 45, turo to push towards 

turaka (K.), a seat of a king 
or of the master of a house, 
also the private room of the 
head of a household ; cf. 
haraya a royal reception; 
yan turaka female slave ; 




tnraki an otficer at court, 
usually a son of the king; 
for order of precedence cf. 

turanchi, what belongs or ap- 
pertains to Arabs or whites 
in general, the Arabic lan- 
guage; cf. ture. 

turanta, the act of dyeing. 

turare, tirare, scent, frankin- 

tiirare, dyed ; cf. tura. 

turba, path ; see turuha. 

» ^ 

turbaia* (cf. Ar. w>p)> ^^^ 
sand, earth. 

turbe (in Sokoto furi\ the 
first hoeing of the crops. 

turbude, turumbude*, to 
cover, bury, dig. 

turda (S.), fine sand. 

turde, butter = main shanu. 

turdi, pi. turdawa, a man who 
charms snakes by singing. 

ture, to push down ; see tura. 

ture, cf. ha-ture Arab, Euro- 
pean, stranger ; pi. turawa 

[(?) fr. Ar. Jj^, wild, a 

stranger] . 

turgude*, to be lame, to suffer 
from a disease of any of the 
joints, e.g. of the fingers. 

turguni (S.), leech. 

turgunwa, turgunuwa, an 
edible herb; its leaves are 
used in making soup. 

turi*, used by Arabs as name 
of Mt Sinai. 

tiiri, dyeing ; yin turi to dye ; 
see tura. 

turike, tuke, pi. turdku (K.), 
turuka (S.), a place where 
sheep or goats are closed in 
for the night, also a post for 
tying up horses, a tethering 
peg. dan turike a groom. 

tuije, tr. and intr. to withdraw. 

turjo, to draw back hither. 

turke, to hold back. 

turko, terko, a trap for catch- 
ing wild animals made by 
covering up a hole and plac- 
ing ropes inside, a snare. 

turkudi, a blue shiny cloth of 
native manufacture and dyed 
with indigo. 

tumuka, a conflagration, the 
smoke which accompanies 

tumuke, to rise in clouds, like 
smoke, kura. ta turriuke the 
dust rose in dense clouds. 

turo, n. pushing; turo ni akayi 
I was pushed ; see tura^ 

turoso, dung. 

turu, the log to which a re- 
captured slave is fastened, 
stocks ; kurdin turu money 
paid to a king for restoration 
of a fugitive, kurdin karia 
turu money paid to set a 
slave free. 





turuba, turba, pi. turubobi 
(cf. Ar. w'ji^Lc, narrow or 
divided path), path, way; it is 
used of a definite path, while 
hainya may be only a track. 

turumbude, to bury, M. H. 
p. 152 ; see turbude. 

turumi, pi. turame, 1. a mortar 
made by scooping out a log, 
used for pounding rice or 
wheat ; 2. a roll of cloth of 
any length. 

tururi, steam ; cf . tu7'a. 

tururua, both sing, and coll., 
a black ant. They collect 
grain which people dig out 
during famines. 

tururubi, tururibi (Lasio- 
syphon spinosus, Thymeleae), 
a yellow-flowered plant from 
the root of which is obtained 
a poison used for smearing 

tururushi, the period of four 
days between the beginning 
of the marriage cereniony 
and its consummation, during 
which bride and bridegroom 
live apart with friends of 
their own sex. 

tusa, n. breaking wind. 

tusa, tussa, to grind corn over 
again, to repeat; tusakaranta 
to read over a second time. 

tusan jaki (donkey's wind), a 
plant with yellow flower and 

a yellow seed pod enclosed 
in a sheath, the inner side of 
which is sticky. 

tusga, tuzga, tusge, to slip 
into, to slip over an edge, 
F 156. 

t&she, to pour out, shed, re 
duce price of ; gashi ya tush' 
the hair comes off, M. H. 
p. 57 ; titshe magana to dis- 
cuss a subject fully. 

tushi, tushia, n. a root of 
grass or tree, the foundation 
of a wall, then fig. — meaning, 
origin ; tushiansa daia their 
origin is the same. 

tttshi, n. grinding over again. 

tushia, the stubble of guinea- 
corn, wheat, etc. 

tuski, tuske, to seek for, try 
to find, long for, the pass. 
atuski is used as a common 
form of salutation = much 
sought after. 

tussa, to grind ; see tusa. 


tusu'i* (Ar. 9UmJj), fract. nume- 
ral, one-ninth. 

tuta, tuti, pi. tutoshi, flag, 
standard of a king, umbrella ; 
E 13 idan anjida tutoshi ii 
jahadi if the standards of 
war be unfurled. 

tutsu, bucking of a horse or 

tutu, dung. 




tutu, always ; see tutul. 
tutuje, to scrape hair from a 

skin, an intensive form of 

tutul, tutur, tutu*, tutuk*, 

tutut* continually, for ever, 

firm, secure, 
tuture (Z.), stump of a tree; 

cf. kututura (K.). 
tuturta, to remain always, to 

make permanent ; see tutul. 
tutushi, sweet, good to eat. 
tutut, always ; see tutul. 
tuya, to bake ; see toya. 
tuya, pi. toye-toye, n. bake- 

meat, e.g. one made of butter 

and onions ; niadtuya a baker, 
tuzga, to slip into ; see tusga. 
tuzuru, fem. tuzurua, an old 

bachelor or maid, 
twankua, pepper ; see tankwa. 
twari, cough ; see toari. 
twashi, a large green pepper, 

used in Sokoto for herkono; 

cf. tatasai. 
twatsa, twache, to milk ; see 


uba, oba, pi. ubane, uhanai 
(cf. (?) Ar. Ia), 1. father; 
yan uba sons of one father by 
different wives ; yarn ubanchi 
used of rivalry caused by 
polygamy ; uhan ubaka B 75 
thy grandfather; 2. a leader 

or master, e.g. uban yaki the 
leader of a fight ; uban tafia 
leader of an expedition; cf. 

ubangiji, lit. father of the 
household, master, proprie- 
tor, lord ; a title frequently 
applied to God ^ the Lord ; 
cf. uworigijia mistress. 

ubanji, a shrub with purple 
flowers ; see risgar kurege. 

ubulungui, a children's game. 

uda, oda, a long-eared ram. 

ufu, uhu, ihu, scream, a loud 
or sharp cry ; yin ufu to 

uhda (Ar.), a sale under a 

ujala* (cf. Ar. iJU^, a water- 
wheel), a wheel. 

X I 

ujera, ijara (Ar. Sj^*.!), a court 

iiku, card. num. three ; A 58 
achikin gidan aljena babu 
7nutun uku in heaven three 
men will be wanting; cf. 
idiom sa kai aiiku to bring 
trouble on oneself. The cor- 
resp, ordinal is m. naiiku, f . 
taiiku, third ; nailkunsu the 
third one of them ; adv. sau 
uku three times, thrice. 

ukuba (S.), a legal punish- 

ulu, 1. wool ; 2. a red thread. 




um*, yes. 

unibu, a cry made by oxen; 
cf. M. H. p. 183. 

Timorche, to command, rule ; 
see umorni. 

umorni* (Ar. j^l), law, com- 
mand ; yin umorni to order, 

ungo or ungwo, take ! (a Bor- 
nuese word) ; cf. prov. hmi- 
kar bani maganinta ungo the 
madness of begging (lit. give 
me) its medicine is, 'take it.' 

ungozuma, midwife. 

ungua, angua, pi. ungual, un- 
gwcmai, a suburb or division 
outside the walls of a town, 
an unwalled village. 

ungulu, vulture ; see cmgulu. 

ungurnu, armlets. 

ungwaiya, ingweya, a Fulani 
word used in answering a 
salutation, almost equivalent 
to 'thank you,' often used 
by Hausas in the North as a 
salutation in itself. 

uri*, place ; see wuri. 


urula (Ar. u^^j^), chattels, 


usali, usuli, S.sali (Ar. J-^t), 
origin, race, ancestors. fla7i 
usuli a son of the house. 

iishuri (Ar. j-^), 1. fractional 
numeral, one-tenth ; 2. death 

USS, the usual exclamation in 
driving sheep or goats. 

usuwasi (Ar. ^^^^), fancy, 
supposition ; ta yi usuwasi 
azuchia lata she imagined 
within herself. 

uwa, pi. uwaye, mother ; the 
plural is used in the sense of 
parents; dan uwa, pi. yan 
uwa, lit. mother's son = friend, 
dan uwata or dan uwana my 
friend ; tiwal rana a foster 
mother who finds a child de- 
serted and adopts it; uwar 
riga the body of a gown as 
opposed to the sleeves (A(X?i'?/.«) ; 
uwa is also used of an ori- 
ginal MS. from which a copy 
has been made; uwar yaki 
the centre of the army, the 
place where the sarki and 
body-guard (giwa) are. 

uwalgida, mistress ; see iiivori- 

uwar-magunguna or woma- 
gunguna, a shrub with purple 
flowers, it provides an in- 
gredient of arrow poison, 
= sainya,i.e. Securidata longi- 
pedunculata : Polygalaceae. 

uwayara, lit. mother of chil- 
dren, the name given to an 
evil spirit who kills the mother 
and the new-born child at the 
time of child-birth, it is also 
used as the name of a large 
snake, M. H. p. 78. 




uworigida, uwalgida, cliief 
wife or mistress of the house; 
cf. seq. 

uworigijia, mistress or owner 
of slaves. This and the pre- 
ceding are also used as femi- 
nine forms of ubangiji. 


a, wane, wanene, iem.wache, 
fvacheche, pi. suwa, suanene, . 
stvtvanene^ interrog. pron.who, 
which, what 1 [The word tvane 
was formed by adding the 
substantive verb to the ori- 
ginal tva ', the foi'm wane 
having become fully estab- 
lished, a strengthened form 
wanene was made by affixing 
the substantive verb again; 
cf . use of kotva, kowane, kowa- 
nene.] The expression, what 
is his name? is often rendered 
tva sunansa, lit. who? his 
name ? wanene wanan who is 
this? suwane ne which are 
they? diyar wacheche ki ke 
whose daughter art thou? 
The adjectival interrogative 
forms are wane often pro- 
nounced ivone^ f. wache, pi. 
imdane ; wane ski who is he? 
wa^he macJte che wanan wada 
ta zo what woman is it that 
has come? wadane mutane 
ke nan what men are these ? 

-nwa at the end of a word = 
whose? danwa shi ke whose 
son is he ? 

wa*, Ar. and. 

wa*, like, like as; F 144 ka- 
ramta tas wa gashi its fine- 
ness is like a hair, F 154 
wonsu kan shude wa iska 
some would pass like wind ; 
cf. ivani. 

wa*, pi. yeyu*, elder brother; 
tvan daiva elder brother of 
the forest, a nickname of the 
lion ; cf . ya elder sister. 

wa, to do, make, ya wa kanaa 
karifi he strengthened him- 
self, ya wa alherka he blessed, 
7va, muyunta to curse ; cf . ivo. 

wa, a species of ficus, which 
yields a milky juice like 
rubber; see yaraji. 

wa, to (not before personal pro- 
nouns), especially used after 
verbs to tell ; kada ka gaya 
wa kowa, but cf. ya yenke ma 
sariki kune he cut off the 
king's ear. 

wa'adi (Ar. j>^^), promise. 

wa'atsi*, wa'atsu, wa'azu, 
often contracted colloquially 

to wazi, wazu (Ar. Jift^), in- 
struction, proclamation; mrt- 
na waatsi muna galkadi gare- 
ku we tell you openly and 
warn you. 




wabi, dying, esp. used of chil- 
dren ; yayan wabi children 
who are born after the death 
in infancy of two or more 
brothers or sisters; itachen 
wabi a tree the fruit of which 
falls off without ripening. 

wachan, fem., pi. wddanchan, 
that ; see tvanchan. 

wachanan, a lengthened form 
of wachan ; see wochan. 

wache,wacheche, who? which? 
fem. of ^va, q.v. 

wache, washe, to spread, to 
scatter ; F 98 su washe shiu 
they scatter in silence ; wal- 
tvache to scatter far and wide; 
see watsa. 

wS,da, a tree with spatulate 
leaves dark green above and 
light green below. 

wada, a curse ; see wade. 

wada, to make haste, to be 
first to ; na wada zua I am 
the first to come ; ban wada 
tafia I have not been able to 
go as yet ; ta yi wadan fada 
she composed the quarrel. 

wada, fem. wadania, pi. wadani 
(cf. Ar. rt \^>^), dwarf. 

wada, wada'a (cf. (?) Ar. c>J, 

to deposit), treasure, riches ; 
tvadaxihi riches ; maiwadachi 
or maiwadata a rich man; 
cf. prov. mahakurchi mawa- 

dachi the patient man is the 
rich man. 

wada, wadda, who, which, 
fem. of. wanda, q.v. 

wS,da, woda, how, the manner 
in which ; gay a mani wada 
akayi ; cf . yeda. 

wadansu, some, pi. of wani, q.v. 

wadari, wodari, pi. wadurra. 
n., 1. walking up and down 
as women do with thread 
when making string; 2. 
string ; cf. prov. laifi duk no 
kura ne amrna bamda satar 
wadari a hyena has many 
faults but it does not steal 
string ; i.e. no one is altogether 
bad ; cf . wadarta, wadira. 

wadarta, to wind thread; cf. 

wadata, walata, to be rich; 
see wada. 

wade, to curse; see under allah. 

wadira or wodira, spinning : 
see under abdxiga. 

wSiga, this, fem. of wanya. 

waga (cf. (?) Ar. ^lij, reposi- 
tory, case, etc.), sack or case 
made of skin, used for load- 
ing donkeys, camels, etc. 

wagi, wogi, cattle-stealing. 

wS,ha, a children's game. 

wahabi, an arrangement, or 

wahaia, concubine ; C 45. 

wahala, trouble ; see wohala. 




wahalda, to cause trouble; 
see wohalda. 

wahami (cf. Ar. ^o^^), mad- 
ness, frenzy. 

wai, Ar. id., 1. alas ! woe ! cf. 
wainia ; 2. as an expression of 
doubt or uncertainty ; wai ya 
che I do not understand what 
he says ; 3. it is said that, on 
the assumption that; F 30 
kana kumburawa wai ka fi 
kowa thou art proud because 
it is said Thou excellest all ; 
4. frequently used to intro- 
duce a quotation = ' he said 
that'; 5. equivalent to 'whose 
name is'; wani zarumi wai- 
shi umaru a warrior by name 
Umaru ; cf . wai ita, waisu ; 
6. used in mockery, oho ! aha ! 
ivai is often used by an in- 
terpreter, e.g. wai ka zo he 
says you are to come. Ans. 
enji wa who says so"? cf. kare 
hakinsa na zaki na wai abashi 
the dog looks as if it wanted 
something to eat (lit. the dog, 
its mouth of sweetness, it is 
said let something be given) ; 
wai wai rumour ; fvai tvai ne 
it is only gossip. 

waiga(K.), to turn round, etc.; 
see woiya. 

waige (K.), pi. waiye-waige, n. 
turning round ; see woige. 

waina, wene, cakes (in Kano) 

made with rice or flour and 
boiled with main-geda — masa 
in Zaria, = tsdla, tswala in 

wainia, alas! = wai nia 
woe is me ! 

waiwai, gossip, rumour; gina 
ivaiwai to exaggerate. 

waiwai, weiwei, to be left 
alone ; kui'a ta waiwai the 
hyena was left by herself. 

waiwaya, to turn round ; see 

wajaba, wajiba, to be neces- 
sary, ought ; A 63 rana nan 
ka wajaba taimama achikin 
gari on that day thou must 
wash with sand in the city ; 
ya wajiba it is necessary. 

wajabta, to make certain, to 
ensure, to exhort. 

waje, side, etc. ; see woje. 

wajib, wajibi (Ar. w-^^), adv. 
of necessity, A 20 wajib mu 
dau haiasu we ought to take 
their road, A 68 tsarki ga 
maisalla ku san wajib ya ke 
purity is necessary, as thou 
knowest, for one who prays ; 
hence wajibine na taji I was 
forced to go. w. is also used as 
an adj. = necessary or desirable. 

waka, pi. icakoki^ ivake-wake, 
a song ; wake-^vaken banza 
foolish songs. 

waka, a promise to pay. 




w^kala, wokkala, to depute ; 
see wakili. 

wS-kati*, time ; see wakti. 

waka-wake, wake- wake, hav- 
ing spots or stripes, speckled 
black and white, used of 
fowls, etc. 

wake, pL wakoki, wakaika% 
bean; ta chi wake, i.e. she is 

waken-damfami or waken 
turawa (Cajanus Indica, Le- 
guminosae), pigeon pea, the 
Indian dhal. 

waken-rafi, paiya-paiya or 
alambo (Ormocarpum spino- 
sum, Leguminosae), a shrub 
with narrow-jointed pods, 
found on river banks. 

wakili (Ar. Js^j), steward, 

representative, a temporary 
governor; wakilchi* stewa.rd- 
ship, guidance ; cf. wdkala. 

wakilta, to oversee, direct; 
see wakili. 

wakiya, wukia (Ar. ^3), 1. 
an oz. weight ; 2. a small 
long-shaped vase for holding 

wakti, wakachi (Ar. c^^), 
time ; ivakti dtika always ; 
from this root is probably 
derived the Hausa word for 
time ; cf. lokachi. 

wala, pi. walu, dove, ring-dove. 

wala, to have plenty of room 

in which to sit down; wala- 

wa*, enjoyment of abundance, 

walakanta, to maltreat, to 

despise ; see ^vulakanta. 
walata, to be plentiful ; see 

walau* walo* (Ar.), either, 

walawa, abundance ; see wala. 
walga, warga (Zanf.), this, a 

fem. form of wanga, q.v. 
wall, pi. wale-wale, peace ; yin 

imli to be at peace, 
wall, woli, a child born after 

the mother's death, 
wall, woli, wuli, waliyi, pi. 

waliyai, a saint, a fakir. 
walianchi, prophecy. 

walima* (Ar. io-;)^), a feast. 

waliya, a small singing bird. 

waliye, a representative or 

walki (in Sokoto and Katsena), 
warki (in Kano), a skin wrap- 
per, etc. 

walkin (or warkin) tsofo, 
'old man's apron,' a rough, 
white flowered herb the leaves 
of which are used to make a 
hot fomentation (Trichodes- 
ma Africana, Solanaceae). 

walla, wallahi, wolla (Ar.), 
an exclamation, by Allah. 




wallafa, bef. pron. obj. toallafe 
(Ar.), to compose (a book). 

wallaha, about 10 a.m. ; cf. 

wallahi, of a truth ; see walla. 

walle, shameless exposure. 

walwada, warwada, a war 
axe or hatchet ; cf. masuivar- 
wada, Gr. p. 138, 1. 30. 

walwaji, warwaji, 1. white 
oryx, its skin is used for 
making white shields ; it is 
found in the northern part 
of Hausaland and in Asben ; 
2. the shield made from its 

walwale, to object to an agree- 
ment ; see warwari. 

walwanche, warwache, to 
shake out ; see ivatsa. 

wanan, wannan, wonan, pi. 
wadanan^ this near by. 

wanchan, f. wachan^ pi. wd- 
danchan, often pronounced 
tvonchan, wochan, wodanchan, 
demonst. pronoun, that, over 
there, the one yonder, the 
other; see Gr. p. 12. 

wanche*, some one, a fern, 
form of wani J q.v. 

wanchi, n. womanliness. 

wanda, wonda, fern, wada, 
lAXidda, pi. wadandu, rel. pron. 
who, which and obj. pron. 
whom, babu wanda no one; 
se6 Gr. p. 13. 

wan-dawa, a strong lion, lit. 
eldest brother of the forest. 

wando, wondo, pi. tvandunay 
?vo7idu7ta, loose baggy 'trou- 
sers which are drawn tight 
under the knee ; they are 
similar to those worn by 
Arabs ; dan wando knicker- 

wandu, a small monkey. 

wane, ' so and so,' enna wane 
where is so and so? (the 
name being known but not 
mentioned), kaza is used in 
a similar way when speaking 
of things. 

wane, fem. tvac/te, who"? see 

wanene, pi. suane^ie, who ? 
strengthened forms of wa, 

wanga, wonga, fem. w6ya^ 
wogga, ivalga*, pi. wadamja^ 
this near by. 

wani (often pronounced woni\ 
fem. ivata, wota, wanche* , pi. 
w6da7isily wdcla7isu,, 
tvosu, tvasu, some one, some- 
thing, a certain person or 
thing (used adjectivally and 
pronominally). woninmu, ba 
ya sani ba not one of us 
knows. beri ina da tvoni 
wait, I have something else 
to say. wani. . .wani or iva7i- 
che . . . wanche denotes one . . . 



ware j 

another, ha wosunsu there 
are no others. wani da 
wanche male and female ; cf . 
prov. kama da wani ha wane 
ha ne the likeness of anyone 
is not the person himself; i.e. 
all is not gold that glitters. 

wani da wanche, male and 
female ; cf. wani. 

wanji, superfluity, what re- 
mains over; cf. wamzu, 

wanka (usually intr.), wanke, 
tr. to wash, e.g. the face, 
clothes, etc. ; wanke dia to 
prepare a daughter for mar- 
riage, wankake, f. wankaka, 
pi. wankaku, washed, cleaned. 

wanka, wanki, wonka, q.v., 
n. washing, wankin gawa the 
laying-out of a corpse ; cf . yin 
wonka to bathe. 

wanko, to wash and bring 
back to the place where the 
speaker is ; see wanka. 

wanshekaranjia, three days 
ago, the day before shekaran- 
jia. [Possibly wan in this 
word is an abbreviation of 
^vanGhan^^ ; cf . seq. 

wanshekare (S.), to-morrow, 
next day ; cf . kashegari. 

wanya, wanye, wanyi, to 
finish doing anything, to 
end, used as tr. and intr. v.; 
D 13 timta da wuta ta ke 
wanyi duka, lit. fire ends 


cf. ! 

everything, D 73 hal allah 
shi wanya hukumchi ga hayi 
until God hath finished His 
judgment on His servants ; 
B 121 ranan ta dunia tasa 
ta wanyi his day of earthly 
life is ended. 

wanzami, pi. wanzamu, a bar- 

wanzu, wonzu*, to prolong, 
delay, stay, exist, remain 
over, be over and above 
maiwanzuwa remaining 

war-war-war, used of the 
sound made by running 
water, M. H. p. 121; cf. 

warabiika*, used in the pro- 
verb tsamanin warahuka 
malaon ya ki noma domin 
zakka ; tsamanin warahuka - 
unfulfilled expectations (be- 
cause the harvest may fail). 

waraka, about this time ; see 

waraka, warka (Ar. \Jj^), 
leaf of a tree, page of a book. 

war ami, pi. war amid, orna- 
ment of iron, ivory, etc. worn 
by the heathen on the wrist. 

^ ^ 

wardi, scent (Ar. S>;j, rose), 
specially used of a kind of 
attar of roses. 

ware, to separate, to disperse, 




ku warn disperse ! past part. 
warare \ ivarware^ intrans. to 
come unravelled (of thread). 
warwari, ivariwari, 1. to 
shake out, unfold, wind off; 
2. with alkaueli to break a 
promise, suji ivarivatsu they 
are dispersed. 

warga, worga, this, a fem. 
form of waiiga, q v. 

warh3.ka, often contracted col- 
loquially to luaraka, by this 
time, about this time, e.g. ka 
komo gobe tvarhaka return at 
this time to-morrow ; a con- 
traction of wakati hdka. 

wari (cf. (1) Ar. jjijj, corrupt 
matter), a bad smell ; zama 
tvari to become stinking. 

wari, to open, used e.g. of a 
book, etc. ; possibly a form 
of ware. 

wari* (cf. Ar. l\j^), outside, 
D 48 abinda akayi wari 
what is done outside. 

wari, 1. a part, one piece of; 
2. a pair. 

wari, V. to select, to choose 
out one or more pieces. 

warkSida, to cure ; see warke. 

warke, worke, worike, to be 
cured or healed, to get well ; 
less commonly to heal, war- 
keke, fem. warkekia, pi. war- 
keku, healed ; maihaukache 

ha ahi wariketva the fool is 
incurable ; see warkada. 

warki, loin-cloth ; see walki. 

wamu, a small dark-coloured 

wartsaka, to be convalescent, 
to get better. 

warwada, a hatchet ; see ival- 

warware, to come unravelled ; 
see ware. 

warwari, to shake out; see 

warwarji, warwaji, white 
oryx ; see ivalwaji. 

warwatsa, to scatter; see 

wasa, song or game, wasa-wasa 
tricks, sunan wasa a nick- 
name ; abokin wasa comrade, 
chum, wasa is also used to 
denote an alliance or ' entente 
cordiale ' between states : it 
is specially applied to the 
sound of a drum; yin wasa 
to play music, hence wasam- 
buki feasting at a marriage. 
wasanwuta fireworks. 

wasa, to scatter ; see wdtsa. 

wasa (cf. Ar. ,^3 iv, to cut), 
or yin tvashi to sharpen; 
awasa wuka let the knife be 
sharpened ; ya wasu it is 
sharpened ; cf . waslii ; cf. 
Gr. p. 1 39, 1. 46 kun yi washi 
ye have sharpened (your 




swords), inawashi a grind- 
wS,saki, a leathern bucket. 

6 0^ 

wS-sali (cf. Ar. J-o^, the sign 

'^ placed over I), the points, 

or vowels, placed above or 

below the letters. 
wasambuki, a marriage feast ; 

see wasa. 
wasashe, to scramble for. 
wasaso, n. snatching; see 

wasawasa, a sort of porridge 

made of beans or guinea-corn, 

or in N. Africa of macaroni ; 

cf . kuskus. 
wasekki, a leathern bucket; 

see wdsaki. 
washe, to distrain, ruin ; e.g. 

washefe, 1. hair on the cheeks 

and upper lip ; 2. a pit with 

sharp stakes in it. 
washi,n. sharpening; SQewdsa. 
washiriya, a wide space be- 
tween two front teeth; see 

wasiche (Ar.), to bequeath, 
wasichi (Ar.), will, testament, 
wasiya (Ar.), testator, 
wasiya* (Ar. ^^^), executor, 
waske, woske, to avoid (a 

waskiya, n. avoidance of a 

blow or danger. 

waso, to devastate. 

waso, distraining ; see wasoso. 

wasoso, n. snatching or steal- 
ing goods, scrambling for 
anything, loss, deprivation; 
ka yi wasosunshi scramble 
for it ; see wdsa, wdshe. 

wasu, pi. of wani, q.v. 

wata*, to arrive at, reach. 

wata, wota, pi. watani, and 
watashi, usually construed 
as masculine, 1. moon, e.g. 
wata shina hada haske the 
moon gives light, farin wata 
new moon, or moonlight; 2. 
month; z^atow yo this month, 
ivatan jibi the month after 
next, watan jia last month, 
wataii gohe next month; wa- 
tan bokoi the last month of 
the dry season, i.e. the seventh 
month after the end of thi 
rains, wata ya shiga dufn 
the moon does not rise till j 
after bedtime, wata ya niu- | 
tu the month (or moon) is 
ended, wata ya tsaya the 
moon is new. 

wata, wota, a certain one, 
fern, of wani, q.v. 

watakila, perhaps ; cf . wotakihi. 

watane* (cf. Ar. ^>5j in, to 
be assiduous), found in phr. 
ka watane prepare ! 

watareran, aimless or useless 
toil ; cf. reran. 




watia*, preparation. 

watika, a letter ; see wotika. 

wato, appearance, equivalent; 
waton .sariki in place of or 
in appearance like to a king ; 
tratmi ha ka so that means 
you don't want to. 

watsa, waza, wache, to scat- 
ter (seed), break up, rout. 
watsal watsal the jumping 
about, or flapping, of a fish 
on dry land, pass, watsu, in- 
tens. form warwache^ wal- 
tvache, wat^watsa to shake 
out, scatter abroad, awaze 

watsarda, to throw away, 

watsatsi, fem. tvcUsatsia, a 
name given to a vicious goat. 

watse, intr. to scatter; cf. wdtsa. 

watsu, scattered ; see wdtsa. 

waushi*, perhaps. 

wauta, abstr. of wawa, foolish- 
ness, vanity ; maiwauta fool- 
ish, a deranged person. 

wawa, a fool, one who is vain, 
a jester ; bada wawa to de- 
ceive ; cf . prov. dct hahu wawa 
yara da wawa, i.e. half a loaf 
is better than no bread, wa- 
wanchi folly, foolishness. 

wawa, found in the phr. bahu 
wawa without doubt, doubt- 

wawa, a piece of cloth made 

of about twenty strips, 4^ 
cubits in length. 

wawa, wawashe, to scramble 

wawari, to come unravelled ; 
see ivdre. 

wawoinya*, returning ; see 

waye (S.), to surpass. 

waye, to become clear, to dawn, 
e.g. gari ya waye the day 
dawns ; waye, waya, wayau, 
wayenchi to explain, make 
clear; ka waye mamu abin 
nan explain this thing to us; 
pass, akanwaita it is ex- 
plained, wayewa, 1. dawn- 
ing, dawn ; 2. explanation, 

wayo, wayau, plan, scheme, 
plot, stratagem, intelligence ; 
hence cunning, skill ; mai- 
wayo one who is cunning or 

wayunia, an exclamation of 
despair : probably another 
form of wainia, q.v. 

waza, a horn for blowing. 

wazagi, a malodorous wild cat, 
lives in holes in towns or 
bush ; used in Sokoto for 

wazanu (S.), one who calls to 
prayer ; see wazinu. 

wazi and wazu, to warn ; see 


wazinu, muezzin, the one who 
calls to prayer. 

wazir, waziri ( Ar. j-jj^), vizier. 

weiwei, to be left alone ; see 

wene, cakes ; see waina. 
windi, a small round mat made 

of grass ; cf . wundi. 
wishiria, the space between the 

two front teeth ; see wiishiria. 
WO, to do, see yiwo. 
WO, WO, the sound made by a 

dog; cf. M. H. p. 188 wo, 

wo, ski ne taji taji. 

woba* (cf. (?) Ar. 4jj, to con- 
sider attentively), wonder, 
fear ; yin woha to wonder, 
to be afraid. 

WOChan, that, fem. of wonchan, 

woda, how ; see ivada. 

woda, who, which, fem. of 
wonda, q.v. 

wodachi, riches ; cf. wada. 

wodanan, these, pi. of wonan, 

wodanda, who, pi. of wonda, 

wodanga, these, pi. of wonya, 

wodansu, wadansu, some, pi. 
of wani, q.v. 

wodari, to make string ; see 

wodata, riches ; see ivada. 

400 wohaldd' 

wodi {o pronounced nearly a?^" 
aw), a Fulani word meaning 
'good,' used in Hausa as an 
affirmative interjection. 
wofi, bareness, nakedness, de 
privation of goods; ahm woji 
vanity; aiki7i wofi fruitless 
labour ; karia wofi a bare lie 
wofin Diutunn a worthless 
man; chiwonwofi an incurable 
disease; yin wofi to compel, 
wofi ya shiya it was a case of 
WOga, this, fem. of wonga, q.y 
WOgi, cattle-stealing; see wdyi 
wohala, wahala (cf. Ar. ji^ 
II, to strike fear into), affli* 
tion, trouble; A 84 mu ku 
chi ha wahala nika we shall 
eat without fche trouble of 
grinding, yin wohala to pun- 
ish, inflict punishment; pain, 
wohalan haifaa labour pains; 
maiwohala one who bears 
trouble, a poor man who toils 
constantly. woJialda, wahal- 
da — yin wohala to trouble 
oneself, be grieved, distressed, 
had a ka wohalda kanku do 
not trouble, vex, distress 
yourselves, wohalsa, wohal- 
she to vex, to annoy, to cause 
affliction, to correct; cf. M. 
H. p. 183 hakori su ke wo- 
halsata she has toothache, 
wohalda, wohalshe, see pri 




woho, a cry of exultation. 

woiga, waiga, woishe, to look 
back, behind ; turn round, 
concern oneself with, grieve 
over : cf. woiwaya. 

WOige, waige, n. turning 
round ; see woiya. 

woishe, see woiga. 

woishi for waishi ; cf. M. H. 
p. 203 ; see ivai. 

woiwaya, waiwaya, to turn 
round, look back, concern 
oneself with ; cf. prov. aikin 
hanza makafo da waiwaiye a 
fruitless task is like a blind 
man turning round to look. 
woiwoiawa, waiwayawa turn- 
ing round, returning ; cf. wo- 

woiwoia, woiwoiawa, see 

woje, waje, pi. wosashe (Ar. 


4-»-5), side, place, region ; 
wojen darna right side, right 
hand, wojen hagum left side, 
da^a wojen nan...daga woje 
chan on this side... on the 
other side, ivojenka with you ; 
hence as adv., out, outside; 
ya tuma waje daia he jumped 
aside ; ijia tafia woje I am 
walking outside. wojen is 
also used as a preposition, 
woli, wuli, a saint, fakir; see 
wali. , 

R. H. D. 

wolka and yin wolkia to 

WOlki, a skin wrapper ; see 

wolkia, lightning, any bright 

woUa*, Ar., by Allah ! see 

1 valla. 
wollaha, wallaha [possibly de- 

J^ Si ^ 

rived from the Ar. S^-wigiM, 
the title given to the prayers 
which are said when the sun 
is high], time about 10 a.m., 
see H. Gr. p. 86. 

woUo*, theft. 

wolo, egg plant. 

womagunguna or uwar-ma- 
gunguna (Securidaca longi- 
pedunculata, Polygalaceae), a 
shrub with purple flowers, 
used medicinally and in pre- 
paring arrow poison. 

wombai, a royal officer, the 
heir to the throne at Kano ; 
cf . fadawa. 

wonan, pi. wodanan^ this near 
by ; see wanan. 

wonchan, fem. ivochan^ pi. 
wodanchan, that over there ; 
see wanchan. 

wonda, fem. woda, wodda, pi. 
wodanda, who, which ; see 

wonga, fem. wogga, pi. wo- 
danga, this near by ; see 





woni, some one ; see tvani. 
woniyayi, sometiDie, a comp. 

of woni and yayi, q.v. 
WOnka, apparently a verbal 

substantive ; yiri wonka is 

to wash the whole body, to 

bathe; cf. wanka. 
wonsu, some, pi. of woni, q.v. 
wonzu*, to prolong; see wanzu. 
worami (K.), a ring ; see wa- 

worga, warga, this, used esp. 

in Sokoto district as a fem. 

form of wanya. 
WOrigi, play, sport; yin wo- 

riyi to play, to beat a drum, 
worike, worke, to be cured ; 

see tvarke. 
woriwori, to improve in 

WOshe, side, a less correct form 

of woje, q.v. 
wosichi, a letter ; see wotika. 
WOSU, some, pi. of woni, q.v. 
wota, wata, a certain one, 

feni. of wani, q.v. 

wotakila (cf. (^) Ar. iLSs, so 

that wotakila would mean 

' in some measure '), perhaps. 

wotika, watika, wochika* 

wosichi, pi. wotiku, wosiku 

(cf. Ar. \J^^, covenant, docu- 
ment), a letter. 
wowo. At the end of the 
month Muharram boys are 

accustomed to light torches 
and throw them about ; this 
display of torches is called 

WU, a shout or scream =: u/u. 

WTiche, wushe* or fuche, 
pass by, pass away, subside ;' 
A 15 kowa ya zo ya wuche 
every one comes and goes, 
B 75 duka sun wuche they 
have all passed away ; wuche- 
wuche at intervals, e.g. every 
other day or once a week ; 
cf. prov. tvuya matvuchia 
difficulty is a thing which 
passes away; cf. Gr. p. 103 
kdda dadi shi wucheni let 
not its sweetness escape me, 
M. H. p. 152; wuche da to 
pass by, take no notice of. 

wuchia*, a tail ; see wutsia. 

wuf, onomatopoeic word ex- 
pressingsuddenness of action; 
ya yi wuf he made a jump. 

wufi*, wupi* shoes- 

wujiji, a cooperative loan 
system among friends ; cf. 

wuka, pi. wukake, wukaikaiy 
knife ; wasa or gerta wuka 
to sharpen a knife ; wukan 
hanu a dagger worn on the 
wrist ; wukan sariki the name 
of a spotted grasshopper with 
green wings. 

wukia, a small, long-shaped 




vase or bottle for liolding 

scent ; see wakiya. 
wula, fez, M. H. p. 222 ; see 

wulakanchi, walakanchi, 

disgrace, maltreatment. 

wulakanta (cf. Ar. w-iij, to 
strike), to strike blows, to 
evil intreat, to treat with 
contempt; ya zama toula- 
kantache he is humbled. 

wulga, wulge, wurga, 1. to 
throw away, throw ; 2. to 
pass by, pass away. 

wulgi, wurgi, n. throwing 

wuli, woli, a saint, fakir. 

wundi, windi (S. ), a round or 
oval mat, esp. used of a prayer 
mat ; cf . mala/a. 

wuni, n. the whole day from 
sunrise to sunset; sanu da 
wuni salutation used to a 
man working the whole day ; 
ka wuni lajia said on leaving 
one to rest in camp = may 
you rest well ! wunin aiki a 
day's work. 

wur, very ; ja wur very red ; 
baki wur very black, 

wura*, to jump backwards 
and forwards, to dance. 

wurami, a metal ring; see 

wurami*, apparently a form 
of rorami a crooked stick. 

wurga, to throw ; see wulga. 

wurhaka, at this time; see 

wuri, pi. wurare, place, spot, 
locality ; wurin chira a place 
of escape, refuge, wui'in gudu 
a place to flee to, wurin 
sapka a camping-place ; allah 
shina wuri duka God is over 
all. u)uri is sometimes used 
for sky, wuri ha baki ba the 
sky is not overcast, ivurin, 
i.e. umri na, is often equiva- 
lent to ' with,' 'to,' ' in place 
of,' or 'instead of; wurin- 
sa with him, ya tafi wurin 
sariki he went to the king. 
na zo imirinka I have come 
to see you, litafin nan yana 
wurina this book is in my 
possession, ansa wani umrin- 
sa another was put in his 

wuri, an adverbial use of prec, 
early, already, before, before 
time ; da umri early ; tunda 
ivuri already, up till now ; 
cf. aunar maka tunda wuri 
your lot will be the first to 
be weighed ; da umri tvuri 
or wuri wuri very early. 

wuri, pi. kurdi, a cowry shell ; 
the pi. is also used in the 
general sense of money, e.g. 
kurdin gurasa bread- money, 
i.e. alms; cf. prov. zua da 





wuri ya Ji zua da wuri wuri 
to come (late) with a cowry 
is better than to come very 
early (empty handed). Pos- 
sibly wuri comes from the 
Songhai oura : according to 
Ibn Batuta cowries were used 
by the Songhai in the four- 
teentli century. [Cowrie 
shells used to be imported 
into Hausaland by way of 
the R. Niger from Zanzibar 
and the Maldive Islands.] 

wuria, a drain, ditch, space 
between two farms. 

wus, wush, pooh ! an expres- 
sion of contempt. 

wushe*, to pass away ; see 

wushiria, wishiria (cf. Ar. 

jjrfj, to make the teeth sharp 
and thin), the natural space 
between the two front teeth 
in the upper jaw. 

wuta, pi. wutaitai, wutache, 
masc. and fem., fire, a fire; 
jin wuta to warm oneself at 
a fire, fura wuta to make a 
fire, faralunita brimstone. 

wuta-wuta (lit. flames) (Striga 
Senegalensis, Scro{)hulari- 
neae), a red flowered weed, 
said by the Hausas to destroy 
the growing guinea-corn ; see 

wutan gainye, a light green 

caterpillar, its hairs cause 

wutsia, wuchia*, 1. tail; 2., 
the strings of a loin-cloth. 

wutsiar-bera (mouse's tail), a 
plant with a hairy raceme of 
purple flowers, =kaskaifi, q.v. 
wutsiar-kadangari (lizard's 
tail), Monechma hispida, 
Acanthaceae, a plant com- 
mon in marshes, wutsiar- 
kurege (jerboa's tail), Aspilia 
angustifolia, Compositae, a 
yellow flowered herb which 
grows in marshy places, vnit- 
siar-rakumi (camel's tail), 
Platycoryne paludosa, Orchi- 
deae, a small orchid with 
orange-yellow flowers found 
in damp places, wutsiar- 
kusu a plant with a spike of 
pale blue flowers; see tsar- 

wuya, difficulty ; da wuya diffi- 
cult, hard to accomplish, of 
necessity, ahin dunia da wu- 
yan sani it is diflScult to 
know all things ; cf . pro v. 
en uniya bai shiga arifani ha 
shi zama, lit. where difficulty 
does not enter, advantage 
does not abide. 

wuya, wiya, pi. wiyayi, masc. 
neck ; wuyan hanu, lit. neck 
of the hand, wrist, dokin 
wuya a form of pickaback 
played by children. 




The letter ^ is used by the 
Hausas to represent the sound 
of the English consonant y. 

ya, pers. pron. third pers. sing, 
prefixed to aor. 'he,' 'it,' e.g. 
ya yenke he cut ; used in im- 
personal expressions, e.g. ya 
issa it is enough, ya fi it is 
l^etter ; also, esp. in Kano, 
to express a wish, e.g. allah 
ya haka lafia may God give 
you health, e.g. allah ya 
taimakeka may God help 
you ! 

ya, like, jiki ya kada its body 
is like a crocodile; of. M. 
H. p. 205. ya is sometimes 
used in Kano for how ? cf. 
ya akaji da sainyi ? how do 
you like the cold 1 see yaya. 

ya (used in Kano), daughter; 
cf . dia (used in Sokoto). yar- 
uwa sister. 

ya, a contraction of yaa used 
as a prefix to denote the 
third person singular of the 
future tense ; cf. Gr. p. 33. 

ya (Ar. id.), O ! esp. used in 
expression ya sidi sir ! 

ya (Kanuri id.), elder sister. 

ya (nearly always used in con- 
struct form yan), pi. of da, 
Kanuri id., son ; ya7i uwana, 
lit. sons of my mother = 
friends, brothers, brethren; 
ya like da, q.v., is used to 

denote occupation ; yan san- 
da police, yan kasa foot 
soldiers ; yan daidai a kind 
of cloth ; cf. also yainata. 

yaanan, then ; see saanan. 

y&ba, to praise, to give thanks 
to. ydbahe, fem. ydhaha, pi. 
ydhahu, honoured, praised. 

yaba, yabe, to daub, ceil, 
smooth, plaster, of walls, etc. 
yaha lifidi to put on a coat 
of mail, yabahe, fem. yahaha, 
pi. yahabu, smoothed, ceiled, 
plastered ; cf. prov. da sahmi 
gina gouma ydba replastering 
is preferable to fresh build- 

yabainya, the young shoots of 
any crop when about a foot 

yS,bS,ri, millet which has sprung 
up of itself on an unsown 

yabe, pi. ydbe^abe, n. daubing, 

yabirbira, a kind of bat; see 

yabki, 1. a velvet cloth; 2. 
slime; see yapki. 

y&bo, praise, fame, reputation, 
report ; yin ydbo to praise, 
honour, B 21 ina ydbonka 
sidi uban zahra I praise thee, 
O lord, father of Zahra, 
ydbon kai self laudation. 

ydida, how, like ; see yeda. 




yada, yada wiita to light a 
fire; see yddia. 

yada, to throw away, lose, 
reject, e.g. A 58 sun yada 
hainya they rejected the right 
way. ya yada kwara he 
threw away the (fruit) stone. 
yada mashi to throw a spear 
as a declaration of war, cf. 
Gr. p. 139, 1. 46, the expres- 
sion is specially applied to 
the first war waged by a 

king after his 


here ! cf . 

yddo throw 

yilde, to skim milk. 
yadia, cynanchum viminale (?), 

a shrub that burns with a 

noise in the fire ; ropes are 

made from its bark, ostriches 

feed on its leaves. 
yadia, n. lighting; yin yddia 

to light up. 
yado, the creepers or tendrils 

of a gourd. 

yado, yadu (cf. Ar. j^jj, 

wide), to spread out, increase; 
B 47 ihada kan yado the ser- 
vice of God would increase. 

yaenda, when ; usually con- 
tracted to yanda, q.v. 

yafa, yafo, 1. to rub, besprinkle, 
to wash over with water ; 
yafa rua to throw water over 
one's body with the hands; 

2. to fold over, to wrap or 
cast a garment about one; 
mayafi coverings, wraps, yd- 
ydfa light rain. 

yafe (Fulah yafu), to forgive, 
anyafeshi he has been ac- 
quitted, yafe ma to let off,^ 

yafe, n. covering, yana yafe\ 
da hergo he is covered with a| 

yafo, to besprinkle ; see yafa. 

yafuche, yafche, to beckon j 
with the hand, e.g. to ai 
deaf man or to someone atj 
a distance, ya yafucheshi he | 
beckoned to him ; verb. n. 
yafuchi beckoning. 

yafuto, to beckon and cause 
to come to oneself, na yafuto 
shi I beckoned him to me 
(and he came). 

yaga, yage, to tear, e.g. cloth, 
paper, etc. ; F 184 (of dogs) 
suna hafshi suna yaga d^ 
tsawa they bark and tear 
and cry. yagua a tear in 
clothes, etc. yayaga to 
scratch, to claw. 

yagatu (K.), noise, alarm. 

yahaya* shot. 

yaiyafa, light rain; see yd- 

yaji, pi. yazuzuka, 1. hotness 
or sharpness of pepper, pep- 
per, e.g. B 17 annabi rrmgani 




ha i/aji ha the medicine of 
the prophet is not hot. ina da 
yaji it has a pungent smell ; 
2. oppression, tyranny; rtiai- 
yaji hot-tempered, valiant. 

yaka, fem. yakiy pi. yaku, 
come ! 

yaki, pi. yakuna, yakoke, war, 
fighting ; yin yaki to wage 
war. Also of hunting or a 
dangerous game, sukataji yaki 
da bamia. mayaki warrior. 

yakua (Hibiscus acetosella, 
Malvaceae), a cultivated 
vegetable out of which soup 
is made. It has a flower like 
a convolvulus, yellow with 
deep brown centre, and acid 
in taste like sorrel. It is 
used as seasoning, cf. dodo- 
wa ; cf. prov. yakuan muna- 
fiki ha ta mutum daia che 
ha, i.e. 'false to one false to 
all,' lit. the seasoning of a 
hypocrite is not for one man 
alone. It is customary for 
a farmer who grows yakua 
to send presents of it to his 
friends : so too does the liar 
with his lies. It has also 
medicinal uses. 

yakuar fatake, a tree with an 
orange-coloured berry-shaped 
flower resembling berberus, 
its leaves are used in making 

yakumba, 1. water-buck; 2. 
old woman. 

yakuta, to destroy, demolish, 
scratch ; yakuche to be de- 
stroyed, to perish ; also tr. 
to destroy. 

yakutu*, Ar. id., a precious 
stone, ruby or sapphire, 
F 227. The Greek i6.KLv6o^, 
English jacinth, is the same 

yalla (cf. Fulah yalla perhaps), 
whether, or, e.g. B 56 yalla 
chikin dere ko ko jifjif 
whether by night or just 
before dawn, B 156 yalla ta 
sarnu ko ba ta samuwa ha 
whether it be obtained or 
not obtained. 

yalo, pi. yaluna, a plant about 
3 ft. high, its fruit is like a 
large tomato. 

yalwa,yelwa, abundance; yal- 
wache abundantly. yayal- 
wachi an intens. form = ful- 
ness, maiyelwa spacious ; cf . 

yalwata, to make great, ex- 
tend ; yalwata lahari to 
spread (or exaggerate) a re- 

y&ma ( Andropogon ruf us, Gra- 
mineae), a tall grass used for 
thatching and mat making. 

yamala* (Ar.), the large dot 
placed below the line before 




y to give the sound of Italian 
e in Haiisa. 

yamama, to be sour ; see 

yamata, yaiunata^ also used 
as a voc. sing, 'my daughter' 
by a father or by any big 
man to a small girl. 

yambu*, mud ; see yimhu. 

yambururu (Ipomaea erio- 
carpa, Convolvulaceae), a 
convolvulus with mauve or 
white flowers eaten by goats, 
= yeriadi and awartvaro. 

yamche, yamchi, to bind 
grass with cords so as to 
form a roof; cf. yanta. 

yamii, 1. leaven, vinegar, any- 
thing sour; 2. sourness, /t^ra 
ta yi yami the soup has gone 
sour ; adjectival form yay- 
yaina ; cf. yamama, yan- 
yama ; 3. pain, a sore. 

yamma (Ar. ^^), west, even- 
ing ; da yam,m,a in the even- 
ing ; yammachi westward. 

yammata, used in Sokoto for 
the procession with drums, 
etc., to a chief's house after 
public prayers on Thursday 

yamutsa, yamutse, to mix 
up together, to be destroyed, 
ended, intermingled, e.g. ka- 
sua ta yamutse the market is 

y amy am, cannibals, a namej 
given to the cannibal tribes] 
living in the S.E. of Hausa- 
land. y amy am. or nyamnyat 
is probably an onomatopoeic 
word, indicating either the 
unintelligible speech of bar- 
barians, or the smacking of 
the lips which might signify 
eating, hence cannibalism. 
It is also found as a tribal 
name in the Eastern Sudan. 

yana, verbal pronominal pre- 
fix to pres. tense 3rd pers. 
sing. masc. ; like shina, it is 
followed by nouns or parti- 
cipial forms. In colloquial 
Hausa it is often pronounced 
yina or ina, e.g. alkama ina 
da roshi the wheat is ground 

yana, a spider's web, cobweb, 
scum ; debe yana daga idonka 
a remark addressed to a hy- 
pocrite. «« 

yanayi, n. staining, dyeing. 

yanbaka (i.e. yan-haki), tribal 
marks cut from the corners 
of the mouth. 

yanchi (from ya pi. of da, son. 
free), liberty, freedom, adop- 
tion, yanchi, yanlas or enchi 
to free a slave. 

yan-chiako*, chickens; see 

yanda, yaenda, yawanda = 




saancta, when, at what time, 
like as; B 121 mutua ya- 
tvanda ta tafo death, when it 

yane, to cover; of. maiyani a 
handkerchief ; cf. yani. 

yanga, n. swaggering. 

yan-hutu, a soft hairy grass. 

yani, n. hanging up (e.g. cur- 

yanka, to cut ; see yenka. 

yankare, a tall thin man. 

yanta, to tie the layers of grass 
of which thatch is made ; cf . 

yantso, a grass used in thatch- 

yan-uwa, brethren ; see uwa. 

yanyama, bitter ; see yami. 

yanyana (K.), to cut up ; see 

yanyane, n. cutting up. 

yanyawa or nyenyawa, a fox. 

yanzu, yenzu, now, directly ; 
koyanzu an emphatic form, 
even now% immediately; yan- 
zu yanzu presently, forth- 
with; B 174 hal ya zua yan- 
zu even to the present time ; 
yanzu ga this present time. 

yao, to-day ; see yau. 

yapki, yabki, 1. a kind of vel- 
vet cloth brought from the 
west ; 2. stickiness, slime, 
applied to plants, e.g. to 

yaranchi(K.), yaranta,ka(S.), 
childhood, youth. 

yarani, yellow needlework on 
a burnous ; possibly so named 
from its resemblance to small- 
pox spots ; see yar-rani. 

yaraye, boys ; see yaro. 

yarda, permission ; see yerda. 

yare, dialect, language ; ha su 
da wani yare sai hausa they 
have no language but Hausa. 

yari, 1. the chief slave of a 
king, used esp. in Sokoto and 
Zanfara districts ; at Kano 
he would be called san kuru- 
mi (=sarkin kurumi), i.e. 
head of the Kano market; 
2. head of police. 

yarili, infant ; see jarili. 

yarima, heir to the throne; 
see yerlma. 

yarinia, fem. of yaro, girl, 
young woman. 

yarinta, youth ; cf . yaro. 

yarj e, to consent ; see yerje. 

yar-jiki, a kind of tobe. 

yarmandi, a potion which 
brings good luck in gambling ; 
the hands and mouth are 
washed in it, and the shells 
held momentarily in either 
before being thrown. 

yaro, pi. yara, yaraye, boy, 
child. The corresp. fem. of 
yaro is yarinia^ q.v. yaro-da- 
daria, i.e. laughing boy, the 




name applied to a certain 
kind of ground nut. 

yaro-ba-ki-wuya, the revolv- 
ing cage on which the spun 
yarn is wound before weav- 

yar-rani, the dry season sick- 
ness, smallpox ; see yarani, 

yar-ungwa, a herb which 
grows near habitations, = ga- 
saiya, q.v. 

yasa, finger ; see ydtsa. 

yasa, yashe, to dig, esp. to dig 
over again, ydshe is gener- 
ally used of completed action, 
thus na yasa rijia I was 
digging a well, but na ydshe 
rijia I completed the well. 

yasda, yashe, to cast away ; 
see yezda. 

yashi, white sand or mud in 

yaska (S.), small; yaskan kurdi 
small money, i.e. shells. 

yasoso*, to scramble for - tva- 

yasuu, yashuu*, the original 
Arabic name for Jesus ; see 
under isa. 

yata, iyata, elder sister. 

yatsa, pi. ydtsosi, ydtsu, masc. 
finger ; yatsa nakafa toe, ha- 
ban yasa big toe, yatsan tsa- 
ka middle finger, aula yatsa 
little finger, yatsar biar (five- 
fingers) a plant, the leaves 

of which are pounded up 
with gunpowder and rubbed 
on the body in order to ren- 
der it impervious to wounds. 
yau, often pronounced yo (cf. 

Ar. jb^), to-day, this day ; 
maiyo existing to-day, B 3 
ubangijinmu maiyo maigobe 
He is our lord to-day and 
for ever, B 21. yau and 
yauwa are sometimes used, 
like the English word 'now,* 
for ' well then,' ' yes,' ' more- 
over ' ; they are also used to 
express surprise, yauyau or 
yoyo, 1. of time, at last, just 
now ; used with da, zashi 
fisu da yauyau he will over- 
come them eventually ; 2. of 
place close by, just behind ; ya 
yi yauyau he came behind. 

yau (K.), spittle ; cf. miaa. 

yauchi, delay, going to and 
fro ; ya yi yauchin zakua he 
delays his coming; also as 
an adv. late. 

yaudS.ra, deceit, a treacherous 
attack ; kashin yauddra death 
caused by treachery, mai- 
yauddra a deceiver, esp. a 
deceitful trader, yaudara is 
also used as a verb to deceive. 

yaudo (used in Sokoto), a herb, 
— kalkashi, q.v. 

yauki, stickiness, elasticity, 
used of the gummy properties 


of certain vegetables and of 
the yolk of an egg. ya rasa 
yauki (of broth which is too 
liquid), maiyauki adhesive. 

yauni, the name of a fish with 
prolonged mouth. 

yauni, a day ; see yini, 

yauri, an interjection expres- 
sing pleasure. 

yaushe, when ? at what time 1 
ddga yaushe from what time? 
har yaushe until when, how 
long? sai yaushe of future 
time, when"? tunyaushe, id., 
koyaushe at any time, when- 

yaushi, yoshi (cf. Ar. ^^;*^)j 

withering, wrinkling, fading, 
used of a tree ; ya yi yaushi 
it shrivels up. 

yauta, yauta da to set free ; 
cf. yanchi. 

yaute, yotei, standard-winged 
nightjar (macrodipteryx mac- 

yauwa, walking ; see yawo. 

yawa, the fibre of a tree used 
for making rope. 

yawa, plenty, multitude, as 
adv. much ; yawan rai long 
life. da-yawa (often pro- 
nounced deyawa or diyawa) 
much, many, rtiayawa or 
maiyawttj pi. 7nasuyawa, 
many, used esp. of persons; 

411 yayan 

sa yawa-yavm to multiply. 
yawanchi a large portion, a- 
bundance. yawanta and yin 
yawanta to multiply, ya- 
?vaita to have much of, ex- 
ceed in. 

yawanda, when, B 121 ; cf. 

yawanta, to multiply; see ya- 

yawara, meat cut in long 
thin strips and dried in the 

yawo, also pronounced yad, n. 
walking, promenading, tak- 
ing exiercise, e.g. on horse- 
back; yin yaivo to walk, etc., 
na yawo bisa doki I took 
exercise on horseback, yaiv- 
wa walking, wandering. 

yaya, Kanuri id., children; 
also used of fruit of trees, 
crops, yayan kasa fruits, ya- 
yan chiki entrails. 

yaya, cowries, etc. used for 
gambling in playing chacha; 
applied also to playing-cards. 

yaya, ya, ^kaka how, yaya 
sunanka ? what is your name? 

yayafa, yey efa, yinyifi, gentle 
rain, anayeyefa it is raining 
slightly ; see yafa to be- 

yayalwachijfulness; &QeyaIwa. 

yayamma, sour ; see yami. 

yayan yaki, soldiers, used as 
pi. of dan yaki and mayaki. 



yerda. y« 

yaye, to wean; see yeye. 

yaye, to uncover, to take 
away; yaye lema open the 

yaye, n. a weaned child. 

yayelwache or yayelwata, to 
hold, contain. 

yayi, time, age ; ga yayin 
anahi in the time of the 
prophet, yayinzana the eve 
of Ramadan, yayinsa ya 
wuche he is old, woni yayi 
sometime. yayinda when, 
yayin nan at this time, yayi 
also denotes fashion, anaya- 
yin mundaye rings were the 

yayi, dry, loose grass, e.g. for 
lighting fires. 

yayi, used of tying thorns on 
a calf's head so that its 
mother may not let him suck, 
also generally of separation, 

yazda, to throw away ; see 

yeda, to throw ; see ydda. 

yeda, yMa, how, the way in 
which ; yeda kai or yeda ka so 
as you like; yeda yau this 
day week, yeda gohe to-mor- 
row week. 

yefi, yehi, cf. exclamation 
(used in Sokoto) kai yefi 
you madman ! 

yeho, a cry. 

yekua, a proclamation ; yin 
yekua to proclaim. 

yella*, whether, or; see yalla. 

yelwa, abundance ; see yalwa. 

yemma, west ; see yamma. 

yenka, yenke, yenki, to cut, 
to reap, to slaughter, hence 
various idiomatic uses, e.g. 
yenke kamna to despair of, 
yenke magana to put an end 
to conversation, yenki dev' 
to get up and start during 
the night, yenke kurdi to fix 
the price, yenka pansa to fix i 
a ransom, yenka gandu to fix \ 
a tax. mayenka puffed up,|j 
proud. yenkake, fern, yen 
kaka, pi. yenkaku, cut; yai' 
kon hami cutting off hands, 
a common form of punish men '■ 
inflicted on thieves ; yenyenlo 
to cut to pieces, also in fre 
quentative sense, suka yen- 
yenka kaji they killed several 

yenke, yanke, yanka, n. cut 
ting, execution, laifinda ya 
isa yanka a crime deserving 
death, dan yenki a rag or 
strip of cloth, yenkai is used 
to describe the action of 
swimming on the breast. 

yenta, to bind grass ; see yanta. 

yenyena, y any ana, to cut u, 
into very small pieces, tu 
make mincemeat. 

yerdS, (cf . Ar. ;>;, to send back), 




to send back, remit. This 
word is probably distinct 
from yerddj to agree ; yerda 
bashi to remit a debt. 

lyerda, yarda (cf. Ar. ^j, 
to agree), to agree, approve, 
consent ; yerda da to rely 
upon ; ya yarda inaka he 
agreed with you ; ahin da 
ya yerda da shi that which 
pleases him ; yerdade, fern. 
yerdada^ pi, yerdadu, approv- 
ed of, agreed to, believed in, 
received. yerje, yarje to 
agree to. yerje mana do ! 

yerda, yarda, n. permission 
asked ; yardi (in Sokoto), 
yerji, yarji (in Kano), per- 
mission granted ; cf . ya nemi 
yarda gareta^ ta bashi yardi 
he sought her consent, she 
gave him permission, jerje^ 
jarje to agree ; cf. yerda. 
jerji, jarji permission, con- 

yerdaji, trustworthy, faithful 
cf . prec. 

yerdi, yardi, agreement, faith 
see yerda. 

yerfa, yerfe, to throw away 
yerfa gumi to dash the sweat 
from the brow; used of a 
man who is working hard. 

yeriadi, a convolvulus, eaten 
by sheep, =yambururu and 

yerima, yarima, son of a king, 
heir to the throne; cf. tafida. 

yerinjaya, overpowering ; see 

yesdajenia, the conclusion of 
a bargain. 

yeye, yaye, to wean. 

yeye, yaye, n., 1. weaning; 
2. a weaned child, yin yeye 
to wean. 

yeyefa, to sprinkle water ; see 

yezda, yez, to throw, to throw 
away ; B 89 sun yezda dunia 
they cast aside the world ; 
cf. ydda. 

yi [cf . Xupe ji to make], to do, 
make ; cf. yiwa, yiwo. It is 
frequently used idiomatically 
thus, ya yi it does, it is satis- 
factory (cf. Eng. ' it does ') ; 
ya yi mini wuya it is too 
diflficult for me ; ya yi girnia 
he has grown up; yi ta yi 
go on with what you are 
doing; ku yi ta tafia get 
along ! yiu, yuu, impersonal 
passive forms, shi yiu can it 
be done? can it be that? 
Ans. ha shi yiuwa it is im- 
possible, ya yuu (or yiwu) 
it has happened ; used with 
or without zua to go, sun yi 
{zua) gida, wani waje ya yi 
which way did he go ? Ans. 
ya yi gabas to the east, yi da 




to have business with ; niun 
yi da uwayenku we did 
business with your parents. 
yi da also to curse, yi da shi 
away with him. yi also ex- 
presses equality, e.g. wanan 
ya yi wonchan this is equal 
to that, cf. H. Gr. p. 90; 
sun yi nawa how many were 
thei-e 1 anayi da shi he is set 
upon, he is abused, yin karia 
used of a gun, to miss fire ; 
ya yi shekarafudu he is four 
years old ; rana ta yi it is 
daylight ; na yi I did, is 
often used in answering a 
question where we should 
use ' yes ' ; in the passive yi 
is often omitted, thus anhdka 
is used for anyi haka; cf. 
yiwa. yiuwa or yuuwa pos- 
sible to be done. 

yi, working, doing, power, da 
yin allah by the power of 
God, used esp. in Sokoto dis- 

yi, like ; cf. da hanu akansan 
girma ba yai fada yi kare 
ha by the work of the hand 
is greatness known, it does 
not squabble like a dog ; cf. 

yi or i is used in several lo- 
calities for shi he ; yina zua 
he is coming. 

yifi, to cover ; see yafa, 2. 

yika, to pay back. 

yimbu, yambu, yumbu, clay, 
mud, esp. clay for making 

yimki (K.), baboon. 

yina, iriB, = shina, q.v. 

yini, the space of a day, a 
day; yin yini to stay or 
stop at a place for a day 
only, to continue, e.g. ina 
yini tafia, aiki, etc. I con- 
tinue travelling, working, 
etc. till evening. 

yinyifi*, light rain; see yd- 

yiwa, yiwo, iwo, to make. 

yo, an affirmative interjection, 
yes, really ; see yau. 

yo, to-day ; see yau. 

yo, used in Sokoto for yiwo. 

yodS,ra, treachery ; see yau- 

yodo, a herb ; see yaudo. 

yofi (S.), worthless; cf. (?) 

yome* (S.), meat. 

yonkane, to wither, of plants ; 
also of man, to be wasted 
with disease. 

yoshi, to wither ; see yaushi. 

yotei, a nightjar ; see yaute. 

yoya, to leak, percolate ; pass. 

yoyo, at last ; see yauyau. 

yoyo, n. a leak in a roof or 
pot; cf. daki yina yoyo. 





jh'igi yina yoyo the canoe 

yuka (Zanf.), knife ; see imika. 

yumki*, to seal. 

yunkiira, to eructate, retch, 
make a violent effort, of a 
tire to break out. 

ytinkuri, retching, breaking 

yunwa (often pronounced yun- 
gn-a), hunger, famine ; jin 
yunwa to feel hungry, da 
yunwa hungry, ina da yun- 
wa I am hungry. 

yuuwa, possible ; see under yi. 

za, used as auxiliary to form 
the future, e.g. zamu tashi 
we shall arise, for a further 
account of the use of za, cf. 
Gr. p. 33. za is used with 
da (formerly) to express un- 
fulfilled intention, e.g. da 
zani tafia I intended to go. 
.za and zo to come, probably 
stand to each other in the 
same relation as bida and 
bido, cf. Gr. p. 46, they are 
both probably connected with 
je, the z being palatalized to 
j through the influence of 
the vowel following. 

zaba, zabe, to choose, select, 
elect, e.g. rmin zabeka we 
choose thee, zahu to be 

chosen, zabahe, fem. zabaha, 
pi. zahabu, particip. adj. of 
zaha, chosen, picked out, se- 

zaba, found in phr. kurdi zaha 
pure or genuine money : it is 
probably a form of tsaba, q.v. 

zabantaka, zabanchi, choice ; 
cf. zabe. 

z&baya, n. an albino. 

zabe, to choose ; see zaba. 

zabe, zabi, n. choice, prefer- 
ence; cf. M. H. p. 202 na 
baki zabi I give you the pre- 
ference, chinikin zabi a sale 
in which the buyer is allowed 
time to decide whether he 
will accept, the offer remain- 
ing open, zaben tumin dei'e 
'a leap in the dark.' 

zabgai, poison put on arrows. 

zabia, 1. with pi. zabiyoyi, a 
minstrel, a king's musician; 
2. a species of dark red 
coloured date (cf. (?) Ar. 

zabibi, a bulbous plant with a 
yellow flower from which a 
dye is made. 

zabibi* (Ar. w--rfj), raisin. 

zabira, wallet ; see sabira. 

zabki, to soften, esp. to soften 
by soaking ; D 65 kai gar emu 
ta zabki it will soften our 




zabo or zabon-defi (Aloe ze- 
brina, Liliaceae), a plant with 
spiny succulent leaves and 
red or yellow flowers : the 
juice of some varieties is used 
in the preparation of arrow 

zabo, sabo, fem. zabua, sabua, 
pi. zahi, sabi, a guinea-fowl. 

zaboko, blue pepper-and-salt 
pattern cloth. 

zabore, reeds ; see tsabore. 

zabro, mosquito ; see sabro. 

zabta, to bite off. 

zabuka, stuffed panels of a 
saddle ; see zubuka. 

zabura, to start back, to rise 
up quickly, to start, of a 
horse, zaburi, tr. to cause 
to start, zaburo to charge 
towards the speaker. 

zabura* (Ar. j^^j), writing 
from God, used of the Koran, 
the Psalms, or the Gospels. 

zabuta, white muslin for mak- 
ing a turban, with red edge. 

zache, n. expectation, hope, yin 
zache to expect, await, antici- 
pate, suppose ; cf. tsachi, zdto. 

z^fa (S.), clearing ground for 
sowing, hoeing. 

zafafa, to make warm. 

zS,fe (S.), to clear ground for 

zafi, zafi, heat, pain ; man zafi 
hot water ; rana tana da zafi, 

it is a hot day. su yi fwjuj 
da zafi they fought fiercely, 
M. H. p. 196. da zafi pain- 
ful, na ji zafi I feel pain, jin 
zafin zuchia to be cut to the 
heart ; zafiii rai anger, zafi 
is also used to express great 

zaga, a shelf made with mud. 

zaga, tooth, tusk. 

zaga, zage, zagi, to reproach, 

zagagi, zagigi, a tall red-and- 
white stork. 

z agar all, a plant, the dried 
root of which is used as a 

zage, zaga, zwage (S.), zagi, 
to go round, pass by, walk 
about, walk backwards and 
forwards, zaga dutsi to avoid 
a stone, haderi ina zagawa 
chan the storm is going round 
over there, shina zagawa 
he was prowling round, freq. 
form zazzaga to keep on 
going backwards, na zazaga 
kasan nan I have been up 
and down this country. 

zage, zagi, n. reviling, re- 
proach ; cf. shina zaginsa he 
reproaches him. 

zagezagi, the people of Zaria. 

zagi, reviling ; see zage. 

zS,gi, zegi, pi. zagagi, a foot- 
man, esp. the man who walks 




before the horse of a sarki 

with a red blanket. 
zagia, the projection or pulling 

out of arrows from the end 

of a quiver. 
z&go, the white ant, the male 

of gdra. 
zago, n. going to and fro, go- 
ing in front ; see zcige. 
z&go, a harpoon for river fish- 

zahiri, clear ; see tsahiri. 

zaiba (Ar. oujj), quicksilver. 

zaiti* (Ar, woj), olive, olive 
oil used in Hausaland as an 
ointment for the skin. 

zaka, a measure ; see zakka. 

zaka, 1. to come ; zaka, f. zaki, 
pi. zaku, come! 2*. to go, 
e.g. D 22 ku7ia zaka da haji 
go on the pilgrimage, zakua 

z&ka (Ar. Sl^), 1. alms, e.g. 
F 17, ka her riba ka bada 
zaka cease from unlawful 
gain, give tithes; 2. tithes; 
3. a tax, esp. that paid on 
guinea-corn crops. 

zaka, the fut. aux. verb, second 
pers. sing. masc. ; zaka gani 
thou wilt see ; see za, 

zakainya, zakanya, lioness; 
see zaki. 

zakami (Datura spinosa, So- 
lanaceae), the 'thorn-apple.' 

R. H. D. 

A bush with white trumpet- 
shaped flowers and prickly 
capsules from which is ob- 
tained a deliriant poison, also 
called haukat-yaro. 

zakani*, between; see taa- 

zS-kanko*, wood ash from 
which salt is obtained, made 
from the shrub kayar ra- 

zak^ra, pi. zakdru^ masc. (Ar. 

j^3)) cock ; zakdran dawaki 
a large bird which flies about 
at night and cries kura kura, 
its coming is considered an 
omen of war, zakdra mai- 
surdi a cock with a red 
mark on its back like a 

zaki, sweetness, goodness, fla- 
vour, a sweetmeat, zakin 
mia the flavour of soup, a 
fem. form zazzaka is used; 
cf. mia zazzaka. 

zaki, the fut. aux, verb, second 
pers. sing. fem. ; see za. 

zaki, zaiki, fem. zakainya, za- 
kanya, pi. zakoki, lion, zaki 
hanza (sham-lion), a small 
plant with flower like mig- 

zakka, zikka, jikka (cf. (?) 

Ar. sjj, a bag made of skin), 
a measure for grain, a tin 





pan, the Sokoto equivalent 

of Kano mudu. 
zakn, aux. verb, fut. tense, 

second pers. pi. ; see za. 
zaku, a species of large bean, 
zakua, coming ; see zaka. 
zakuda, 1. to move forward 

a very little or to make 

room ; 2. to migrate ; cf. 

zauda; see seq. 
zakudo, to move nearer to the 


zallantaka (cf. Ar. J3, to be 
vile), unchastity. 

zallo, the form of a cone, dazallo 
cone-shaped, e.g. a sugar cone. 

zalumchi, deceitfulness, extor- 
tion ; see tsalimi. 

zalumi, see tsalimi. 

zalwani, zalwami, a black- 
and-white women's cloth. 

z3.ina, often contracted to zam 
(S.), zamma, sometimes pro- 
nounced samma, to come 
into a condition or state, to 
become, zama kainsa to be 
independent, ni zama^ da 
hankali I shall behave wisely. 
zayn is used in Sokoto for 
yi, zamka = ka yi ; cf. seq. 

zama, masc, and zamanchi, 
state, condition, e.g. C 15 
enna da zama na dawama 
where is a state of continu- 
ance? hence affairs, enna 
zaman gari how is your stay 

in the town? Ans. zamait 
gari da godia we are quite 
well thank you ; continuance, 
zamansa na dunia his so- 
journing on earth, E 18 
masuzama ga hainyoyin m.u- 
sulmi those who continue in 
the ways of Mussulmans. 
Hence its use when repeated, 
zama zama after some time ; 
yin zama to succeed in doing 
anything attempted, ya yi 
zama ya yi zama he waited 
and waited ; ya yi zamansa 
he went about his business. 
sun gam zama wuri daia 
they abode together, yi zor 
mAjunka stay where you are. 
M. H. p. 219 sun kasa zama 
they have been restless, lit. 
they have lacked rest, ya 
yi zamansa he rested himself, 
M. H. p. 200. zaman dunia 
life, the enjoyment of the 
world, zaman surdi riding; 
yanda akeyi zaman surdi the 
proper way to ride, zama 
da masoyi (lit. living with a 
friend) a kind of cloth. 

zam.a (S.), 1. prep, because of; 
F 90 zaman kushewa for 
burial ; 2. conj. for, because ; 
cf. gama. 

zaman, war, enmity. 

zamanchi, condition; see za- 




zamani, zamanu (cf. Ar. 

inanin annahi in the time 
of the prophet, zamani ka- 
dan a short time, G 4 ya 
yi zamanishi he reigned. 

zajnarke, a species of legu- 
minous plant used for burn- 

zamba or zanba (Ar. wo3), 
crime, adultery ; tana ckb 
rurufli don ta yi zanba it 
practises deceit in order that 
it may commit a crime ; 
cheating, e.g. in selling. 

zambache, zambata, to cheat, 
maizambachi or maizambata 
one who cheats, a cheat, 
from the same rt comes zu- 
nufi, q.v. 

zambar, thousand, cf. Songai 

zambata, to cheat ; see zamba- 

zambo, abuse (e.g. in litera- 

zambu, a Nupe dish, e.g. one 
made with flour and onions. 

zame, zami (of. Ar. Jij, to 
muzzle a camel), zami or 
zam^ also to pull up, rein in, 
zami nana pull up here ! 
zamia^ zamua the reining 
in of a horse after a gallop 
fage. zame also intrans. to 

stop, doki ya zam,e dakansa 
the horse stopped of itself, 
zamna, zona, zauna (cf. Ar. 

y^j IV, to last a long time), 

to stop at a place, to reside, 
dwell, sit down ; ba ya zauna 
bahar... he had no time to 
wait before . . . mazauni resi- 
dence, abiding place, zam- 
nasda, zamshe, zamne*^ tr. 
to cause to remain, ba abin 
da ya zam^himu there is 
nothing that causes (us) to 
stay. Tnaizamna, pi. masu- 
zamna, a dweller, inhabitant, 

zamne, to hold back, close 
a road. 

zamshe, to cause to stay or to 
sit down ; cf. zamna. 

zam.u, fut. aux. verb, first 
pers. pi. ; see za, 

zana, 1. to reckon up, take 
account of ; E 4 halinmu za- 
ankazana sai mit, tuba our 
(evil) deeds shall be reckoned 
up unless we repent; 2. to 
draw strokes or lines, to 

zana, a grass mat, laiyan zana 
a charm; cf. M. H. p. 195. 

zanba, zanbata, see zamba, 

zanche, pi. zantatuka, word, 
conversation ; yin zanche to 



speak, converse. zantawa 
conversing ; cf. zanzanche. 

z^ne, z3,ni, pi. zdne-zdne, 
spot, line, a pattern. 

z^ne, zene, pi. zdnua, masc. 
or fern., 1. cloth, esp. the 
longer bojdy cloth worn by 
women, of oblong shape ; cf. 
Gr. p. 138, 1. 23 masuzdna 
those who wear women's 
clothes; 2. a measure of 
cloth of about 15 feet. 

zangarami*, a large tree with 
poisonous fruit. 

zangare, blade, stalk. 

zangarko, ears of corn ; see 

zangamia, sangamia, pi. 
zangarnu, ears of corn or 

zango, a halting place for the 
night ; see zungo. 

zango, zungo, a hundred, sel- 
dom used except in counting 
cowries ; cf . Songai jongo. 

zani, fut. aux. verb, first pers. 
sing., I will or I will go ; see 

zankam* (K.), deceit. 

zanko, a tuft of hair in the 
middle of the head. 

zanta (K.), to speak, zantawa 
speaking; cf. zanche. 

zantara, to deceive, defraud. 

zantatuka, words ; cf. zan- 

zanzana, smallpox ; an inten- 
sive form of zdne spot. 

zanzanche, conversation, M. 
H. p. 187; see zanche. 

zanzaro (cf. Ar. ^Jpj ^, wasp, 
lit. father of buzzing), the 
mason wasp, it builds nmd 
nests and lives on spiders 
and insects ; it does not 
sting ; see zazaro (S.). 

zanzoma, a feint or pretended 

zara, zaro, zari, zare, to pull 
out ; cf. magana zarar hunu 
a word spoken is as the pull- 
ing out of thatch, i.e. it can- 
not be recalled. 

zaraba, a bunch of dates ; cf. 
(?) zahia. 

zarali, zarahi, opportunity ; 
ba ni da zarafi I have not op- 
portunity, idan ha sarmi zarafi 
if you have an opportunity. 

zarakua, mother-in-law, M. H. 
p. 149 ; see sarakua. 

zarau, pi. zara-zara, tall. 

zarbe, egret, white or grey, 
found on banks of rivers, 
with long neck. 

zarche*, tr. to increase. (cf. Swaheli zari), thread, 
e.g. A 75 shi ne ya ke dum- 
kin fari ha zare he is as a 
man sewing a white garment 
without thread ; cf. zaria. 

zare, to spin, mazari spindle. 



zarge, v. to lasso, to catch in 

a noose. 
zarge, pi. zarguna (cf. Ar. 

43^, a noose), a loop in 

string; from the same Ar. 
rt comes azirka, q.v. ; cf. 
mazargi and azargagi. 

zargi, grumbling ; see zergi. 

zargi, zarge, to curse; see 

zari*, leaf, stalk. 

zari, to spin ; see zare. 

zari, to draw, e.g. a sword or 
an arrow from a quiver ; see 

zari. a hole, e.g. in the nose of 
an ox, or of a man. 

zari, zowari, 1. plenty to eat, 
voracity ; 2. one who eats 
much, a glutton; see zo- 

zaria, fem. of zare, q.v., a string 
to tie up trousers, wando. 

zaria, leaping, dancing; yin 
zaria to dance. 

zarnawi,a special kind of brass 
stirrups imported from Tri- 

zami, n. wasting away, 
zarta, to shoot through, pierce, 
zartsi, brackishness, saltness ; 

cf. man zartsi. 
zarumi, zaromi, zarmi, ja- 
rimi*. pi. zarumai, zaru- 
niawa, a brave warrior. 


zarumta, n. bravery. 

zashi, fut. aux. verb, third pers. 

sing. = he will ; see za, 
zasu, fut. aux. verb, third pers. 

pi. = they will ; see za. 

zati (Ar. OtS), greatness, ma- 
^ jesty, size, realm. 
zS,to, tseto, n. thought, ex- 
pectation, anticipation, yin 

zdto to suppose ; cf . zache. 
zatsa*, a Sokoto form of za, to 

go ; cf. F 237. 
zau, a large fish, from which 

oil for eating is obtained, 
zauda, to move away, give 

place; cf. zakuda. 
zauna, a form of zamna to sit 

down, M. H. p. 203. 
zaura, cf. idon zaura, 1. a 

variegated cloth ; 2. a white 

stone ; cf . ido. 
zaura, zauwara, widow, a 

divorced woman ; see zauri. 
zauranche, riddle, puzzle, 
zaure, pi. zauruka, hall, a porch 

with double entrance; zau- 

rin shanu a cow-shed, M. H. 

p. 178. 
zaure, cf. kurdin zaure the fee 

paid by a bridegroom to the 

officiating mallam. 
zauri, widower ; see zaure. 
zauta, anger. 

zauwara, widow ; see zaura, 
zauwarchi, widowhood. 




zauwati, a specially good white 

zawo, zawayi, diarrhoea. 

zayena (cf. Ar. rt ,jjj, to 
adorn, to ornament), to illu- 
minate a manuscript. Pro- 
bably the same word as zu- 
ina, q.v. 

zaza* 1. bank, cf. F 182 zazan 
wuta a bank of fire; 2. a 
marshy place. 

z^zabi, zezebi, fever; yin 
zdzabi to have fever. 

zSizaga, zS,zage, to go to and 
fro, a freq. form of zage, q.v. 
zdzaga or zdzagawa trem- 

zazaka, a fem. form from zaki^ 

zazalo, protruding, e.g. of the 
eye after a blow ; see seq. 

zazare, to protrude, zazare ida- 
nu ga to cast eyes at; see seq. 

zazari, to hasten after ; B 133 
wanda ha ga na zazari hanna 
whom you see hastening after 

zazari giwa (elephant hasten- 
er), a shrub with long thorns, 
= kayan rakumi. 

zazaro(S.), wasp ; see zanzaro. 

zazewa, the name of a small 
white-breasted bird. 

zergi, zargi, 1. grumbling; 2. 
avarice, greed. 

zerto, a saw; probably another 

form of derto, a file. 
zeto, to think ; see zdto. 
zezebi, fever ; see zdzabi. 

ziara (Ar. S^bj), to go to visit 

or salute anyone, C 37 zia^-a 

malamai salute the mallams; 

B 168 zamu ziara nai we will 

salute him ; cf. seq. 
ziarta, to go on the pilgrimage, 
zigazigai, bellows; see zuga 

zikir, see zikri. 
zikka, a measure for grain ; 

see zakka. 


zikri, zikir* (Ar. j.^3), a, 
special prayer or invocation; 
muna zikri we pray. 

zina (cf. Ar. Oj and tl3j), 

whoring, adultery; inasuzina 
profligates ; yin zina to be 
profligate, maizinachi adul- 
terer, maizinachia adulteress. 

zinaria (cf. Ar. jUj^ a gold 

coin, Gr. SrjvdpLov, Lat. de- 
narius), gold. 

zinder, the name of a large 
town in the French Sudan, 

zini, a point ; see tsini. 

zinke, a little spike of straw ; 
see tsinki. 

zipka*, a cloth put over a 
native saddle with two large 





holes to fit the projecting 
points of the saddle. 

ziragudunia, somersault. 

zire, to lower a bucket into 
a well ; zirawa lowering a 

zimako, wasp ; see zurnako. 

zimania, a cloud producing a 
shower, or a cloud threaten- 
ing but not producing rain ; 
cf. zimania, ginaria. 

zo, to come ; with da to come 
with a thing, i.e. to bring it. 
zua, zawwa* coming, used 
with pronouns ending in na 
to form pres., e.g. muna zua 
we are coming ; zuan manzo 
post haste, lit. the going of 
a messenger, ya zua* and 
zua are employed with any 
number or person to express 
* to, unto,' e.g. su tafi ya zua 
sokoto they went to Sokoto ; 
hal ya zua yanzu even to the 
present time ; D 100 inuna 
godia zua ga allah we give 
thanks to God ; cf. za. 

zoba (S.), to exceed in size, to 
be better than. 

zobe, to try to recover a thing, 
to seek again. 

zobe (cf. Ar. *aJ9, to stamp 

with a seal), a ring ; zohen 
shaida seal-ring, seal, 
zogalla-gandi or rogalla- 

gandi, q.v., horse-radish tree 
(Meringa pterygosperma, Le- 

zogi, pain. 

zoje, to revenge. 

zoma*, to dip ; see tsoma. 

zomo, cf. Gr. p. 131, 1. 45 
{ma^uyjida zomo zamu daki 
we who had to drive out the 
hares are coming to your 

zomo, zomu, pi. zomai (cf. 

i " 

Ar. &>«;, swift, an adj. esp. 

applied to the hare), hare, 
zongo, a halting-place, etc. ; 

see zungo. 
zowalli, zowal, the time soon 

after midday, 
zowari, covetousness, voracity 

a glutton j see zari. 
zozo, a plant ; see soso. 
zua, a participial form of zo, q.v. 
zua zua*, by and by, cf. prec, 

or the expression may be a 

corruption of the Ar. cty^ 

*ty«», just so ; cf. sua sua. 

zuba, zube, zubo (Ar. ^g^), 
1. tr. to pour, pour out; 2. 
intr. to gush out, leak ; zuba 
idanu to take no notice of; 
na zuba masa idanu I shut 
my eyes to his doings ; also 
intrans. to be poured out, 
etc. ; girmanka ya zube you 
have lowered yourself. Other 




tr. forms are ziihas, zitbasda, 
zuhshe (Zanf.) to pour out, 
implying accident or injury, 
to throw out, throw away ; 
zuhda or zuhdama to upset, 
esp. to upset water; ziXbu 
intr. V. rua ya zubu the rain 
pours down; zuhuwa F 115 
pouring out. 

zubas, zubasda, zubda, see 

zube, tribal marks on the face, 
consisting of several short 
fine cuts close together. 

zubi, n. pouring out. 

zubi, bright iron wrought into 
cups, etc. 

zubu, greedy. 

zubugi, a heap, e.g. of branches. 

zubuka, panels or stuffing of 
a saddle ; see zabuka. 

zubuta*, a small red turban 
with a white border. 

zuchia, pi. zukata, zutochi, 1. 
the heart ; 2. fig. as the seat 
of feelings, desires, passions ; 
zuchia hiu (lit. two hearts) 
doubt, hesitation, deceitful- 
ness; karamin zuchia little- 
ness of heart is only used in 
a bad sense; maganan zuchia 
used as an exclamation of 
astonishment ; ya hata marii 
zuchia or zuchiata ta hache I 
am very sorry; zuchiata ta fi 
rinjaya wanan da wanchan I 

prefer this to that, zuchia 
heart is used as a periphr. 
for oneself; cf. B 37, shi 
wanda zuchiata rinjayi he 
who overcomes his own heart. 

zufa, akin (1) to zajl, q.v., heat, 
perspiration; yin zufa to 
perspire, to ferment. Cf. 
diinhvjin zufa red beads. 

zuga, to blow with bellows; 
see seq. 

zugazugi, zigazigi, pi. zu- 
gazuganta, zugazugai (Ar. 

Oj), bellows, F 188 malaiku 

su tsaida zugazuganta the 
angels will lift up bellows. 
mazigi a man who blows a 
fire with bellows, maziga the 
stick fixed into the bellows. 

zugu, a strip of cloth from the 
loom before it is sewn into 
a piece, chi^ii da zugu, or 
bini da zugu 'jatropha cur- 
cas,' Euphorbiaceae, a shrub 
used for hedges, in West 
Indies known as the 'physic 

zugum, sitting or squatting on 
the ground in silent dejec-j 
tion ; see tsuguna. 

zuina*, to seal ; cf. zayena. 

zukatta (cf. Ar. Sl^j, alms), 
to ask for help ; cf . zaka. 

zuke, to evade, leave in the 
lurch, slip from. 




zulaidu, zulaidi, the long- 
tailed weaver bird (vidua 
principalis) called sarikin 
tsuntsaye (king of the birds), 
because other birds follow 
its call and fly round it. 

zulbi, a water-bird with a 
naked beak about 8 in. long. 

zulumi, doubt, fear; (?) cf. 

zuma, zumua, masc. honey, 
kudan zuma bee. shazumami 
a bird that lives on honey. 

zuma*, faintness; see suma. 

zumami (cf. Ar. ^,0-^ ^h ^^ 
impress anything on the me- 
mory), a list or memorandum 
of goods written on paper, 
anything written, a memoran- 

zumda, zunda, to play tricks 
behind a person's back, to 

zumde, zunde, n. playing 
tricks, deriding. 

zumnia (Daura), sister, rela- 
tion, friend, a feminine form 
of zumu, q.v. 

zumu (cf. Ar. i«5, clientship, 

client), friend, brother, fern. 
zumunia, pi. zumai; cf. prov. 
zumu zUma ne a relation is 
as honey. zum,unchi, zu- 
munta clan feeling, friend- 
ship, D 30 aso allah aso 

zumunchi love God, love 

zumua, honey ; see zumu. 

zumunchi, zumunta, friend- 
ship ; see zumu. 

zumurruz* (Ar. >>^j), id., 
emerald, F 227. 

zunda, deride ; see zumda. 

zungo, zongo, zango, 1. a 
halting-place for the night, 
camp; da^a hayan zutigo 
outside the camp, tsakanin- 
su zungo guda ne there is 
one day's march between 
them ; 2. a day's march. 

zungo or zongo, a hundred 
shells; see zango. 

zungura, to poke with a stick, 
to knock. 

zunguri, knocking, e.g. push- 
ing with the elbow. 

zunguru, a long gourd, also 
used by women as a musical 
instrument. One end is 
pressed against the inside of 
the thigh while one hand of 
the player opens and closes 
the upper end. 

zuntsia, grass bush ; see tsin- 

zunubi, sin ; see seq. 

zunufi, zunubi* (Ar. ^3), 

sin, evil. 
zunzu, fem. zunzua, bird ; see 





zunzuna (Cochlospermum tinc- 
torium, Bixaceae), a shrub 
with large yellow rose-like 
flowers, = rawaya. 

zur (Ar. j^J, forgery), false- 
hood, shaidan zur false wit- 

zura, to arrange in line, azura 
duatsu nan a zare thread 
these beads, zura da gudu 
to run very hard (cf. sheka 
da gudu). 

zurare, to trickle, of water 
or sand, mazurari a spout 
or funnel for pouring water 
into a narrow-necked tulu. 

zure, a children's game. 

zurfafa, to go deeper into, to 
be deep. 


zurfi (cf. Ar. o»^A., the steep 
side of a hill), depth, D 82 
zurfinta ya fi gaban michali 
its depth exceeds all com- 

j zuri* (K.), a mass, da zuri 
; much. 

zuria (cf. Ar. cjj), offspring, 

zurma, to stretch out, e.g. the 

zurma, pi. zurmom% a tree 
from the leaves of which is 
made a medicine for rubbing 
on the eyes. 

zumako, zimako, wasp. 

zurnania, clouds ; seezirna7iia. 

zuru, a steadfast gaze ; gener- 
ally used in a bad sense, yin 
zuru to stare. 

zuruki, father-in-law ; cf . surki. 

zuwari, zuari or zwari, 
greedy ; see zowari. 

zuza, itch, yin zuza to itch ; 
see 8usa. 

zwakia (cf. (?) Ar. sJ^j, to 
adorn), small beads worn by 
women on the forehead. 





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A History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races. 

By Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Hon. Sc.D. Cantab. 
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